Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 27
Filter
1.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(1): 69-82.e10, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638702

ABSTRACT

A fraction of COVID-19 convalescent individuals mount a potent antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 with cross-reactivity to SARS-CoV-1. To uncover their humoral response in detail, we performed single B cell analysis from 10 SARS-CoV-2 elite neutralizers. We isolated and analyzed 126 monoclonal antibodies, many of which were sarbecovirus cross-reactive, with some displaying merbecovirus- and embecovirus-reactivity. Several isolated broadly neutralizing antibodies were effective against B.1.1.7, B.1.351, B.1.429, B.1.617, and B.1.617.2 variants and 19 prominent potential escape sites. Furthermore, assembly of 716,806 SARS-CoV-2 sequences predicted emerging escape variants, which were also effectively neutralized. One of these broadly neutralizing potent antibodies, R40-1G8, is a IGHV3-53 RBD-class-1 antibody. Remarkably, cryo-EM analysis revealed that R40-1G8 has a flexible binding mode, targeting both "up" and "down" conformations of the RBD. Given the threat of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, we demonstrate that elite neutralizers are a valuable source for isolating ultrapotent antibody candidates to prevent and treat SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2.
Nature ; 600(7888): 295-301, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626235

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes COVID-19. Given its acute and often self-limiting course, it is likely that components of the innate immune system play a central part in controlling virus replication and determining clinical outcome. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes with notable activity against a broad range of viruses, including RNA viruses1,2. NK cell function may be altered during COVID-19 despite increased representation of NK cells with an activated and adaptive phenotype3,4. Here we show that a decline in viral load in COVID-19 correlates with NK cell status and that NK cells can control SARS-CoV-2 replication by recognizing infected target cells. In severe COVID-19, NK cells show defects in virus control, cytokine production and cell-mediated cytotoxicity despite high expression of cytotoxic effector molecules. Single-cell RNA sequencing of NK cells over the time course of the COVID-19 disease spectrum reveals a distinct gene expression signature. Transcriptional networks of interferon-driven NK cell activation are superimposed by a dominant transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß) response signature, with reduced expression of genes related to cell-cell adhesion, granule exocytosis and cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In severe COVID-19, serum levels of TGFß peak during the first two weeks of infection, and serum obtained from these patients severely inhibits NK cell function in a TGFß-dependent manner. Our data reveal that an untimely production of TGFß is a hallmark of severe COVID-19 and may inhibit NK cell function and early control of the virus.

3.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(11): 1255-1265, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594095

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heterologous vaccine regimens have been widely discussed as a way to mitigate intermittent supply shortages and to improve immunogenicity and safety of COVID-19 vaccines. We aimed to assess the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of heterologous immunisations with ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (AstraZeneca, Cambridge, UK) and BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNtech, Mainz, Germany) compared with homologous BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCov-19 immunisation. METHODS: This is an interim analysis of a prospective observational cohort study enrolling health-care workers in Berlin (Germany) who received either homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 or heterologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 vaccination with a 10-12-week vaccine interval or homologous BNT162b2 vaccination with a 3-week vaccine interval. We assessed reactogenicity after the first and second vaccination by use of electronic questionnaires on days 1, 3, 5, and 7. Immunogenicity was measured by the presence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies (full spike-IgG, S1-IgG, and RBD-IgG), by an RBD-ACE2 binding inhibition assay (surrogate SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralisation test), a pseudovirus neutralisation assay against two variants of concerns (alpha [B.1.1.7] and beta [B.1.351]), and anti-S1-IgG avidity. T-cell reactivity was measured by IFN-γ release assay. FINDINGS: Between Dec 27, 2020, and June 14, 2021, 380 participants were enrolled in the study, with 174 receiving homologous BNT162b2 vaccination, 38 receiving homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination, and 104 receiving ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 vaccination. Systemic symptoms were reported by 103 (65%, 95% CI 57·1-71·8) of 159 recipients of homologous BNT162b2, 14 (39%, 24·8-55·1) of 36 recipients of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19, and 51 (49%, 39·6-58·5) of 104 recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 after the booster immunisation. Median anti-RBD IgG levels 3 weeks after boost immunisation were 5·4 signal to cutoff ratio (S/co; IQR 4·8-5·9) in recipients of homologous BNT162b2, 4·9 S/co (4·3-5·6) in recipients of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19, and 5·6 S/co (5·1-6·1) in recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19- BNT162b2. Geometric mean of 50% inhibitory dose against alpha and beta variants were highest in recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 (956·6, 95% CI 835·6-1095, against alpha and 417·1, 349·3-498·2, against beta) compared with those in recipients of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (212·5, 131·2-344·4, against alpha and 48·5, 28·4-82·8, against beta; both p<0·0001) or homologous BNT162b2 (369·2, 310·7-438·6, against alpha and 72·4, 60·5-86·5, against beta; both p<0·0001). SARS-CoV-2 S1 T-cell reactivity 3 weeks after boost immunisation was highest in recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 (median IFN-γ concentration 4762 mIU/mL, IQR 2723-8403) compared with that in recipients of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (1061 mIU/mL, 599-2274, p<0·0001) and homologous BNT162b2 (2026 mIU/mL, 1459-4621, p=0·0008) vaccination. INTERPRETATION: The heterologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 immunisation with 10-12-week interval, recommended in Germany, is well tolerated and improves immunogenicity compared with homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination with 10-12-week interval and BNT162b2 vaccination with 3-week interval. Heterologous prime-boost immunisation strategies for COVID-19 might be generally applicable. FUNDING: Forschungsnetzwerk der Universitätsmedizin zu COVID-19, the German Ministry of Education and Research, Zalando SE.

