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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097333

ABSTRACT

The management of COVID-19 has become more complex due to the expansion of available therapies. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 variants and mutations further complicate treatment due to their differing susceptibilities to therapies. Here we outline the use of real-time whole genome sequencing to characterise infections and guide treatment decisions.

2.
ACS Infect Dis ; 8(10): 2084-2095, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076976

ABSTRACT

Viruses are microscopic pathogens capable of causing disease and are responsible for a range of human mortalities and morbidities worldwide. They can be rendered harmless or destroyed with a range of antiviral chemical compounds. Cucurbit[n]urils (CB[n]s) are a family of macrocycle chemical compounds existing as a range of homologues; due to their structure, they can bind to biological materials, acting as supramolecular "hosts" to "guests", such as amino acids. Due to the increasing need for a nontoxic antiviral compound, we investigated whether cucurbit[n]urils could act in an antiviral manner. We have found that certain cucurbit[n]uril homologues do indeed have an antiviral effect against a range of viruses, including herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and SARS-CoV-2. In particular, we demonstrate that CB[7] is the active homologue of CB[n], having an antiviral effect against enveloped and nonenveloped species. High levels of efficacy were observed with 5 min contact times across different viruses. We also demonstrate that CB[7] acts with an extracellular virucidal mode of action via host-guest supramolecular interactions between viral surface proteins and the CB[n] cavity, rather than via cell internalization or a virustatic mechanism. This finding demonstrates that CB[7] acts as a supramolecular virucidal antiviral (a mechanism distinct from other current extracellular antivirals), demonstrating the potential of supramolecular interactions for future antiviral disinfectants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Macrocyclic Compounds , Amino Acids , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bridged-Ring Compounds/chemistry , Bridged-Ring Compounds/pharmacology , Humans , Imidazoles/chemistry , Macrocyclic Compounds/chemistry , Membrane Proteins , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Learn Health Syst ; : e10344, 2022 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047827

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 has created additional challenges for the analysis of non-randomized interventions in health system settings. Our objective is to evaluate these challenges and identify lessons learned from the analysis of a medically tailored meals (MTM) intervention at Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW) that began in April 2020. Methods: We identified both a historical and concurrent comparison group. The historical comparison group included patients living in the same area as the MTM recipients prior to COVID-19. The concurrent comparison group included patients admitted to contracted non-KPNW hospitals or admitted to a KPNW facility and living outside the service area for the intervention but otherwise eligible. We used two alternative propensity score methods in response to the loss of sample size with exact matching to evaluate the intervention. Results: We identified 452 patients who received the intervention, 3873 patients in the historical comparison group, and 5333 in the concurrent comparison group. We were able to mostly achieve balance on observable characteristics for the intervention and the two comparison groups. Conclusions: Lessons learned included: (a) The use of two different comparison groups helped to triangulate results; (b) the meaning of utilization measures changed pre- and post-COVID-19; and (c) that balance on observable characteristics can be achieved, especially when the comparison groups are meaningfully larger than the intervention group. These findings may inform the design for future evaluations of interventions during COVID-19.

4.
Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng ; 119652022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1986321

ABSTRACT

Localization microscopy circumvents the diffraction limit by identifying and measuring the positions of numerous subsets of individual fluorescent molecules, ultimately producing an image whose resolution depends on the uncertainty and density of localization, and whose capabilities are compatible with imaging living specimens. Spectral resolution can be improved by incorporating a dichroic or dispersive element in the detection path of a localization microscope, which can be useful for separation of multiple probes imaged simultaneously and for detection of changes in emission spectra of fluorophores resulting from changes in their environment. These methodological advances enable new biological applications, which in turn motivate new questions and technical innovations. As examples, we present fixed-cell imaging of the spike protein SARS-CoV2 (S) and its interactions with host cell components. Results show a relationship between S and the lipid phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2). These findings have ramifications for several existing models of plasma membrane organization.

