Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 24
Filter
1.
J Res Med Sci ; 27: 34, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869953

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, concerns raised by the growing number of deaths worldwide. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and extrapulmonary complications can correlate with prognosis in COVID-19 patients. This study evaluated the association of systemic complications with mortality in severely affected COVID-19 patients. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was done on 51 intensive care unit (ICU)-admitted COVID-19 adult patients who were admitted to the ICU ward of Khorshid hospital, affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Only the patients who had a definite hospitalization outcome (dead vs. survivors) were included in the study. Daily clinical and paraclinical records were used to diagnose in-hospital complications in these patients. Results: The sample was comprised of 37 males (72.5%) and 14 females (27.4%). The median age of patients was 63 years (Min: 20, Max: 84), with the mortality rate of 47.1%. In total, 70.6% of patients had at least one coexisting disorder. Chronic kidney disease was associated with the worse outcome (29.16% of dead patients against 3.70 of survived ones). Mechanical ventilation was used in 58.8% of patients. Patients who had received invasive ventilation were more likely to die (87.50% of dead patients against 7.40 of survivors), Complications including sepsis and secondary infections (odds ratio: 8.05, confidence interval: 2.11-30.63) was the strongest predictors of mortality. Conclusion: Complications including sepsis and secondary infections can increase the risk of death in ICU-admitted COVID-19 patients. Therefore, it is substantial that the physicians consider preventing or controlling these complications.

2.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 401, 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841025

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the novel coronavirus causing severe respiratory illness (COVID-19). This virus was initially identified in Wuhan city, a populated area of the Hubei province in China, and still remains one of the major global health challenges. RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism of post-transcriptional gene silencing that plays a crucial role in innate viral defense mechanisms by inhibiting the virus replication as well as expression of various viral proteins. Dicer, Drosha, Ago2, and DGCR8 are essential components of the RNAi system, which is supposed to be dysregulated in COVID-19 patients. This study aimed to assess the expression level of the mentioned mRNAs in COVID-19patients compared to healthy individuals. RESULTS: Our findings demonstrated that the expression of Dicer, Drosha, and Ago2 was statistically altered in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy subjects. Ultimately, the RNA interference mechanism as a crucial antiviral defense system was suggested to be dysregulated in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Humans , RNA Interference , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences : The Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences ; 27, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1824472

ABSTRACT

Background: In this study, we summarized the data on gastrointestinal (GI) involvement and the potential association with clinical outcomes among the patients admitted to Khorshid Hospital. Materials and Methods: We investigated 1113 inpatients (≥18 years old) diagnosed with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) from March to June 2020 in Khorshid Hospital. We collected demographic details, clinical information, vital signs, laboratory data, treatment type, and clinical outcomes from patients’ medical records. The data of patients with GI symptoms were compared with those without GI symptoms. Results: A total of 1113 patients were recruited (male = 648). GI symptoms were observed in 612 (56.8%) patients (male = 329), the most common of which were nausea 387 (34.7%), followed by diarrhea 286 (25.7%), vomiting 260 (23.4%), and abdominal pain 168 (15.0%). The most prominent non-GI symptoms were cough 796 (71.5%), fever 792 (71.2%), shortness of breath 653 (58.7%), and body pain 591 (53.1%). The number of patients who were discharged, died, and were admitted to intensive care unit was significantly different in groups on the basis of GI and non-GI symptoms (P = 0.002, 0.009, 0.003). Conclusion: While COVID-19 was predominantly diagnosed in males, GI symptoms were more commonly reported by females. The results indicated that GI symptoms in COVID-19 patients are common, and the symptoms are not correlated with the severity of the disease. Moreover, the presence of GI symptoms was positively related to milder disease. Among COVID-19 positive patients, the clinical outcomes of the GI group were promising, compared to those of non-GI group.