4.
BMC Rheumatol ; 5(1): 60, 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581974

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is an autoinflammatory multi-systemic syndrome. Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a potentially life-threatening complication of AOSD with a mortality rate of 10-20%. Especially viral infection is thought to be a common trigger for development of MAS. On the other hand, the occurrence of MAS following vaccinations is extremely rare and has been described in a few cases after measles or influenza vaccinations and more recently after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (COVID-19 viral vector vaccine, Oxford-AZ). CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a twenty-year-old female with adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD), who developed a MAS six days after receiving her first COVID-19 vaccine dose of BNT162b2 (mRNA vaccine, BioNTech/Pfizer) with ferritin levels of 136,680 µg/l (ref.: 13-150 µg/l). CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of development of MAS in a patient with preexisting AOSD after vaccination in general, and SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in particular. The new mRNA vaccines have generally shown a reassuring safety profile, but it has been shown that nucleic acids in general, including mRNA can act as pathogen-associated molecular patterns that activate toll-like receptors with extensive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and further activation of immune cells. Proving an interferon 1 response in our patient directly after vaccination, we think that in this particular case the vaccination might have acted as trigger for the development of MAS. Even if it remains difficult to establish causality in the case of rare adverse events, especially in patients with autoimmune or autoinflammatory conditions, these complications are important to monitor and register, but do not at all diminish the overwhelming positive benefit-risk ratio of licensed COVID-19 vaccines.

5.
Preprint | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296695

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 is causing a rapid increase in infections in various countries. This new variant of concern carries an unusually high number of mutations in key epitopes of neutralizing antibodies on the spike glycoprotein, suggesting potential immune evasion. Here we assessed serum neutralizing capacity in longitudinal cohorts of vaccinated and convalescent individuals, as well as monoclonal antibody activity against Omicron using pseudovirus neutralization assays. We report a near-complete lack of neutralizing activity against Omicron in polyclonal sera after two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine, in convalescent individuals, as well as resistance to different monoclonal antibodies in clinical use. However, mRNA booster immunizations in vaccinated and convalescent individuals resulted in a significant increase of serum neutralizing activity against Omicron. Our study demonstrates that booster immunizations will be critical to substantially improve the humoral immune response against the Omicron variant.

