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1.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725877

ABSTRACT

While the detrimental effects of a chronic positive energy balance due to a sedentary lifestyle have been well established, the impacts of a short period of abruptly reduced physical activity and overeating arising from strict confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic will soon start to emerge. To reasonably anticipate major consequences according to the available evidence, we hereby review the literature for studies that have explored the health impacts of several weeks of a reduction in physical activity and daily step-count combined with modified eating habits. These studies identify as main metabolic consequences increases in insulin resistance, total body fat, abdominal fat and inflammatory cytokines. All these factors have been strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome, which in turn increases the risk of multiple chronic diseases. A plausible mechanism involved in these impacts could be a positive energy balance promoted by maintaining usual dietary intake while reducing energy expenditure. This means that just as calorie intake restriction could help mitigate the deleterious impacts of a bout of physical inactivity, overeating under conditions of home confinement is very likely to exacerbate these consequences. Moreover, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease have been identified as potential risk factors for more severely ill patients with COVID-19. Thus, adequate control of metabolic disorders could be important to reduce the risk of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diet/adverse effects , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine , Sedentary Behavior , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Confined Spaces , Diet/methods , Energy Intake , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Metabolic Syndrome/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310426

ABSTRACT

Background. Although the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemics is directly contributing to derange global health and fitness, the restrictive measures applied for containing the outbreaks are also impacting detection and management of many diseases, including cancers. This study aimed to establish if and how the COVID-19 outbreak may have impacted the practice of routine prostate cancer screening in Verona, Italy.Methods. We searched the laboratory information system of the Service of Laboratory Medicine of the University Hospitals of Verona to identify all test requests for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and vitamin D (Vit D;i.e., the most locally requested immunochemical test) for outpatients during the last five years (December 10, 2016, to December 10, 2020). The weekly requests for these tests placed between February 25 and December 9, 2020, was compared to those placed during the period of the previous four years (i.e., 2016-2019).Results. The volume of test requests for both Vit D and PSA did not differ in 2020 compared to the previous four years. However, a dramatic decline was observed during the local lockdown period (between March 10 and May 17, 2020), with a median decrease of 76% for Vit D and 62% for PSA, respectively. This reduction was compensated by 13% increase for Vit D and 43% increase for PSA in the post-lockdown period. Conclusion. These results show that the lockdown period established during the first peak of the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy’s Verona province was associated with a dramatic decrease in routine prostate cancer screening.

3.
AME Case Rep ; 5: 35, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1529062

ABSTRACT

Myocarditis is among the causes of arrhythmic sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young athletes, with viral infection being the most common cause worldwide. Myocarditis recently has been reported as one of the cardiac complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in athletes. Here we present a case of a 20-year-old male recreational soccer player with an episode of loss of consciousness in the context of respiratory infection. The patient reports having woken up with symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection, and after playing a soccer match, he developed dizziness and a headache. He then suffered vasovagal syncope without loss of sphincter control. Physical examination, heart auscultation, peripheral and carotid pulses, and blood, microbiological/serological tests result on admission were normal. Moreover, no jugular engorgement at 45º, malleolar edema, or other heart failure signs were found. The 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, 24-hour Holter-ECG did not reveal any significant finding. A cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) was finally performed, revealing an abnormal signal increase was observed at the apical level in the short-tau inversion-recovery (STIR) and 4-chamber sequences. In addition, a pattern of apical fibrosis was observed in 4- and 2-chamber and short-axis late enhancement sequences for assessment of myocardial viability confirming the diagnosis of myocarditis. In athletes with suspected myocarditis, CMR seems to be a useful diagnostic tool, with excellent sensitivity for detecting inflammation, myocardial edema, and/or focal scarring.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480774

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic may lead to a significant decrease in physical activity, an increase in sedentary behavior, and thus also such things as screen time or a change in health behavior patterns. The survey aimed to compare levels of physical activity, screen time, hours spent sitting and sleeping time among Polish children aged 3-5 years of age before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We identified 3000 respondents under five years of age, at Polish kindergartens. The questionnaire consists of 62 questions according to the recommendations of health behavior in school-aged children. The questionnaire was completed by the parents of these children. RESULTS: Only 30.77% of children complied with WHO criteria before the pandemic. During the pandemic, the percentage of children meeting the recommendations for physical activity decreased even more. Children spent much more time in a sitting position before the restrictions. The children slept as recommended 10-13 h a day, and the pandemic caused an increase in sleep duration of 10-18%. Most children had a limited time allowed for the use of electronic devices already before the pandemic, but during the pandemic the results negatively decreased by 71.54%. CONCLUSIONS: The results clearly indicate decreased physical activity and increased screen time. It is also crucial to develop recommendations for prevention management strategies of sedentary lifestyles in the youngest group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Cohort Studies , Exercise , Humans , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Screen Time , Sedentary Behavior , Sleep , World Health Organization
5.
Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim (Engl Ed) ; 2021 Aug 05.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461812
6.
Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab ; 16(6): 271-272, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409073
8.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(9): e14085, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354484