4.
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences : The Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences ; 27, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1823718

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, concerns raised by the growing number of deaths worldwide. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and extrapulmonary complications can correlate with prognosis in COVID-19 patients. This study evaluated the association of systemic complications with mortality in severely affected COVID-19 patients. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was done on 51 intensive care unit (ICU)-admitted COVID-19 adult patients who were admitted to the ICU ward of Khorshid hospital, affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Only the patients who had a definite hospitalization outcome (dead vs. survivors) were included in the study. Daily clinical and paraclinical records were used to diagnose in-hospital complications in these patients. Results: The sample was comprised of 37 males (72.5%) and 14 females (27.4%). The median age of patients was 63 years (Min: 20, Max: 84), with the mortality rate of 47.1%. In total, 70.6% of patients had at least one coexisting disorder. Chronic kidney disease was associated with the worse outcome (29.16% of dead patients against 3.70 of survived ones). Mechanical ventilation was used in 58.8% of patients. Patients who had received invasive ventilation were more likely to die (87.50% of dead patients against 7.40 of survivors), Complications including sepsis and secondary infections (odds ratio: 8.05, confidence interval: 2.11–30.63) was the strongest predictors of mortality. Conclusion: Complications including sepsis and secondary infections can increase the risk of death in ICU-admitted COVID-19 patients. Therefore, it is substantial that the physicians consider preventing or controlling these complications.

5.
Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology ; 12, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1733344

ABSTRACT

Data on the prevalence of bacterial co-infections and secondary infection among adults with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) are rare. We aimed to determine the frequency of secondary bacterial infection, antibiotic use, and clinical characteristics in patients admitted to the ICU with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. This was a retrospective cohort study of adults with severe COVID-19 admitted to two ICUs from March 6 to September 7, 2020 in an academic medical center in Isfahan, Iran. To detect COVID-19, reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed and also typical pattern of CT scan was used for the diagnosis of COVID-19. Data collection included the age, gender, main symptoms, history of underlying disease, demographics, hospital stay, outcomes, and antibiotic regimen of the patient. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out according to the CLSI guidelines. During the study period, 553 patients were referred to the both ICUs for COVID-19 with severe pneumonia. Secondary bacterial infection was detected in 65 (11.9%) patients. The median age was 69.4 (range 21–95) years;42 (63.6%) were men. Notably, 100% (n = 65) of the patients with superinfection were prescribed empirical antibiotics before first positive culture, predominantly meropenem (86.2%) with a median duration of 12 (range 2–32) days and levofloxacin (73.8%) with a median duration of nine (range 2–24) days. Most prevalent causative agents for secondary bacterial infection were Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 44) and Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 33). Most patients with secondary bacterial infection showed extensive drug-resistance. The mortality among patients who acquired superinfections was 83% against an overall mortality of 38.1% in total admitted COVID-19 patients. We found a high prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli in COVID-19 patients admitted to our ICUs, with a high proportion of K. pneumoniae followed by A. baumannii. These findings emphasize the importance of implementation of strict infection control measures and highlight the role of antimicrobial stewardship during a pandemic.