5.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 43(5): 292-296, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985127

ABSTRACT

AIM: This study investigated graduate nurse readiness for practice after receiving virtual clinical replacement experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. BACKGROUND: The pandemic led to the closure of clinical sites for many undergraduate nursing students. Nurse educators replaced the hospital setting with virtual clinical replacement experiences, potentially affecting readiness for practice in graduate nurses. METHOD: The Casey-Fink Graduate Nurse Experience Survey was used to collect data in the areas of demographics, comfort level with skills, work environment stress, job satisfaction, role transition, and the impact of the virtual clinical experience on transition to practice. Descriptive statistics and independent t -tests were used for analysis. RESULTS: The virtual clinical replacement experience was statistically significant with greater confidence in providing for patient safety, stronger professional communication/leadership skills, and recognized support in the workplace. CONCLUSION: The use of virtual clinical replacement experiences had a positive impact on new graduate nurses' transition to practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate , Education, Nursing, Graduate , Students, Nursing , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
6.
Clin Nutr ; 41(10): 2244-2263, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977149

ABSTRACT

Low muscle mass and malnutrition are prevalent conditions among adults of all ages, with any body weight or body mass index, and with acute or chronic conditions, including COVID-19. This article synthesizes the latest research advancements in muscle health and malnutrition, and their impact on immune function, and clinical outcomes. We provide a toolkit of illustrations and scientific information that healthcare professionals can use for knowledge translation, educating patients about the importance of identifying and treating low muscle mass and malnutrition. We focus on the emerging evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in the context of aging and disease, as well as the cross-talk between skeletal muscle and the immune system. We address the importance of myosteatosis as a component of muscle composition, and discuss direct, indirect and surrogate assessments of muscle mass including ultrasound, computerized tomography, deuterated creatine dilution, and calf circumference. Assessments of muscle function are also included (handgrip strength, and physical performance tests). Finally, we address nutrition interventions to support anabolism, reduce catabolism, and improve patient outcomes. These include protein and amino acids, branched-chain amino acids, with a focus on leucine; ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB), vitamin D; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), polyphenols, and oral nutritional supplements. We concluded with recommendations for clinical practice and a call for action on research focusing on evaluating the impact of body composition assessments on targeted nutrition interventions, and consequently their ability to improve patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Malnutrition , Adult , Amino Acids/metabolism , Amino Acids, Branched-Chain , Creatine , Delivery of Health Care , Dietary Supplements , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/metabolism , Hand Strength , Humans , Leucine , Malnutrition/drug therapy , Muscle Strength , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Valerates , Vitamin D/therapeutic use
7.
American Journal of Occupational Therapy ; 76:1-1, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-1975177

ABSTRACT

Date Presented 04/01/2022 Our study evaluated how changes in school environment resulting from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affected the occupations of sleep, play, and leisure in school-age children. We surveyed parents about their children's occupations at the onset of the 2020-2021 school year. Survey results showed that instruction type affected play and some leisure activities of children. The data indicate effects on occupational engagement related to changes in school environment, with potential long-term impacts on child development. Primary Author and Speaker: Sophia Bertrand Additional Authors and Speakers: Meaghan Murray Contributing Authors: Ann E. Millard, Anne Pleva, Samuel T. Nemanich

8.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264940, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The significant adverse social and economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has cast broader light on the importance of addressing social determinants of health (SDOH). Medicaid Managed Care Organizations (MMCOs) have increasingly taken on a leadership role in integrating medical and social services for Medicaid members. However, the experiences of MMCOs in addressing member social needs during the pandemic has not yet been examined. AIM: The purpose of this study was to describe MMCOs' experiences with addressing the social needs of Medicaid members during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The study was a qualitative study using data from 28 semi-structured interviews with representatives from 14 MMCOs, including state-specific markets of eight national and regional managed care organizations. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Four themes emerged: the impact of the pandemic, SDOH response efforts, an expanding definition of SDOH, and managed care beyond COVID-19. Specifically, participants discussed the impact of the pandemic on enrollees, communities, and healthcare delivery, and detailed their evolving efforts to address member nonmedical needs during the pandemic. They reported an increased demand for social services coupled with a significant retraction of community social service resources. To address these emerging social service gaps, participants described mounting a prompt and adaptable response that was facilitated by strong existing relationships with community partners. CONCLUSION: Among MMCOs, the COVID-19 pandemic has emphasized the importance of addressing member social needs, and the need for broader consideration of what constitutes SDOH from a healthcare delivery standpoint.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Medicaid/trends , Social Determinants of Health/trends , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Managed Care Programs/statistics & numerical data , Managed Care Programs/trends , Medicaid/economics , Medicaid/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Behavior , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Social Work , Stakeholder Participation , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
9.
Journal of Testing and Evaluation ; 50(5), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1910735

ABSTRACT

A new airborne transmittable disease, coronavirus (COVID-19), was discovered by China in late December 2019. The virus is spread by direct contact with infected people's respiratory droplets (from coughing and sneezing) and virus-infected surfaces. COVID-19 can survive for hours on surfaces, but disinfectants can kill it. Pathogens have evolved and become resistant to conventional drugs and disinfectants. This proposed new approach using TiO2 for infectious diseases is needed to outwit these cunning saboteurs. Nanotechnology creates a unique way to modify material at the level of atoms and particles. Nanotechnology has enabled self-cleaning surfaces based on the advanced oxidation process (AOP). The outside is coated with a thin layer of nanosized TiO2 (titanium dioxide) photocatalyst. UV rays stimulate nano TiO2 and initiate AOP. The process reactions lead to the formation of oxygen vacancies in surface-bound water particle surfaces. Because of copper doping (1 % Weight of copper and 0.5 % Weight of copper), the bandgap is minimized and excitation occurs at visible light. Consequently, these photocatalyst surfaces have changed properties. Microorganisms are inactivated, excess toxins are degraded, and pollutants are removed. Toilet seats, floors, hospitals, homes, airports, railways, and road terminals can all be coated with TiO2. Microorganisms can be killed by TiO2coated or TiO2 doped with copper. These purify the air in hospitals. They can also be used to kill microorganisms on road pavements. They can also be used to coat intravenous masks and catheters to stop COVID-19. © 2022 by ASTM International

10.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268230, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875090

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The willingness of Africa's population to patronise the COVID-19 vaccines is critical to the efficiency of national immunisation programmes. This study surveys the views of adult African inhabitants toward vaccination and the possibility of participating or not participating in governments' efforts to get citizens vaccinated. METHOD: A cross-sectional online survey of adult Africans was undertaken from December 2020 to March 2021. Responses were anonymised. The Pearson Chi-square test was performed to determine whether or not there were any variations in knowledge, awareness, perception and acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccines among the participants. Binomial logistic regression was used to evaluate the factors associated with willingness to accept the COVID-19 vaccines and participate in immunisation programmes. RESULTS: The results indicate that COVID-19 vaccines are more likely to be used by adult Africans over the age of 18 who are largely technologically savvy (55 percent) if the vaccine is made broadly available. A total of 33 percent of those who responded said they were unlikely to receive the vaccine, with another 15 percent stating they were undecided. Aside from that, we found that vaccine hesitancy was closely associated with socio-demographic characteristics such as age, gender, education and source of information. We also found that there were widespread conspiracies and myths about the COVID-19 vaccines. CONCLUSION: More than one-third of African adults who participated in the survey indicated they would not receive the COVID-19 vaccine, with majority of them expressing skepticisms about the vaccine's efficacy. It is possible that many of the people who would not be vaccinated would have an impact on the implementation of a COVID-19 immunisation programme that is meant for all of society. Majority of the respondents were unwilling to pay for the COVID-19 vaccines when made available. An awareness campaign should be focused on promoting the benefits of vaccination at the individual and population levels, as well as on taking preemptive actions to debunk misconceptions about the vaccines before they become further widespread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Middle Aged , Perception
11.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22276369

ABSTRACT

ImportanceEvidence suggests that early, robust type 1 interferon responses to SARS-CoV-2 are critical determinants for COVID-19 disease outcomes, accelerating viral clearance and limiting viral shedding. ObjectiveWe undertook a ring prophylaxis study to determine whether pegylated IFN{beta}-1 could reduce SARS-CoV-2 household transmission. DesignA cluster randomized clinical trial of pegylated IFN{beta}-1 conducted in Santiago, Chile. Recruitment was conducted between December 4th 2020, and 31st May 2021, with the last follow-up completed June 29th 2021. SettingThe study was conducted across 341 households in the metropolitan area of Santiago, Chile. ParticipantsIndex cases were identified from databases of those with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 from COVID-19 clinics and emergency room visits in Santiago, Chile. 5,154 index cases were assessed for eligibility, 1,372 index cases were invited to participate, and 341 index cases and their household contacts (n = 831) were enrolled in the study. InterventionHouseholds were cluster randomized to receive 125{micro}g subcutaneous pegylated IFN{beta}-1 (n = 172 households, 607 participants), or standard care (n = 169 households, 565 participants). Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s)Frequentist and Bayesian analyses were undertaken to determine the effects of treatment on (i) reducing viral shedding in index cases and (ii) reducing viral transmission to treatment-eligible household contacts. Four secondary outcomes were assessed including duration of viral shedding, effects on viral transmission and seroconversion, incidence of hospitalization, and incidence and severity of reported adverse events. A post-hoc at risk population was defined as households where the index case was positive at the start of the study and there was at least one treatment eligible contact in a household who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. ResultsIn total, 1172 participants in 341 households underwent randomization, with 607 assigned to receive IFN{beta}-1 and 565 to standard care. Based on intention to treat and per protocol analyses, IFN{beta}-1 treatment was ineffective. However, in the at risk population, the relative risk of infection was reduced by 23% in treated individuals and that there was a 95% probability that IFN{beta}-1 reduced household transmission Conclusions and RelevanceRing prophylaxis with IFN{beta}-1 reduces the probability of SARS-CoV-2 transmission within a household. Trial RegistrationClinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT04552379

12.
Psychiatry Res ; 312: 114570, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799752

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The goal of our study was to evaluate the development of new mental health diagnoses up to 6-months following COVID-19 hospitalization for in a large, national sample. METHOD: Data were extracted for all Veterans hospitalized at Veterans Health Administration hospitals for COVID-19 from March through August of 2020 utilizing national administrative data. After identifying the cohort, follow-up data were linked through six months post-hospitalization. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Eight percent of patients developed a new mental health diagnosis following hospitalization. The most common new mental health diagnoses involved depressive, anxiety, and adjustment disorders. Younger and rural patients were more likely to develop new mental health diagnoses. Women and those with more comorbidities were less likely to develop new diagnoses. CONCLUSION: A subpopulation of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 developed new mental health diagnoses. Unique demographics predictors indicate the potential need for additional outreach and screening to groups at elevated risk of post-hospitalization, mental health sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Veterans , Adjustment Disorders , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , United States/epidemiology , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Veterans/psychology
14.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 13(3): 1653-1672, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750384

ABSTRACT

General muscle health declines with age, and in particular, sarcopenia-defined as progressive loss of muscle mass and strength/physical performance-is a growing issue in Asia with a rising population of community-dwelling older adults. Several guidelines have addressed early identification of sarcopenia and management, and although nutrition is central to treatment of sarcopenia, there are currently few guidelines that have examined this specifically in the Asian population. Therefore, the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia established a special interest group (SIG) comprising seven experts across Asia and one from Australia, to develop an evidence-based expert consensus. A systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE on the topic of muscle health, from 2016 (inclusive) to July 2021, in Asia or with relevance to healthy, Asian community-dwelling older adults (≥60 years old). Several key topics were identified: (1) nutritional status: malnutrition and screening; (2) diet and dietary factors; (3) nutritional supplementation; (4) lifestyle interventions plus nutrition; and (5) outcomes and assessment. Clinical questions were developed around these topics, leading to 14 consensus statements. Consensus was achieved using the modified Delphi method with two rounds of voting. Moreover, the consensus addressed the impacts of COVID-19 on nutrition, muscle health, and sarcopenia in Asia. These statements encompass clinical expertise and knowledge across Asia and are aligned with findings in the current literature, to provide a practical framework for addressing muscle health in the community, with the overall aim to encourage and facilitate broader access to equitable care for this target population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Aged , Humans , Independent Living , Middle Aged , Muscles , Nutritional Status , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/therapy
15.
Am J Ther ; 29(3): e275-e278, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe SARS-CoV-2 (COVID) pneumonia is characterized by marked inflammation. Current guidelines recommend the addition of the tocilizumab to dexamethasone in critically ill patients. In randomized trials, the use of tocilizumab was not associated with a statistically significant increased risk of secondary infections but concerns remain. STUDY QUESTION: Do patients with severe COVID pneumonia treated with tocilizumab experienced high rates of secondary infection. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective electronic chart review of patients with COVID pneumonia who received tocilizumab and dexamethasone (n = 62) from January 2021 to October 2021 and compared them with a cohort of patients (n = 49) who received only dexamethasone and admitted from July 2020 to December 2020 (before institutional use of tocilizumab). Patients received tocilizumab only if they had acute hypoxic respiratory failure and were felt to be clinically worsening. Patients were deemed to have a secondary infection only if a diagnosis of infection was confirmed via positive cultures. RESULTS: Sixty-six patients received tocilizumab; of which, 30 (45.5%) subsequently had culture-positive secondary infections compared with 24.5% of controls. Thirty-one patients (47.0%) who received tocilizumab died by the time of analysis, 14 (45.2%) of whom had a secondary infection. Gram-negative bacterial infections predominated, followed by fungal infections. Patients who received tocilizumab had over twice as many gram-negative pneumonias (30.3% vs. 14.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with severe COVID pneumonia treated with tocilizumab experienced high rates of secondary infection. Although the benefit of tocilizumab in reducing mortality is well-established and almost certainly outweighs secondary infection risks, we question if the "real-world" infection rates are much higher than those reported in trials or if the infection risk could be mitigated with dose reductions in tocilizumab without losing the mortality benefit. Further study into the infection risk, and risk-benefit analysis of dose adjustments, of tocilizumab in the critical care setting is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715948

ABSTRACT

In this case report, we describe a clinical presentation and therapeutic history of a unique case diagnosed with Lassa fever and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a 23-year-old man from Yomou prefecture in southeast Guinea identified with suspected Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in the midst of an ongoing outbreak of that disease in the same region. On May 3, 2021, he was admitted to the Nzérékoré Epidemic disease treatment center where his clinical condition deteriorated significantly. Laboratory testing performed on the same day reveals a negative EVD polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Three days later, the patient was tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and Lassa fever by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assays. Laboratory examination also indicated severe hematological and biochemical deteriorations in the patient. This case substantiates the need for systematic differential diagnosis during epidemic-prone disease outbreaks to better manage severely unwell patients.

17.
Popul Health Manag ; 25(1): 119-125, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709177

ABSTRACT

With growing recognition of the adverse health impacts of unmet social needs, Medicaid managed care organizations (MMCOs) are increasingly focusing on addressing the social needs of Medicaid enrollees as part of a holistic approach to care. Information and knowledge sharing among MMCOs pertaining to lessons learned and promising practices from their social determinants of health (SDOH) targeted efforts can help identify successful practical approaches for navigating common challenges, developing robust SDOH programming, and effectively delivering whole-person care. Using data from interviews with 28 representatives of 8 national and regional MMCOs, this qualitative study describes the perspectives of MMCO representatives on the lessons learned and emerging promising practices from addressing SDOH among their Medicaid enrollees. Participants discussed the importance of member and community-centeredness, structured programming, and delivery system realignment in the effective delivery of whole person care. Ten lessons learned and emerging promising practices are discussed. Findings from this study suggest that success in addressing the social needs of Medicaid beneficiaries may be achieved through adaptive, data-driven, member- and community-centric efforts by MMCOs, facilitated by system-level changes that formally integrate social services within health care. Lessons learned and promising practices can serve as a foundation for identifying and evaluating best practices and guidelines for effective MMCOs' SDOH-related programming.


Subject(s)
Managed Care Programs , Medicaid , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Social Determinants of Health , Social Work , United States
18.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 440: 115913, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671180

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic raises significance for a potential influenza therapeutic compound, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), which has been extensively used in personal care products as a positively-charged quaternary ammonium antibacterial agent. CPC is currently in clinical trials to assess its effects on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) morbidity. Two published studies have provided mouse and human data indicating that CPC may alleviate influenza infection, and here we show that CPC (0.1 µM, 1 h) reduces zebrafish mortality and viral load following influenza infection. However, CPC mechanisms of action upon viral-host cell interaction are currently unknown. We have utilized super-resolution fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy to probe the mode of CPC action. Reduction in density of influenza viral protein hemagglutinin (HA) clusters is known to reduce influenza infectivity: here, we show that CPC (at non-cytotoxic doses, 5-10 µM) reduces HA density and number of HA molecules per cluster within the plasma membrane of NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblasts. HA is known to colocalize with the negatively-charged mammalian lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2); here, we show that nanoscale co-localization of HA with the PIP2-binding Pleckstrin homology (PH) reporter in the plasma membrane is diminished by CPC. CPC also dramatically displaces the PIP2-binding protein myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) from the plasma membrane of rat RBL-2H3 mast cells; this disruption of PIP2 is correlated with inhibition of mast cell degranulation. Together, these findings offer a PIP2-focused mechanism underlying CPC disruption of influenza and suggest potential pharmacological use of this drug as an influenza therapeutic to reduce global deaths from viral disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Animals , Cell Communication , Cetylpyridinium/chemistry , Cetylpyridinium/pharmacology , Dinucleoside Phosphates , Humans , Immunity , Mammals , Mice , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Pandemics , Phosphatidylinositols , Rats , SARS-CoV-2 , Zebrafish
19.
International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences ; 14(1):37-53, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1662178

ABSTRACT

PurposeThis paper aims to explore the mediating effect of organizational support for innovation and moderating impact of supervisory support on how rewards shape employee creativity among rural healthcare employees, a group with few resources and considerable expectations.Design/methodology/approachUsing a regression-based moderated path analysis, the authors tested the hypotheses with healthcare employee survey data from a large Southern rural hospital in the USA.FindingsThe empirical results suggest organizational support for innovation mediates the influence of rewards on employee creativity. In addition, the indirect effect of rewards on employee creativity via organizational support for innovation is moderated by supervisory support, such that the indirect effect is more pronounced at high levels of supervisory support than at low levels of supervisory support.Originality/valueThis study contributes to the organizational support and creativity literature by exploring the indirect relations of rewards on employee creativity through organizational support for innovation, and the moderating role of supervisory support in such relations.

20.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22270405

ABSTRACT

IntroductionThe willingness of Africas population to take the COVID-19 vaccines is critical to the efficiency of national immunisation programmes. This study surveys the views of adult African inhabitants toward vaccination and the possibility of participating or not participating in governments efforts to get citizens vaccinated. MethodA cross-sectional online survey of adult Africans was undertaken from December 2020 to March 2021. Responses were anonymised. The Pearson Chi-square test was performed to determine whether or not there were any variations in knowledge, awareness, perception and acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccines among the participants. Binomial logistic regression was used to evaluate the factors associated with willingness to accept COVID-19 vaccines and participate in immunisation programmes. ResultsThe results indicate that COVID-19 vaccines are more likely to be used by adult Africans over the age of 18 who are largely technologically savvy (55 percent) if the vaccine is made broadly available. A total of 33 percent of those who responded said they were unlikely to receive the vaccine, with another 15 percent stating they were undecided. Aside from that, we found that vaccine hesitancy was closely associated with socio-demographic characteristics such as age, gender, education and source of information. We also found that there were widespread conspiracies and myths about the COVID-19 vaccines. ConclusionMore than two-thirds of African adults who participated in the survey indicated they would not receive the COVID-19 vaccine, with majority of them expressing skepticisms about the vaccines efficacy. It is possible that many of the people who would not be vaccinated would have an impact on the implementation of a COVID-19 immunisation programme that is meant for all of society. Majority of the respondents were unwilling to pay for the COVID-19 vaccines when made available. An awareness campaign should be focused on promoting the benefits of vaccination at the individual and population levels, as well as on taking preemptive actions to debunk misconceptions about the vaccines before they become further widespread.

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