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Clin Pathol ; 2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166552

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 triggers cell damage and necrosis are yet to be fully elucidated. We sought to quantify epithelial cell death in patients with COVID-19, with an estimation of relative contributions of apoptosis and necrosis. METHODS: Blood samples were collected prospectively from adult patients presenting to the emergency department. Circulating levels of caspase-cleaved (apoptosis) and total cytokeratin 18 (CK-18) (total cell death) were determined using M30 and M65 enzyme assays, respectively. Intact CK-18 (necrosis) was estimated by subtracting M30 levels from M65. RESULTS: A total of 52 COVID-19 patients and 27 matched sick controls (with respiratory symptoms not due to COVID-19) were enrolled. Compared with sick controls, COVID-19 patients had higher levels of M65 (p = 0.046, total cell death) and M30 (p = 0.0079, apoptosis). Hospitalised COVID-19 patients had higher levels of M65 (p= 0.014) and intact CK-18 (p= 0.004, necrosis) than discharged patients. Intensive care unit (ICU)-admitted COVID-19 patients had higher levels of M65 (p= 0.004), M30 (p= 0.004) and intact CK-18 (p= 0.033) than hospitalised non-ICU admitted patients. In multivariable logistic regression, elevated levels of M65, M30 and intact CK-18 were associated with increased odds of ICU admission (OR=22.05, p=0.014, OR=19.71, p=0.012 and OR=14.12, p=0.016, respectively). CONCLUSION: Necrosis appears to be the main driver of hospitalisation, whereas apoptosis and necrosis appear to drive ICU admission. Elevated levels CK-18 levels are independent predictors of severe disease, and could be useful for risk stratification of COVID-19 patients and in assessment of therapeutic efficacy in early-phase COVID-19 clinical trials.

14.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(1): 7-9, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065448
15.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(1): 203-217, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065441

ABSTRACT

Patients with the severe form of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been frequently found to suffer from both arterial and venous thrombotic events due to the perpetuation of a hypercoagulable state. This phenomenon, termed COVID-19-associated coagulopathy, is now considered a major component of the pathophysiology of this novel infectious disease, leading to widespread thrombosis. While at first, the vascular insults may be limited to the pulmonary microvasculature, as the disease progresses, systemic involvement occurs, culminating in distant organ thrombosis and multiorgan dysfunction syndrome. In this review article, we discuss recent insights into the pathophysiologic mechanisms of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy and review the clinical, histopathologic, and laboratory evidence, which leads us to conclude that COVID-19 is both a pulmonary and vascular disorder.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 47(4): 392-399, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043516

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has spread rapidly throughout the world, becoming an overwhelming global health emergency. The array of injuries caused by this virus is broad and not limited to the respiratory system, but encompassing also extensive endothelial and systemic tissue damage. Since statins effectively improve endothelial function, these drugs may have beneficial effects in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, this investigation aimed to provide an updated overview on the interplay between statins and COVID-19, with particular focus on their potentially protective role against progression toward severe or critical illness and death. A systematic electronic search was performed in Scopus and PubMed up to present time. Data on statins use and COVID-19 outcomes especially in studies performed in Europe and North America were extracted and pooled. A total of seven studies met our inclusion criteria, totaling 2,398 patients (1,075 taking statins, i.e., 44.8%). Overall, statin usage in Western patients hospitalized with COVID-19 was associated with nearly 40% lower odds of progressing toward severe illness or death (odds ratio: 0.59; 95% confidence interval: 0.35-0.99). After excluding studies in which statin therapy was started during hospital admission, the beneficial effect of these drugs was magnified (odds ratio: 0.51; 95% confidence interval: 0.41-0.64). In conclusion, although randomized trials would be necessary to confirm these preliminary findings, current evidence would support a favorable effect of statins as adjuvant therapy in patients with COVID-19. Irrespective of these considerations, suspension of statin therapy seems highly unadvisable in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , United States/epidemiology
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