6.
Respir Med ; 191: 106709, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556145

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Prospective and longitudinal data on pulmonary injury over one year after acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are sparse. We aim to determine reductions in pulmonary function and respiratory related quality of life up to 12 months after acute COVID-19. METHODS: Patients with acute COVID-19 were enrolled into an ongoing single-centre, prospective observational study and prospectively examined 6 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months after onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Chest CT-scans, pulmonary function and symptoms assessed by St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire were used to evaluate respiratory limitations. Patients were stratified according to severity of acute COVID-19. RESULTS: Median age of all patients was 57 years, 37.8% were female. Higher age, male sex and higher BMI were associated with acute-COVID-19 severity (p < 0.0001, 0.001 and 0.004 respectively). Also, pulmonary restriction and reduced carbon monoxide diffusion capacity was associated with disease severity. In patients with restriction and impaired diffusion capacity, FVC improved over 12 months from 61.32 to 71.82, TLC from 68.92 to 76.95, DLCO from 60.18 to 68.98 and KCO from 81.28 to 87.80 (percent predicted values; p = 0.002, 0.045, 0.0002 and 0.0005). The CT-score of lung involvement in the acute phase was associated with restriction and reduction in diffusion capacity in follow-up. Respiratory symptoms improved for patients in higher severity groups during follow-up, but not for patients with initially mild disease. CONCLUSION: Severity of respiratory failure during COVID-19 correlates with the degree of pulmonary function impairment and respiratory quality of life in the year after acute infection.

7.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295758

ABSTRACT

In this position paper, a large group of interdisciplinary experts outlines response strategies against the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the winter of 2021/2022 in Germany. We review the current state of the COVID-19 pandemic, from incidence and vaccination efficacy to hospital capacity. Building on this situation assessment, we illustrate various possible scenarios for the winter, and detail the mechanisms and effectiveness of the non-pharmaceutical interventions, vaccination, and booster. With this assessment, we want to provide orientation for decision makers about the progress and mitigation of COVID-19.

8.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294933

ABSTRACT

Objective to assess reactogenicity and immunogenicity of heterologous prime-boost immunisations of ChAdOx1-nCoV19 (Vaxzevria, ChAdOx) followed by BNT162b2 (Comirnaty, BNT) compared to homologous BNT/BNT immunisation. Design prospective, observational cohort study. Setting unicenter study in a cohort of health care workers at a tertiary care center in Berlin, Germany. Participants 340 health care workers immunised between 27 December 2020 and 21 May 2021 at Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany Main outcome measures the main outcomes were reactogenicity assessed on days one, three, five and seven post prime and boost vaccination, and immunogenicity measured by serum SARS-CoV-2 full spike-, spike S1-, and spike RBD-IgG, virus neutralisation capacity, anti-S1-IgG avidity, and T cell reactivity measured by Interferon gamma release assay at 3-4 weeks post prime and boost immunisation. Results Heterologous ChAdOx/BNT booster vaccination was overall well-tolerated and reactogenicity was largely comparable to homologous BNT/BNT vaccination. Systemic reactions were most frequent after prime immunisation with ChAdOx (86%, 95CI: 79-91), and less frequent after homologous BNT/BNT (65%, 95CI: 56-72), or heterologous ChAdOx/BNT booster vaccination (48%, 95CI: 36-59). Serum antibody responses and T cell reactivity were strongly increased after both homologous and heterologous boost, and immunogenicity was overall robust, and comparable between both regimens in this cohort, with slightly increased S1-IgG avidity and T cell responses following heterologous booster immunisation. Conclusions Evidence of rare thrombotic events associated with ChAdOx has led to recommendation of a heterologous booster with mRNA vaccines for certain age groups in several European countries, despite a lack of robust safety and immunogenicity data for this vaccine regimen. This interim analysis provides evidence that the currently recommended heterologous ChAdOx/BNT immunisation regimen with 10-12 week vaccine intervals is well tolerated and slightly more immunogenic compared to homologous BNT/BNT vaccination with three week vaccine intervals. Heterologous prime-boost immunisation for COVID-19 may be generally applicable to optimise logistics and improve immunogenicity and to mitigate potential intermittent supply shortages for individual vaccines.