6.
Health Sci Rep ; 5(2): e548, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729130

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: All components of the immune system are involved in alleviating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Further research is required to provide detailed insights into COVID-19-related immune compartments and pathways. In addition, a significant percentage of hospitalized COVID-19 patients suspect bacterial infections and antimicrobial resistance occurs following antibiotics treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of antibiotics on the response of neutrophil-related genes in SARS-CoV-2 patients by an experimental in silico study. Methods: The two data sets GSE1739 and GSE21802 including 10 SARS positive patients and 35 influenza A (H1N1) patients were analyzed, respectively. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between these two data sets were determined by GEO2R analysis and the Venn diagram online tool. After determining the hub genes involved in immune responses, the expression of these genes in 30 COVID-19 patients and 30 healthy individuals was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All patients received antibiotics, including levofloxacin, colistin, meropenem, and ceftazidime. Results: GEO2R analysis detected 240 and 120 DEGs in GSE21802 and GSE1739, respectively. Twenty DEGs were considered as enriched hub genes involved in immune processes such as neutrophil degranulation, neutrophil activation, and antimicrobial humoral response. The central nodes were attributed to the genes of neutrophil elastase (ELANE), arginase 1 (ARG-1), lipocalin 2 (LCN2), and defensin 4 (DEFA4). Compared to the healthy subjects, the expression of LCN2 and DEFA4 were significantly reduced in COVID-19 patients. However, no significant differences were observed in the ELANE and AGR-1 levels between COVID-19 subjects and the control group. Conclusions: Activation and degranulation of neutrophils were observed mainly in SARS, and H1N1 infection processes and antibiotics administration could affect neutrophil activity during viral infection. It can be suggested that antibiotics can decrease inflammation by restoring the expression of neutrophil-related genes in COVID-19 patients.

7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 768467, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555763

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019, also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was a disaster in 2020. Accurate and early diagnosis of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is still essential for health policymaking. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been performed as the operational gold standard for COVID-19 diagnosis. We aimed to design and implement a reliable COVID-19 diagnosis method to provide the risk of infection using demographics, symptoms and signs, blood markers, and family history of diseases to have excellent agreement with the results obtained by the RT-PCR and CT-scan. Our study primarily used sample data from a 1-year hospital-based prospective COVID-19 open-cohort, the Khorshid COVID Cohort (KCC) study. A sample of 634 patients with COVID-19 and 118 patients with pneumonia with similar characteristics whose RT-PCR and chest CT scan were negative (as the control group) (dataset 1) was used to design the system and for internal validation. Two other online datasets, namely, some symptoms (dataset 2) and blood tests (dataset 3), were also analyzed. A combination of one-hot encoding, stability feature selection, over-sampling, and an ensemble classifier was used. Ten-fold stratified cross-validation was performed. In addition to gender and symptom duration, signs and symptoms, blood biomarkers, and comorbidities were selected. Performance indices of the cross-validated confusion matrix for dataset 1 were as follows: sensitivity of 96% [confidence interval, CI, 95%: 94-98], specificity of 95% [90-99], positive predictive value (PPV) of 99% [98-100], negative predictive value (NPV) of 82% [76-89], diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 496 [198-1,245], area under the ROC (AUC) of 0.96 [0.94-0.97], Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 0.87 [0.85-0.88], accuracy of 96% [94-98], and Cohen's Kappa of 0.86 [0.81-0.91]. The proposed algorithm showed excellent diagnosis accuracy and class-labeling agreement, and fair discriminant power. The AUC on the datasets 2 and 3 was 0.97 [0.96-0.98] and 0.92 [0.91-0.94], respectively. The most important feature was white blood cell count, shortness of breath, and C-reactive protein for datasets 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The proposed algorithm is, thus, a promising COVID-19 diagnosis method, which could be an amendment to simple blood tests and screening of symptoms. However, the RT-PCR and chest CT-scan, performed as the gold standard, are not 100% accurate.

8.
IEEE Access ; 8: 188538-188551, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528294

ABSTRACT

In the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic with no designated cure or vaccine, the only way to break the infection chain is self-isolation and maintaining the physical distancing. In this article, we present a potential application of the Internet of Things (IoT) in healthcare and physical distance monitoring for pandemic situations. The proposed framework consists of three parts: a lightweight and low-cost IoT node, a smartphone application (app), and fog-based Machine Learning (ML) tools for data analysis and diagnosis. The IoT node tracks health parameters, including body temperature, cough rate, respiratory rate, and blood oxygen saturation, then updates the smartphone app to display the user health conditions. The app notifies the user to maintain a physical distance of 2 m (or 6 ft), which is a key factor in controlling virus spread. In addition, a Fuzzy Mamdani system (running at the fog server) considers the environmental risk and user health conditions to predict the risk of spreading infection in real time. The environmental risk conveys from the virtual zone concept and provides updated information for different places. Two scenarios are considered for the communication between the IoT node and fog server, 4G/5G/WiFi, or LoRa, which can be selected based on environmental constraints. The required energy usage and bandwidth (BW) are compared for various event scenarios. The COVID-SAFE framework can assist in minimizing the coronavirus exposure risk.

