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1.
EJHaem ; 2(4): 848-853, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35845220

ABSTRACT

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is an opportunistic brain infection with few treatment options and poor survival when reversal of the underlying immune dysfunction is not achievable. JC polyomavirus reactivation resulting in PML can rarely complicate chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy. We describe successful treatment of PML with Programmed death-1 (PD-1) blockade using pembrolizumab, 4 months following axicabtagene ciloleucel. Radiological features of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome without clinical deterioration were seen. Evidence of anti-viral immune reconstitution by in vitro detection of JC-specific T-cells and sustained neurological recovery in this patient suggest PD-1 blockade may be an effective treatment approach for PML post-CAR-T.

6.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(8): 682.e1-682.e12, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962069

ABSTRACT

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load monitoring after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) enables earlier detection of EBV replication and often serves as a trigger for preemptive therapies aimed at reducing EBV-related diseases. Our institutional strategy is to treat patients with clinical signs of EBV-related disease accompanied by a rising viral load, rather than to intervene based solely on viral load. This affords an opportunity to study the natural history of EBV replication and to assess whether our strategy reduces overtreatment without compromising outcomes. The objectives of the present study were to assess the natural history of untreated EBV replication in patients who underwent an alemtuzumab-based allogeneic HSCT and to examine whether our clinical strategy reduced overtreatment without compromising patient outcomes. In this retrospective single-center observational study of 515 consecutive patients (age ≥18 years) undergoing T cell-depleted allogeneic HSCT incorporating alemtuzumab, patients underwent surveillance monitoring for EBV by quantitative PCR in the peripheral blood at least weekly up to 100 days post-transplantation and longer if they remained on immunosuppressive therapy. The cumulative incidence of EBV detection and EBV-related disease were assessed. Among the 515 patients, 192 had EBV DNA detectable on ≥1 occasion, with a cumulative incidence of 35.8% (31.8% to 40.4%), although this remained below the limit of quantification in 93 patients. The median time to first detection was 89.5 days (range, 0 to 2254 days). The incidence was higher in recipients of sibling donor transplants (45.4% versus 30%; P = .00021) compared with recipients of unrelated donor transplants. Twenty patients developed EBV-related disease (cumulative incidence, 3.9%). Two patients had immunosuppression reduction alone, 18 received rituximab, and 5 required additional therapies. Five patients died from post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder, all of whom had received rituximab. The positive predictive value of EBV load for disease was higher in the unrelated donor cohort but remained <75% regardless of EBV threshold (57.1% to 72.7%). The cumulative incidence of EBV-related disease in our study (3.9%) is comparable to that reported in other studies incorporating alemtuzumab, and our clinical strategy reduced overtreatment in this patient population. PCR-based surveillance strategies have limitations, as reflected in the relatively low sensitivity of the assay coupled with the low positive predictive value, which may influence the potential choice of a threshold for preemptive intervention. We conclude that it remains unclear whether treatment based on a rising EBV viral load alone provides superior overall results to treatment based on the development of clinical signs of EBV-related disease in the context of a rising viral load.


Subject(s)
Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Adolescent , Alemtuzumab/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/drug therapy , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Transplantation, Homologous , Viral Load
7.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(9): 1246-1256, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857406

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emergence of variants with specific mutations in key epitopes in the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 raises concerns pertinent to mass vaccination campaigns and use of monoclonal antibodies. We aimed to describe the emergence of the B.1.1.7 variant of concern (VOC), including virological characteristics and clinical severity in contemporaneous patients with and without the variant. METHODS: In this cohort study, samples positive for SARS-CoV-2 on PCR that were collected from Nov 9, 2020, for patients acutely admitted to one of two hospitals on or before Dec 20, 2020, in London, UK, were sequenced and analysed for the presence of VOC-defining mutations. We fitted Poisson regression models to investigate the association between B.1.1.7 infection and severe disease (defined as point 6 or higher on the WHO ordinal scale within 14 days of symptoms or positive test) and death within 28 days of a positive test and did supplementary genomic analyses in a cohort of chronically shedding patients and in a cohort of remdesivir-treated patients. Viral load was compared by proxy, using PCR cycle threshold values and sequencing read depths. FINDINGS: Of 496 patients with samples positive for SARS-CoV-2 on PCR and who met inclusion criteria, 341 had samples that could be sequenced. 198 (58%) of 341 had B.1.1.7 infection and 143 (42%) had non-B.1.1.7 infection. We found no evidence of an association between severe disease and death and lineage (B.1.1.7 vs non-B.1.1.7) in unadjusted analyses (prevalence ratio [PR] 0·97 [95% CI 0·72-1·31]), or in analyses adjusted for hospital, sex, age, comorbidities, and ethnicity (adjusted PR 1·02 [0·76-1·38]). We detected no B.1.1.7 VOC-defining mutations in 123 chronically shedding immunocompromised patients or in 32 remdesivir-treated patients. Viral load by proxy was higher in B.1.1.7 samples than in non-B.1.1.7 samples, as measured by cycle threshold value (mean 28·8 [SD 4·7] vs 32·0 [4·8]; p=0·0085) and genomic read depth (1280 [1004] vs 831 [682]; p=0·0011). INTERPRETATION: Emerging evidence exists of increased transmissibility of B.1.1.7, and we found increased virus load by proxy for B.1.1.7 in our data. We did not identify an association of the variant with severe disease in this hospitalised cohort. FUNDING: University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, University College London/University College London Hospitals NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Whole Genome Sequencing , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , London , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , United Kingdom , Viral Load , Virus Shedding
9.
Science ; 370(6522): 1339-1343, 2020 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159009

