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1.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 31(2):145, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2313638

ABSTRACT

Background: Limited data exist regarding the immune benefits of fourth COVID-19 vaccine doses in people with HIV (PWH) receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), particularly given that most have now experienced SARS-CoV-2 infection. We measured the effect of fourth doses on SARS-CoV-2 neutralization in 63 PWH, including 19 SARS-CoV-2-naive and 44 SARS-CoV-2-experienced participants. Method(s): Wild-type (WT)-, Omicron-BA.5 and Omicron-BQ.1-specific neutralization activities were longitudinally quantified using live virus assays up to one month post-fourth vaccine dose. Multiple linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between sociodemographic, health and vaccinerelated variables and SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Result(s): Participants (54 male;9 female) received monovalent (44%) or bivalent (56%) mRNA fourth doses. In COVID-19-naive PWH, a fourth dose enhanced WT- and BA.5-specific neutralization modestly above three-dose levels (p=0.1). In COVID-19-experienced PWH, a fourth dose enhanced WT neutralization modestly (p=0.1) and BA.5 neutralization significantly (p=0.002). Consistent with the humoral benefits of 'hybrid' immunity, the highest neutralization was observed in COVID-19-experienced PWH after a fourth dose. Of note, PWH with Omicron-era infections exhibited higher WT-specific (p=0.04), but comparable BA.5- or BQ.1-specific neutralization, compared to PWH with pre-Omicron-era infections. Overall, BA.5 neutralization was significantly lower than WT in all participants regardless of COVID-19 experience, and BQ.1 neutralization was significantly lower than BA.5 (all p< 0.0001). In multivariable analyses, fourth dose valency did not significantly affect neutralization magnitude, nor did sex, age nor CD4+ T-cell count (neither recent nor nadir). Rather, an mRNA-1273 fourth dose (versus a BNT162b2 one) was the strongest correlate of WT-specific neutralization, while prior COVID-19, regardless of infection era, was the strongest correlate of BA.5 and BQ.1-specific neutralization post-fourth dose. Conclusion(s): Fourth COVID-19 vaccine doses, irrespective of valency, benefit PWH regardless of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, but the highest neutralization of Omicron-BA.5 and BQ.1 variants post-fourth dose occurred in PWH with hybrid immunity. These results support existing recommendations that all adults receive a fourth immunization within 6 months of their third vaccine dose (or their most recent SARS-CoV-2 infection). (Figure Presented).

2.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 2023 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Considering the prolongation of the COVID-19 pandemic, the lack of studies on burnout, particularly in healthcare workers, needs to be addressed. This report aimed to identify the risk factors of burnout by comparing the level of burnout between nurses in general wards and those in COVID-19-dedicated wards in a national university hospital. METHODS: A survey based on the Korean version of Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT-K) was conducted on nurses between 10 January and 31 January 2022. The BAT-K consists of exhaustion, mental distance, cognitive impairment, emotional impairment and secondary symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 165 nurses, including 81 nurses from the COVID-19-dedicated ward, completed the questionnaire. The percentage of general-ward nurses with an emotional impairment score above the clinical cutoff was higher than that of COVID-19 ward nurses. General ward compared to the COVID-19 ward increased the risk of presenting with total-core symptoms. Two factors increased the risk regarding mental distance: short career length and underlying disease. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to previous studies, the risk of burnout in the COVID-19-ward nurses was lower than that of the general ward nurses. The risk regarding mental distance was correlated with short career length and presence of an underlying disease.

3.
China Oncology ; 32(6):499-511, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2263392

ABSTRACT

The corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to severely impact healthcare systems around the world, and patients with cancer are even worse affected owing to compromised immune status and greater exposure risk. In the present review, we retrieved the relevant literature including guidelines and consensuses directly related to the purpose of this study from the PubMed database, and then summarized the research data on cancer and COVID-19, aiming to discuss the personal protection, systemic anti-cancer therapy, outcome of co-infection, and the clinical management strategy in this population. We found that patients with malignant tumors had a higher chance of suffering COVID-19, co-infection of whom had an even worse clinical prognosis, especially for those with lung cancer or hematologic cancers. Systemic chemotherapy may delay the clearance of severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus of human body, and thus have a negative impact on the clinical outcomes of COVID-19, while certain endocrine therapy and targeted drugs having limited or no impact. There has been no sufficient evidence for the impact of immune checkpoint therapy on the outcomes of COVID-19 till now. It is of great value to strengthen the personal protection of patients, adjust the anti-tumor treatments rationally and optimize the clinical management processes.Copyright © 2022, Editorial Office of China Oncology. All rights reserved.