9.
Iran J Med Sci ; 46(6): 487-492, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513425

ABSTRACT

The cumulative rate of death of acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has necessitated better recognizing the risk factors of the disease and the COVID-19-induced mortality. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the potential risk factors that predict COVID-19-related mortality concentrating on the initial recorded laboratory tests. We extracted admission's medical records of a total of 136 deaths related to COVID-19 and 272 discharged adult inpatients (≥18 years old) related to four referral centers from February 24th to April 12th, 2020, in Isfahan, Iran, to figure out the relationship between the laboratory findings and mortality beyond demographic and clinical findings. We applied the independent sample t test and a chichi square test with SPSS software to compare the differences between the survivor and non-survivor patients. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Our results showed that greater length of hospitalization (P≤0.001), pre-existing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P≤0.001), high pulse rate, hypoxia (P≤0.001), and high computed tomography scan score (P<0.001), in addition to high values of some laboratory parameters, increase the risk of mortality. Moreover, high neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (OR, 1.890; 95% CI, 1.074-3.325, P=0.027), increased creatinine levels (OR, 15.488; 95% CI, 0.801-299.479, P=0.07), and elevated potassium levels (OR, 13.400; 95% CI, 1.084-165.618, P=0.043) independently predicted in-hospital death related to COVID-19 infection. These results emphasized the potential role of impaired laboratory parameters for the prognosis of fatal outcomes in adult inpatients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Risk Factors
10.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 401, 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486593

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the novel coronavirus causing severe respiratory illness (COVID-19). This virus was initially identified in Wuhan city, a populated area of the Hubei province in China, and still remains one of the major global health challenges. RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism of post-transcriptional gene silencing that plays a crucial role in innate viral defense mechanisms by inhibiting the virus replication as well as expression of various viral proteins. Dicer, Drosha, Ago2, and DGCR8 are essential components of the RNAi system, which is supposed to be dysregulated in COVID-19 patients. This study aimed to assess the expression level of the mentioned mRNAs in COVID-19patients compared to healthy individuals. RESULTS: Our findings demonstrated that the expression of Dicer, Drosha, and Ago2 was statistically altered in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy subjects. Ultimately, the RNA interference mechanism as a crucial antiviral defense system was suggested to be dysregulated in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Humans , RNA Interference , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
11.
ARYA Atheroscler ; 17(3): 1-7, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485636

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide and myocardial injury has been one of the most common findings in the affected patients. However, published evidence of cardiac evaluation by imaging techniques including echocardiography is rare. We aimed to evaluate myocardial involvement by echocardiography in patients with severe COVID-19. METHODS: We studied 64 patients with severe COVID-19 who were admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU) in Khorshid Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, from February 20, 2020 until May 20, 2020. Demographic characteristics, laboratory tests, and electrocardiography (ECG) data were collected and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) using a focused time-efficient echocardiography protocol was performed. RESULTS: Mean age of the participating patients was 66.40 ± 14.14 years (range: 34.0-92.0 years), and 35 patients (54.7%) were men. Reduced left ventricular (LV) systolic function was seen in 20 (32%) patients. Only 4 patients had LV ejection fraction (LVEF) less than 40%. Cardiac troponin I (cTn-I) was elevated (over 15 pg/ml) in 39 (60.9%) patients and was significantly associated with higher mortality in these patients (P = 0.05). In addition, dynamic ST and T wave changes and new bundle branch blocks had a significant association with adverse clinical outcome (P = 0.05 and P = 0.02, respectively). CONCLUSION: New LV systolic dysfunction (LVSD) in patients with severe COVID-19 was mild to moderate and not uncommon and had no significant adverse effect on the prognosis of these patients, although elevation of cardiac biomarkers could predict mortality and had an adverse effect on clinical outcome.