10.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524173

ABSTRACT

With the exception of inactivated vaccines, all SARS-CoV-2 vaccines currently used for clinical application focus on the spike envelope glycoprotein as a virus-specific antigen. Compared to other SARS-CoV-2 genes, mutations in the spike protein gene are more rapidly selected and spread within the population, which carries the risk of impairing the efficacy of spike-based vaccines. It is unclear to what extent the loss of neutralizing antibody epitopes can be compensated by cellular immune responses, and whether the use of other SARS-CoV-2 antigens might cause a more diverse immune response and better long-term protection, particularly in light of the continued evolution towards new SARS-CoV-2 variants. To address this question, we explored immunogenicity and protective effects of adenoviral vectors encoding either the full-length spike protein (S), the nucleocapsid protein (N), the receptor binding domain (RBD) or a hybrid construct of RBD and the membrane protein (M) in a highly susceptible COVID-19 hamster model. All adenoviral vaccines provided life-saving protection against SARS-CoV-2-infection. The most efficient protection was achieved after exposure to full-length spike. However, the nucleocapsid protein, which triggered a robust T-cell response but did not facilitate the formation of neutralizing antibodies, controlled early virus replication efficiently and prevented severe pneumonia. Although the full-length spike protein is an excellent target for vaccines, it does not appear to be the only option for future vaccine design.

11.
Nature ; 600(7888): 295-301, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483137

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes COVID-19. Given its acute and often self-limiting course, it is likely that components of the innate immune system play a central part in controlling virus replication and determining clinical outcome. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes with notable activity against a broad range of viruses, including RNA viruses1,2. NK cell function may be altered during COVID-19 despite increased representation of NK cells with an activated and adaptive phenotype3,4. Here we show that a decline in viral load in COVID-19 correlates with NK cell status and that NK cells can control SARS-CoV-2 replication by recognizing infected target cells. In severe COVID-19, NK cells show defects in virus control, cytokine production and cell-mediated cytotoxicity despite high expression of cytotoxic effector molecules. Single-cell RNA sequencing of NK cells over the time course of the COVID-19 disease spectrum reveals a distinct gene expression signature. Transcriptional networks of interferon-driven NK cell activation are superimposed by a dominant transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß) response signature, with reduced expression of genes related to cell-cell adhesion, granule exocytosis and cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In severe COVID-19, serum levels of TGFß peak during the first two weeks of infection, and serum obtained from these patients severely inhibits NK cell function in a TGFß-dependent manner. Our data reveal that an untimely production of TGFß is a hallmark of severe COVID-19 and may inhibit NK cell function and early control of the virus.

13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 690698, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317227

ABSTRACT

Patients with kidney failure have notoriously weak responses to common vaccines. Thus, immunogenicity of novel SARS-CoV-2 vaccines might be impaired in this group. To determine immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with chronic dialysis, we analyzed the humoral and T-cell response after two doses of mRNA vaccine Tozinameran (BNT162b2 BioNTech/Pfizer). This observational study included 43 patients on dialysis before vaccination with two doses of Tozinameran 21 days apart. Overall, 36 patients completed the observation period until three weeks after the second dose and 32 patients were further analyzed at week 10. Serum samples were analyzed by SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG and IgA antibodies ~1, ~3-4 and ~10 weeks after the second vaccination. In addition, SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses were assessed at ~3-4 weeks by an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). Antibody and T cell outcomes at this timepoint were compared to a group of 44 elderly patients not on dialysis, after immunization with Tozinameran. Median age of patients on chronic dialysis was 74.0 years (IQR 66.0, 82.0). The proportion of males was higher (69.4%) than females. Only 20/36 patients (55.6%, 95%CI: 38.29-71.67) developed SARS-CoV-2-IgG antibodies at the first sampling, whereas 32/36 patients (88.9%, 95%CI: 73.00-96.38) demonstrated IgG detection at the second sampling. In a longitudinal follow-up at ~10 weeks after the second dose, the proportion of dialysis patients reactive for anti-SARS-CoV-2-IgG decreased to 27/32 (84.37%, 95%CI: 66.46-94.10) The proportion of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgA decreased from 33/36 (91.67%; 95%CI: 76.41-97.82) at weeks 3-4 down to 19/32 (59.38; 95%CI: 40.79-75.78). Compared to a cohort of vaccinees with similar age but not on chronic dialysis seroconversion rates and antibody titers were significantly lower. SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses 3 weeks after second vaccination were detected in 21/31 vaccinated dialysis patients (67.7%, 95%CI: 48.53-82.68) compared to 42/44 (93.3%, 95%CI: 76.49-98.84) in controls of similar age. Patients on dialysis demonstrate a delayed, but robust immune response three to four weeks after the second dose, which indicates effective vaccination of this vulnerable group. However, the lower immunogenicity of Tozinameran in these patients needs further attention to develop potential countermeasures such as an additional booster vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(8): 2174-2178, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261342

ABSTRACT

We detected delayed and reduced antibody and T-cell responses after BNT162b2 vaccination in 71 elderly persons (median age 81 years) compared with 123 healthcare workers (median age 34 years) in Germany. These data emphasize that nonpharmaceutical interventions for coronavirus disease remain crucial and that additional immunizations for the elderly might become necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Vaccines , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Vaccination
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(8): 2169-2173, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261341

ABSTRACT

One week after second vaccinations were administered, an outbreak of B.1.1.7 lineage severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections occurred in a long-term care facility in Berlin, Germany, affecting 16/20 vaccinated and 4/4 unvaccinated residents. Despite considerable viral loads, vaccinated residents experienced mild symptoms and faster time to negative test results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Berlin , Disease Outbreaks , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Long-Term Care , Vaccination
16.
Science ; 373(6551)2021 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243685

ABSTRACT

Two elementary parameters for quantifying viral infection and shedding are viral load and whether samples yield a replicating virus isolate in cell culture. We examined 25,381 cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Germany, including 6110 from test centers attended by presymptomatic, asymptomatic, and mildly symptomatic (PAMS) subjects, 9519 who were hospitalized, and 1533 B.1.1.7 lineage infections. The viral load of the youngest subjects was lower than that of the older subjects by 0.5 (or fewer) log10 units, and they displayed an estimated ~78% of the peak cell culture replication probability; in part this was due to smaller swab sizes and unlikely to be clinically relevant. Viral loads above 109 copies per swab were found in 8% of subjects, one-third of whom were PAMS, with a mean age of 37.6 years. We estimate 4.3 days from onset of shedding to peak viral load (108.1 RNA copies per swab) and peak cell culture isolation probability (0.75). B.1.1.7 subjects had mean log10 viral load 1.05 higher than that of non-B.1.1.7 subjects, and the estimated cell culture replication probability of B.1.1.7 subjects was higher by a factor of 2.6.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Caco-2 Cells , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Germany , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Probability , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Load , Virus Replication , Virus Shedding , Young Adult
17.
J Clin Med ; 10(9)2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224034

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: To evaluate time-dependent right ventricular (RV) performance in patients with COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) undergoing intensive care (ICU) treatment. (2) Methods: This prospective observational study included 21 ICU patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS in a university hospital in 2020 (first wave). Patients were evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography at an early (EE) and late (LE) stage of disease. Echocardiographic parameters describing RV size and function as well as RV size in correlation to PaO2/FiO2 ratio were assessed in survivors and nonsurvivors. (3) Results: Echocardiographic RV parameters were within normal range and not significantly different between EE and LE. Comparing survivors and nonsurvivors revealed no differences in RV performance at EE. Linear regression analysis did not show a correlation between RV size and PaO2/FiO2 ratio over all measurements. Analysing EE and LE separately showed a significant increase in RV size correlated to a lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio at a later stage of COVID-19 ARDS. (4) Conclusion: The present study reveals neither a severe RV dilatation nor an impairment of systolic RV function during the initial course of COVID-19-associated ARDS. A trend towards an increase in RV size in correlation with ARDS severity in the second week after ICU admission was observed.