4.
Advanced healthcare materials ; : e2202590, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2232696

ABSTRACT

mRNA-based therapy has emerged as the most promising nucleic acid therapy in the fight against COVID-19. However, a safe and efficacious systemic delivery remains a challenge for mRNA therapy. Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are currently widely used in mRNA delivery vehicles. Here, series of ionizable LNPs are rationally designed. YK009-LNP is an optimal delivery platform to carry mRNA. YK009-LNP exhibited higher mRNA delivery efficiency, a more favorable biodistribution pattern, and better safety than the approved MC3-LNP. In addition, mRNA encoding SARS-CoV-2 Omicron receptor binding domain protein was synthesized, and intramuscular administration of mice with YK009-LNP-Omicron mRNA induced a robust immune response and immune protective effect. Our study provides a novel mRNA delivery vehicle with more powerful delivery efficiency and better safety than the approved LNPs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
China Oncology ; 32(6):499-511, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1964893

ABSTRACT

[] The corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to severely impact healthcare systems around the world, and patients with cancer are even worse affected owing to compromised immune status and greater exposure risk. In the present review, we retrieved the relevant literature including guidelines and consensuses directly related to the purpose of this study from the PubMed database, and then summarized the research data on cancer and COVID-19, aiming to discuss the personal protection, systemic anti-cancer therapy, outcome of co-infection, and the clinical management strategy in this population. We found that patients with malignant tumors had a higher chance of suffering COVID-19, co-infection of whom had an even worse clinical prognosis, especially for those with lung cancer or hematologic cancers. Systemic chemotherapy may delay the clearance of severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus of human body, and thus have a negative impact on the clinical outcomes of COVID-19, while certain endocrine therapy and targeted drugs having limited or no impact. There has been no sufficient evidence for the impact of immune checkpoint therapy on the outcomes of COVID-19 till now. It is of great value to strengthen the personal protection of patients, adjust the anti-tumor treatments rationally and optimize the clinical management processes. © 2022, Editorial Office of China Oncology. All rights reserved.

7.
IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP) ; : 1665-1669, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1532683

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we propose a novel super-resolution and infection edge detection co-guided learning network for COVID-19 CT segmentation (CogSeg). Our CogSeg is a coherent framework consisting of two branches. Specifically, we use image super-resolution (SR) as an auxiliary task, which assist segmentation to recover high-resolution representations. Moreover, we propose an infection edge detection guided region mutual information (RMI) loss, which uses the edge detection results of segmentation to explicitly maintain the high order consistency between segmentation prediction and ground truth around infection edge pixels. Our CogSeg network can effectively maintain high-resolution representation and leverages edge details to improve the segmentation performance. When evaluated on two publicly available COVID-19 CT datasets, our CogSeg improves 10.63 and 13.02 points than the established baseline method (i.e. U-Net) w.t.r mIoU. Moreover, our CogSeg achieves more appealing results both quantitatively and qualitatively than the state-of-the-art methods.

8.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(6): 547-558, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998919

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has casted a huge impact on global public health and the economy. In this challenging situation, older people are vulnerable to the infection and the secondary effects of the pandemic and need special attention. To evaluate the impacts of COVID-19 on older people, it is important to balance the successful pandemic control and active management of secondary consequences. These considerations are particularly salient in the Asian context, with its diversity among countries in terms of sociocultural heritage, healthcare setup and availability of resources. Thus, the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia summarized the considerations of Asian countries focusing on responses and difficulties in each country, impacts of health inequity related to the COVID-19 pandemic and proposed recommendations for older people, which are germane to the Asian context. More innovative services should be developed to address the increasing demands for new approaches to deliver healthcare in these difficult times and to establish resilient healthcare systems for older people. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 9999: n/a-n/a.


Subject(s)
Aging/ethnology , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging/physiology , Asia/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Prevalence , Public Health , Risk Assessment , Sarcopenia/diagnosis
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