12.
J Res Med Sci ; 26: 85, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472466

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the spread of COVID-19, treatment of diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) should be resumed with caution due to the disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) used in this subset of patients and the immunoregulatory effects of these drugs. We aim to assess the outcome of COVID-19 infection in MS patients receiving DMTs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involving 45 COVID-19-infected patients previously diagnosed with MS. The data regarding their MS status and the type of DMT taken by the patients were extracted from the Isfahan MS Institute registry and were summarized. Diagnosis of MS was based on the 2017 McDonald Criteria, and the diagnosis of COVID-19 was based on computed tomography scan and polymerase chain reaction of nasopharyngeal swabs. RESULTS: Out of the 45 MS patients infected with COVID-19, 5 had unfavorable outcomes. Two patients deceased and the other three had persistent respiratory complications on the 4-week follow-up visit. Hypertension, diabetes, seizures, and rheumatoid arthritis were among the comorbidities that the patients reported. Both patients who died received rituximab as part of their MS treatment. All other patients recovered completely. CONCLUSION: Each different drug category may possess a distinct risk for infection, therefore until robust evidence are available, the safest drug should be utilized or the therapy should be postponed, if possible, to minimize patient risk. Disease-modifying therapy use in MS patients should be cautiously applied as their effect on COVID-19 infection prognosis is not yet studied.

13.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 95: 107522, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385749

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We examined the safety and efficacy of a treatment protocol containing Favipiravir for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We did a multicenter randomized open-labeled clinical trial on moderate to severe cases infections of SARS-CoV-2. Patients with typical ground glass appearance on chest computerized tomography scan (CT scan) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) of less than 93% were enrolled. They were randomly allocated into Favipiravir (1.6 gr loading, 1.8 gr daily) and Lopinavir/Ritonavir (800/200 mg daily) treatment regimens in addition to standard care. In-hospital mortality, ICU admission, intubation, time to clinical recovery, changes in daily SpO2 after 5 min discontinuation of supplemental oxygen, and length of hospital stay were quantified and compared in the two groups. RESULTS: 380 patients were randomly allocated into Favipiravir (193) and Lopinavir/Ritonavir (187) groups in 13 centers. The number of deaths, intubations, and ICU admissions were not significantly different (26, 27, 31 and 21, 17, 25 respectively). Mean hospital stay was also not different (7.9 days [SD = 6] in the Favipiravir and 8.1 [SD = 6.5] days in Lopinavir/Ritonavir groups) (p = 0.61). Time to clinical recovery in the Favipiravir group was similar to Lopinavir/Ritonavir group (HR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.75 - 1.17) and likewise the changes in the daily SpO2 after discontinuation of supplemental oxygen (p = 0.46) CONCLUSION: Adding Favipiravir to the treatment protocol did not reduce the number of ICU admissions or intubations or In-hospital mortality compared to Lopinavir/Ritonavir regimen. It also did not shorten time to clinical recovery and length of hospital stay.


Subject(s)
Amides/administration & dosage , Amides/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Intubation , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Length of Stay , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
15.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 146, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311249