18.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(11): 1891-1902, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209196

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Viral-induced cardiac inflammation can induce heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF)-like syndromes. COVID-19 can lead to myocardial damage and vascular injury. We hypothesised that COVID-19 patients frequently develop a HFpEF-like syndrome, and designed this study to explore this. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cardiac function was assessed in 64 consecutive, hospitalized, and clinically stable COVID-19 patients from April-November 2020 with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥50% (age 56 ± 19 years, females: 31%, severe COVID-19 disease: 69%). To investigate likelihood of HFpEF presence, we used the HFA-PEFF score. A low (0-1 points), intermediate (2-4 points), and high (5-6 points) HFA-PEFF score was observed in 42%, 33%, and 25% of patients, respectively. In comparison, 64 subjects of similar age, sex, and comorbidity status without COVID-19 showed these scores in 30%, 66%, and 4%, respectively (between groups: P = 0.0002). High HFA-PEFF scores were more frequent in COVID-19 patients than controls (25% vs. 4%, P = 0.001). In COVID-19 patients, the HFA-PEFF score significantly correlated with age, estimated glomerular filtration rate, high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT), haemoglobin, QTc interval, LVEF, mitral E/A ratio, and H2 FPEF score (all P < 0.05). In multivariate, ordinal regression analyses, higher age and hsTnT were significant predictors of increased HFA-PEFF scores. Patients with myocardial injury (hsTnT ≥14 ng/L: 31%) vs. patients without myocardial injury, showed higher HFA-PEFF scores [median 5 (interquartile range 3-6) vs. 1 (0-3), P < 0.001] and more often showed left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (75% vs. 27%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients frequently show high likelihood of presence of HFpEF that is associated with cardiac structural and functional alterations, and myocardial injury. Detailed cardiac assessments including echocardiographic determination of left ventricular diastolic function and biomarkers should become routine in the care of hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

19.
Nat Biotechnol ; 39(7): 846-854, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152861

ABSTRACT

Accurate quantification of the proteome remains challenging for large sample series and longitudinal experiments. We report a data-independent acquisition method, Scanning SWATH, that accelerates mass spectrometric (MS) duty cycles, yielding quantitative proteomes in combination with short gradients and high-flow (800 µl min-1) chromatography. Exploiting a continuous movement of the precursor isolation window to assign precursor masses to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) fragment traces, Scanning SWATH increases precursor identifications by ~70% compared to conventional data-independent acquisition (DIA) methods on 0.5-5-min chromatographic gradients. We demonstrate the application of ultra-fast proteomics in drug mode-of-action screening and plasma proteomics. Scanning SWATH proteomes capture the mode of action of fungistatic azoles and statins. Moreover, we confirm 43 and identify 11 new plasma proteome biomarkers of COVID-19 severity, advancing patient classification and biomarker discovery. Thus, our results demonstrate a substantial acceleration and increased depth in fast proteomic experiments that facilitate proteomic drug screens and clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Proteomics/methods , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Arabidopsis/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cell Line , Humans , Peptides/analysis , Proteome/analysis , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Front Immunol ; 11: 628971, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083815

ABSTRACT

Clinical trials on the use of COVID-19 convalescent plasma remain inconclusive. While data on safety is increasingly available, evidence for efficacy is still sparse. Subgroup analyses hint to a dose-response relationship between convalescent plasma neutralizing antibody levels and mortality. In particular, patients with primary and secondary antibody deficiency might benefit from this approach. However, testing of neutralizing antibodies is limited to specialized biosafety level 3 laboratories and is a time- and labor-intense procedure. In this single center study of 206 COVID-19 convalescent patients, clinical data, results of commercially available ELISA testing of SARS-CoV-2 spike-IgG and -IgA, and levels of neutralizing antibodies, determined by plaque reduction neutralization testing (PRNT), were analyzed. At a medium time point of 58 days after symptom onset, only 12.6% of potential plasma donors showed high levels of neutralizing antibodies (PRNT50 ≥ 1:320). Multivariable proportional odds logistic regression analysis revealed need for hospitalization due to COVID-19 (odds ratio 6.87; p-value 0.0004) and fever (odds ratio 3.00; p-value 0.0001) as leading factors affecting levels of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody titers in convalescent plasma donors. Using penalized estimation, a predictive proportional odds logistic regression model including the most important variables hospitalization, fever, age, sex, and anosmia or dysgeusia was developed. The predictive discrimination for PRNT50 ≥ 1:320 was reasonably good with AUC: 0.86 (with 95% CI: 0.79-0.92). Combining clinical and ELISA-based pre-screening, assessment of neutralizing antibodies could be spared in 75% of potential donors with a maximal loss of 10% of true positives (PRNT50 ≥ 1:320).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Blood Donors , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Convalescence , Female , Fever , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...