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic introduction of novel coronaviruses may encounter preexisting immunity in humans. Using diverse assays for antibodies recognizing SARS-CoV-2 proteins, we detected preexisting humoral immunity. SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (S)-reactive antibodies were detectable using a flow cytometry-based method in SARS-CoV-2-uninfected individuals and were particularly prevalent in children and adolescents. They were predominantly of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) class and targeted the S2 subunit. By contrast, SARS-CoV-2 infection induced higher titers of SARS-CoV-2 S-reactive IgG antibodies targeting both the S1 and S2 subunits, and concomitant IgM and IgA antibodies, lasting throughout the observation period. SARS-CoV-2-uninfected donor sera exhibited specific neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-2 S pseudotypes. Distinguishing preexisting and de novo immunity will be critical for our understanding of susceptibility to and the natural course of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , COVID-19/blood , Epitope Mapping , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Viral Zoonoses/blood , Viral Zoonoses/immunology , Young Adult
11.
Br J Haematol ; 191(2): 194-206, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678948

ABSTRACT

Haematology patients receiving chemo- or immunotherapy are considered to be at greater risk of COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality. We aimed to identify risk factors for COVID-19 severity and assess outcomes in patients where COVID-19 complicated the treatment of their haematological disorder. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 55 patients with haematological disorders and COVID-19, including 52 with malignancy, two with bone marrow failure and one immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). COVID-19 diagnosis coincided with a new diagnosis of a haematological malignancy in four patients. Among patients, 82% were on systemic anti-cancer therapy (SACT) at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis. Of hospitalised patients, 37% (19/51) died while all four outpatients recovered. Risk factors for severe disease or mortality were similar to those in other published cohorts. Raised C-reactive protein at diagnosis predicted an aggressive clinical course. The majority of patients recovered from COVID-19, despite receiving recent SACT. This suggests that SACT, where urgent, should be administered despite intercurrent COVID-19 infection, which should be managed according to standard pathways. Delay or modification of therapy should be considered on an individual basis. Long-term follow-up studies in larger patient cohorts are required to assess the efficacy of treatment strategies employed during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Diseases/complications , Immunotherapy , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Cross Infection/complications , Female , Hematologic Diseases/drug therapy , Hematologic Diseases/mortality , Hematologic Diseases/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Leukemia/complications , Leukemia/drug therapy , Leukemia/mortality , London/epidemiology , Lymphoma/complications , Lymphoma/drug therapy , Lymphoma/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
13.
Clin Linguist Phon ; 33(10-11): 885-898, 2019.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379215

ABSTRACT

Generative phonologists use contrastive minimal pairs to determine functional phonological units in a language. This technique has been extended for clinical purposes to derive phonemic inventories for children with phonological disorder, providing a qualitative analysis of a given child's phonological system that is useful for assessment, treatment, and progress monitoring. In this study, we examine the single-word productions of 275 children with phonological disorder from the Learnability Project (Gierut, 2015b) to confirm the relationship between phonemic inventory - a measure of phonological knowledge - and consonant accuracy - a quantitative, relational measure that directly compares a child's phonological productions to the target (i.e. adult-like) form. Further, we identify potential percentage accuracy cutoff scores that reliably classify sounds as in or out of a child's phonemic inventory in speech-sound probes of varying length. Our findings indicate that the phonemic function of up to 90% of English consonants can be identified from percentage accuracy for preschool-age children with phonological disorder when a sufficiently large and thorough speech sample is used.


Subject(s)
Language Tests , Speech Production Measurement , Speech Sound Disorder , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Midwestern United States , Phonetics , Speech Sound Disorder/diagnosis , Speech Sound Disorder/therapy
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