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Already at hospital admission, clinicians require simple tools to identify hospitalized COVID-19 patients at high risk of mortality. Such tools can significantly improve resource allocation and patient management within hospitals. From the statistical point of view, extended time-to-event models are required to account for competing risks (discharge from hospital) and censoring so that active cases can also contribute to the analysis. METHODS: We used the hospital-based open Khorshid COVID Cohort (KCC) study with 630 COVID-19 patients from Isfahan, Iran. Competing risk methods are used to develop a death risk chart based on the following variables, which can simply be measured at hospital admission: sex, age, hypertension, oxygen saturation, and Charlson Comorbidity Index. The area under the receiver operator curve was used to assess accuracy concerning discrimination between patients discharged alive and dead. RESULTS: Cause-specific hazard regression models show that these baseline variables are associated with both death, and discharge hazards. The risk chart reflects the combined results of the two cause-specific hazard regression models. The proposed risk assessment method had a very good accuracy (AUC = 0.872 [CI 95%: 0.835-0.910]). CONCLUSIONS: This study aims to improve and validate a personalized mortality risk calculator based on hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The risk assessment of patient mortality provides physicians with additional guidance for making tough decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Iran , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Infect Chemother ; 53(2): 308-318, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to wreak havoc worldwide. This study assessed the ability of chest computed tomography (CT) severity score (CSS) to predict intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 192 consecutive patients with COVID-19 pneumonia aged more than 20 years and typical CT findings and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction positive admitted in a tertiary hospital were included. Clinical symptoms at admission and short-term outcome were obtained. A semi-quantitative scoring system was used to evaluate the parenchymal involvement. The association between CSS, disease severity, and outcomes were evaluated. Prediction of CSS was assessed with the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. RESULTS: The incidence of admission to ICU was 22.8% in men and 14.1% in women. CSS was related to ICU admission and mortality. Areas under the ROC curves were 0.764 for total CSS. Using a stepwise binary logistic regression model, gender, age, oxygen saturation, and CSS had a significant independent relationship with ICU admission and death. Patients with CSS ≥12.5 had about four-time risk of ICU admission and death (odds ratio 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.66 - 9.25). The multivariate regression analysis showed the superiority of CSS over other clinical information and co-morbidities. CONCLUSION: CSS was a strong predictor of progression to ICU admission and death and there was a substantial role of non-contrast chest CT imaging in the presence of typical features for COVID-19 pneumonia as a reliable predictor of clinical severity and patient's outcome.

17.
J Res Med Sci ; 26: 34, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273597

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The new coronavirus outbreak quickly filled hospital beds and stunned the world. Intensive care is required for 5% of patients, and the mortality rate for critically ill patients is 49%. The "cytokine storm" is considered as the main cause of pathogenesis for coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19)-related respiratory failure, hemoperfusion may be a modality for treatment of disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-seven an patients with positive real-time polymerase chain reaction for SARStions2 in an upper respiratory tract sample or typical chest computed tomography lesion were eligible for this case-control study. Patients meeting the criteria for hemoperfusion including clinical and laboratory indices, were evaluated for outcomes such as hospitalization length and mortality. Patients were divided into three groups, i.e., patients who received hemoperfusion without a need for mechanical ventilation (MV), patients who received hemoperfusion before MV, and patients who received hemoperfusion after MV. RESULTS: Among 37 patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure, 32% were female with a mean age of 55.54 (standard deviation 14.1) years. There was no statistically significant difference between the three groups in terms of length of hospital stay and intensive care unit (ICU) stay (P-tayns: 0.593 and 0.243, respectively, confidence interval [CI]: 95%). Heart rate, respiratory rate, PaO2/FIO2, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and ferritin significantly improved after the application of hemoperfusion in all groups (P < 0.05, CI: 95%). CONCLUSION: It seems that applying hemoperfusion in the inflammatory phase of the disease, especially before the intubation, reduce the need for MV. However, hemoperfusion does not have any impacts on the duration of hospital and ICU stay.

18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(1): 54-58, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232646

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 can cause pulmonary complications, such as increased risk of barotrauma (BT), but its prevalence and risk factors are not known. In this case series, the course of BT and its related risk factors were discussed in patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to the intensive care unit. Medical records of the patients with COVID-19 and BT and hospitalized in the intensive care unit for 5 months were extracted. The course of BT and its possible associated risk factors are descriptively presented. Among 103 patients with COVID-19 who were intubated, 13 patients (12.6%) had BT. One patient developed BT before intubation. All patients with BT were male. Half of them developed BT in the first 5 days of intubation. Eight patients (61.53%) had a positive culture for Klebsiella pneumoniae. Nine patients (69.9%) died. High positive end-expiratory pressure, coinfection with bacterial pneumonia, and history of lung disease may affect BT incidence. The treatment team should increase their upervision on the ventilator setting, especially in the first week of intubation.


Subject(s)
Barotrauma/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology , Adult , Aged , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal , Klebsiella Infections/complications , Klebsiella Infections/diagnosis , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors
19.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(7): e14182, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148069

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are some data showing that repurposed drugs used for the Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) have potential to increase the risk of QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), and these arrhythmic side effects have not been adequately addressed in COVID-19 patients treated with these repurposed medications. METHODS: This is the prospective study of 2403 patients hospitalised at 13 hospitals within the COVID-19 epicentres of the Iran. These patients were treated with chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, atazanavir/ritonavir, oseltamivir, favipiravir and remdesivir alone or in combination with azithromycin. The primary outcome of the study was incidence of critical QTc prolongation, and secondary outcomes were incidences of TdP and death. RESULTS: Of the 2403 patients, 2365 met inclusion criteria. The primary outcome of QTc ≥ 500 ms and ∆QTc ≥ 60 ms was observed in 11.2% and 17.6% of the patients, respectively. The secondary outcomes of TdP and death were reported in 0.38% and 9.8% of the patients, respectively. The risk of critical QT prolongation increased in the presence of female gender, history of heart failure, treatment with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin combination therapy, simultaneous furosemide or beta-blocker therapy and acute renal or hepatic dysfunction. However, the risk of TdP was predicted by treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir, simultaneous amiodarone or furosemide administration and hypokalaemia during treatment. CONCLUSION: This cohort showed significant QTc prolongation with all COVID-19 medications studied, however, life-threatening arrhythmia of TdP occurred rarely. Among the repurposed drugs studied, hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir-ritonavir alone or in combination with azithromycin clearly demonstrated to increase the risk of critical QT prolongation and/or TdP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Torsades de Pointes , Electrocardiography , Female , Humans , Iran , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Torsades de Pointes/chemically induced , Torsades de Pointes/epidemiology
20.
Sleep Breath ; 25(4): 2197-2204, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080518

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the frequency of sleep and mood disturbances, and their association with COVID-like symptoms in healthcare workers (HCWs) with and without positive Coronavirus RT-PCR in a corona referral center. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional, anonymous survey of adult HCWs. Data collection was performed in May and June 2020, while governmental restrictions were in place. The participants completed the forms including six separate parts: personal and occupational information, Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Patient's Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and COVID-like symptoms and Coronavirus RT-PCR status. RESULTS: Among the 372 HCW participants, 245 (66%) were women and  mean age was 34.5 ± 7.1 years (age range 23 to 58). The mean scores of all questionnaires except ISI were significantly higher in the HCWs with positive Coronavirus RT-PCR than another group (PSQI, 9 ± 3.4 vs. 6.9 ± 3.1; GAD-7, 9.8 ± 3.6 vs. 7.9 ± 5.3; PHQ-9, 12.8 ± 6.1 vs. 9.5 ± 6.4, P < 0.05; and ISI, 13.8 ± 5.3 vs. 12.3 ± 6 P = 0.163). Positive association between COVID-like symptoms and sleep and mood disturbances was found in the group without a positive test result. Analysis of questionnaires showed higher scores in the group directly involved except for ISI (P < 0.001 and P = 0.053 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the HCWs in this sample experienced a high rate of sleep and mood disturbances. There was also a strong association between sleep and mood disturbances and COVID-like symptoms in the group without a positive RT-PCR result. With all this considered, effective psychological support for HCWs during crisis seems to be necessary.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Depression/physiopathology , Personnel, Hospital , Sleep Wake Disorders/physiopathology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL