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1.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 2022 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049596

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to explore the racial disparities in the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), and acute kidney injury (AKI) in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of prospectively collected data of consecutive COVID-19 patients hospitalized from March 11, 2020 to May 27, 2021. The primary outcome measures were the incidence of DVT/PE and mortality. The secondary outcome measures included differences in the length of hospitalization, need for intensive care unit care, readmission, and AKI. Multivariable regression models were used to assess for independent predictors of the primary and secondary outcome measures. RESULTS: The present study included 876 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The mean age was 64.4 ± 16.2 years, and 355 were women (40.5%). Of the 876 patients, 694 (79.2%) had identified as White, 111 (12.7%) as Black/African American, 48 (5.5%) as Asian, and 23 (2.6%) as other. The overall incidence of DVT/PE was 8.7%. The DVT/PE incidence rates differed across the race groups and was highest for Black/African American patients (n = 18; 16.2%), followed by Asian patients (n = 5; 10.4%), White patients (n = 52; 7.5%), and other (n = 1; 4.4%; P = .03). All but one of the hospitalization outcomes examined demonstrated no differences according to race, including the hospitalization stay (P = .33), need for intensive care unit care (P = .20), readmission rates (P = .52), and hospital all-cause mortality (P = .29). The AKI incidence differed among races, affecting a higher proportion of Black/African American patients (P=.003). On multivariable regression analysis, Black/African American race (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-4.0; P = .04) and higher D-dimer levels (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.1-1.2; P < .0001) were predictors of DVT/PE. In addition, Black/African American race (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4-3.7; P = .001), lower hemoglobin levels (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.8-0.9; P ≤ .0001), male sex (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.4; P = .005), hypertension (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4-3.1; P = .0005), and older age (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.006-1.03; P = .003) were predictors of AKI. CONCLUSIONS: In our single-center case series, we found a higher incidence of DVT/PE and AKI among Black/African American patients with COVID-19. Black/African American race and D-dimer levels were independent predictors of DVT/PE, and Black/African American race, hemoglobin, and D-dimer levels were independent predictors of AKI.

2.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e065453, 2022 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038322

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is critical to control the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, but despite the availability of safe and effective vaccine in children over 5 years, vaccination rates remain low. There is paucity of data about vaccine acceptance and factors influencing parents' hesitancy about the COVID-19 vaccine for young children. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To estimate vaccine acceptance by parents of children 6 months through 4 years, and to evaluate the factors influencing vaccine hesitancy. METHODS: Electronic survey was sent to parents of children 6 months through 4 years through an online portal account at Mayo Clinic Health System, Northwest-Wisconsin. Data were captured via Research Electronic Data Capture secured data collection software. Bivariate and multivariate regression was used to determine most pertinent factors influencing parents' decisions against the outcome, 'Intent to Vaccinate'. RESULTS: 39.7% of the parents were 'very likely' or 'somewhat likely' to vaccinate their children once the vaccine became available, while 49.8% were not likely or highly unlikely to vaccinate. Routine childhood vaccination, receiving seasonal influenza vaccine, parents' perception of COVID-19 severity in children and safety and effectiveness of the vaccine were all associated with more vaccine acceptance. 71.4% of parents who will likely not vaccinate their children indicated that they are unlikely to change their decision. The need for more research on the vaccine and more information from the PCP office were the most common reasons behind the vaccine decision-making. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine hesitancy remains a major issue regarding uptake of the upcoming COVID-19 vaccine. Strong and clear evidence-based recommendations from primary care provider and more information from trusted websites such as Centers for Disease Control and Prevention can decrease vaccine hesitancy in parents. Further research targeted at understanding beliefs and perspectives of parents from different demographics can assist policy-makers in implementing measures to improve vaccination rates in children and tailor our dialogue to match the needs of our patients and families.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , Parents , Wisconsin
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008525

ABSTRACT

We characterized COVID-19 breakthrough cases admitted to a single center in Florida. With the emergence of delta variant, an increased number of hospitalizations was seen due to breakthrough infections. These patients were older and more likely to have comorbidities. Preventive measures should be maintained even after vaccination.

4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 120: 88-95, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926522

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern has led to significant phenotypical changes in transmissibility, virulence, and public health measures. Our study used clinical data to compare characteristics between a Delta variant wave and a pre-Delta variant wave of hospitalized patients. METHODS: This single-center retrospective study defined a wave as an increasing number of COVID-19 hospitalizations, which peaked and later decreased. Data from the United States Department of Health and Human Services were used to identify the waves' primary variant. Wave 1 (August 8, 2020-April 1, 2021) was characterized by heterogeneous variants, whereas Wave 2 (June 26, 2021-October 18, 2021) was predominantly the Delta variant. Descriptive statistics, regression techniques, and machine learning approaches supported the comparisons between waves. RESULTS: From the cohort (N = 1318), Wave 2 patients (n = 665) were more likely to be younger, have fewer comorbidities, require more care in the intensive care unit, and show an inflammatory profile with higher C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin, fibrinogen, prothrombin time, activated thromboplastin time, and international normalized ratio compared with Wave 1 patients (n = 653). The gradient boosting model showed an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.854 (sensitivity 86.4%; specificity 61.5%; positive predictive value 73.8%; negative predictive value 78.3%). CONCLUSION: Clinical and laboratory characteristics can be used to estimate the COVID-19 variant regardless of genomic testing availability. This finding has implications for variant-driven treatment protocols and further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 6(5): 409-419, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914806

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the proportion of indeterminate QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus) results in patients admitted for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia and evaluate the factors associated with indeterminate QFT-Plus results. Patients and Methods: Data on COVID-19 admissions at Mayo Clinic in Florida were extracted between October 13, 2020, and September 20, 2021, and data from a prepandemic cohort were extracted between October 13, 2018, and September 20, 2019. A secondary analysis of the COVID-19 cohort was performed using gradient boosting modeling to generate variable importance and SHapley Additive exPlanations plots. Results: Our findings demonstrated more indeterminate QFT-Plus test results in patients hospitalized for severe COVID-19 infection than in patients without COVID-19 (139 of 495, 28.1%). The factors associated with indeterminate QFT-Plus test results included elevated levels of C-reactive protein, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase and interleukin-6 and included lower levels of leukocyte, lymphocyte, and platelet counts. Conclusion: The patients with severe COVID-19 had a higher likelihood of indeterminate QFT-Plus results, which were associated with elevated levels of inflammatory markers consistent with severe infection. Interferon-gamma release assay screening tests are likely confounded by COVID-19 infection itself, limiting the screening ability for latent tuberculosis infection reactivation. Indeterminate QFT-Plus results may also require follow-up QFT-Plus testing after patient recovery from COVID-19, increasing the cost and complexity of medical decision making and management. Additional risk assessments may be needed in this patient population for screening for latent tuberculosis infection in patients with severe COVID-19.

6.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 10(4): 939-944.e3, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899997

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Recent studies have characterized racial disparities in the incidence of VTE. The aim of our study was to present a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between race and VTE in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review to evaluate the number of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) events reported by racial groups in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. For the qualitative analysis, independent reviewers extracted the data from eligible studies, and we used the Newcastle-Ottawa scale to assess the quality of design and content for accurate interpretation. For the quantitative analysis, we pooled the odds ratios with Der Simonian and Laird random effects models. RESULTS: The qualitative analysis included 11 studies, with 6 included in the meta-analysis. All studies were observational, retrospective cohort studies, except for one retrospective case-control study. Six studies were eligible for the meta-analysis owing to the high interstudy heterogeneity; thus, the variable reports of racial groups reduced the cohort to Black/African American and White patients (n = 9723) in the analysis. The estimated proportion for DVT and PE events for Black/African American and White patients was 0.07 (95% confidence interval, 0.00-0.10) and 0.04 (95% confidence interval, 0.00-0.07), respectively. The P value of .13 suggested nonsignificant differences in the VTE rates between Black/African American and White patients. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, the proportion of DVT and PE events between Black/African American and White patients with COVID-19 were comparable. Future COVID-19 studies should include systematic racial group reporting to identify any disparities in the setting of VTE events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
8.
J Intern Med ; 292(1): 127-135, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759213

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While COVID-19 immunization programs attempted to reach targeted rates, cases rose significantly since the emergence of the delta variant. This retrospective cohort study describes the correlation between antispike antibodies and outcomes of hospitalized, breakthrough cases during the delta variant surge. METHODS: All patients with positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction hospitalized at Mayo Clinic Florida from 19 June 2021 to 11 November 2021 were considered for analysis. Cases were analyzed by vaccination status. Breakthrough cases were then analyzed by low and high antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, with a cut-off value of ≥132 U/ml. Outcomes included hospital length of stay (LOS), need for intensive care unit (ICU), mechanical ventilation, and mortality. We used 1:1 nearest neighbor propensity score matching without replacement to assess for confounders. RESULTS: Among 627 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, vaccine breakthrough cases were older with more comorbidities compared to unvaccinated. After propensity score matching, the unvaccinated patients had higher mortality (27 [28.4%] vs. 12 [12.6%], p = 0.002) and LOS (7 [1.0-57.0] vs. 5 [1.0-31.0] days, p = 0.011). In breakthrough cases, low-titer patients were more likely to be solid organ transplant recipients (16 [34.0%] vs. 9 [12.3%], p = 0.006), with higher need for ICU care (24 [51.1%] vs. 22 [11.0%], p = 0.034), longer hospital LOS (median 6 vs. 5 days, p = 0.013), and higher mortality (10 [21.3%] vs. 5 [6.8%], p = 0.025) than high-titer patients. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized breakthrough cases were more likely to have underlying risk factors than unvaccinated patients. Low-spike antibody titers may serve as an indicator for poor prognosis in breakthrough cases admitted to the hospital.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 775-789, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730419

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Colchicine, because of its anti-inflammatory and possible anti-viral properties, has been proposed as potential therapeutic option for COVID-19. The role of colchicine to mitigate "cytokine storm" and to decrease the severity and mortality associated with COVID-19 has been evaluated in many studies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of colchicine on morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA recommendations. The literature search was conducted in 6 medical databases from inception to February 17, 2021 to identify studies evaluating colchicine as a therapeutic agent in COVID-19. All included studies were evaluated for risk of bias (ROB) using the Revised Cochrane ROB tool for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for case-control and cohort studies. RESULTS: Four RCTs and four observational studies were included in the final analysis. One study evaluated colchicine in outpatients, while all others evaluated inpatient use of colchicine. There was significant variability in treatment protocols for colchicine and standard of care in all studies. A statistically significant decrease in all-cause mortality was observed in three observational studies. The risk of mechanical ventilation was significantly reduced only in one observational study. Length of hospitalisation was significantly reduced in two RCTs. Risk for hospitalisation was not significantly decreased in the study evaluating colchicine in outpatients. Very few studies had low risk of bias. CONCLUSION: Based on the available data, colchicine shall not be recommended to treat COVID-19. Further high-quality and multi-center RCTs are required to assess the meaningful impact of this drug in COVID-19.KEY MESSAGESColchicine, an anti-inflammatory agent has demonstrated anti-viral properties in in-vitro studies by degrading the microtubules, as well as by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.Colchicine has been studied as a potential therapeutic option for COVID-19, with variable results.Until further research can establish the efficacy of colchicine in COVID-19, the use of colchicine in COVID-19 shall be restricted to clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Humans , Morbidity , Observational Studies as Topic , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
10.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 63, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690946

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV2 develop acute kidney injury (AKI) frequently, yet gaps remain in understanding why adults seem to have higher rates compared to children. Our objectives were to evaluate the epidemiology of SARS-CoV2-related AKI across the age spectrum and determine if known risk factors such as illness severity contribute to its pattern. METHODS: Secondary analysis of ongoing prospective international cohort registry. AKI was defined by KDIGO-creatinine only criteria. Log-linear, logistic and generalized estimating equations assessed odds ratios (OR), risk differences (RD), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for AKI and mortality adjusting for sex, pre-existing comorbidities, race/ethnicity, illness severity, and clustering within centers. Sensitivity analyses assessed different baseline creatinine estimators. RESULTS: Overall, among 6874 hospitalized patients, 39.6% (n = 2719) developed AKI. There was a bimodal distribution of AKI by age with peaks in older age (≥60 years) and middle childhood (5-15 years), which persisted despite controlling for illness severity, pre-existing comorbidities, or different baseline creatinine estimators. For example, the adjusted OR of developing AKI among hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV2 was 2.74 (95% CI 1.66-4.56) for 10-15-year-olds compared to 30-35-year-olds and similarly was 2.31 (95% CI 1.71-3.12) for 70-75-year-olds, while adjusted OR dropped to 1.39 (95% CI 0.97-2.00) for 40-45-year-olds compared to 30-35-year-olds. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV2-related AKI is common with a bimodal age distribution that is not fully explained by known risk factors or confounders. As the pandemic turns to disproportionately impacting younger individuals, this deserves further investigation as the presence of AKI and SARS-CoV2 infection increases hospital mortality risk.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Confidence Intervals , Creatinine/blood , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index
11.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 10(3): 578-584.e2, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650575

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the radiographic resolution of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) using contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) examinations in patients diagnosed with acute PE while hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to understand the mid-term and long-term implications of anticoagulation therapy. METHODS: We identified patients with acute PE per CECT and at least one follow-up CECT from March 11, 2020, to May 27, 2021, using a prospective registry of all hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection receiving care within a multicenter Health System. Initial and follow-up CECT examinations were reviewed independently by two radiologists to evaluate for PE resolution. The Modified Miller Score was used to assess for thrombus burden at diagnosis and on follow-up. RESULTS: Of the 6070 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection, 5.7% (348/6070) were diagnosed with acute PE and 13.5% (47/348) had a follow-up CECT examination. The mean ± standard deviation time to follow-up imaging was 44 ± 48 days (range, 3-161 days). Of 47 patients, 47 (72.3%) had radiographic resolution of PE, with a mean time to follow-up of 48 ± 43 days (range, 6-239 days). All patients received anticoagulation monotherapy for a mean of 149 ± 95 days and this included apixaban (63.8%), warfarin (12.8%), and rivaroxaban (8.5%), among others. The mean Modified Miller Score at PE diagnosis and follow-up was 4.8 ± 4.2 (range, 1-14) and 1.4 ± 3.3 (range, 0-16; P < .0001), respectively. Nine patients (19%) died at a mean of 13 ± 8 days after follow-up CECT (range, 1-27 days) and at a mean of 28 ± 16 days after admission (range, 11-68 days). Seen of the nine deaths (78%) deaths were associated with progression of COVID-19 pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 have a clinically apparent 5.7% rate of developing PE. In patients with follow-up imaging, 72.3% had radiographic thrombus resolution at a mean of 44 days while on anticoagulation. Prospective studies of the natural history of PEs with COVID-19 that include systematic follow-up imaging are warranted to help guide anticoagulation recommendations.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Acute Disease , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
12.
Critical Care Medicine ; 50:83-83, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1593486

ABSTRACT

Repurposed medications, including antivirals, corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine, immunomodulators and therapeutic dose anticoagulants were evaluated using multivariable adjusted random effects logistic regression models and unsupervised clustering. B Results: b Among 7069 adults hospitalized with COVID-19, 1979 (28%) received antivirals, 2876 (41%) received corticosteroids, 1779 (25%) received hydroxychloroquine, 620 (9%) received immunomodulators and 2154 (31%) received therapeutic dose anticoagulants. Contribution of hospital site to risk-adjusted variation was 46% for antivirals, 30% for corticosteroids, 48% for hydroxychloroquine, 46% for immunomodulators, and 19% for therapeutic dose anticoagulants. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Critical Care Medicine is the property of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

13.
Simul Healthc ; 2021 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Frontline health care workers who perform potentially aerosol-generating procedures, such as endotracheal intubations, in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 may be at an increased risk of exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. To continue to care for patients with coronavirus disease 2019, minimizing exposure is paramount. Using simulation, we devised a testing method to evaluate devices that may mitigate the spread of aerosol and droplet-sized particles. METHODS: In this prospective single-center study, participants intubated a manikin 3 times using standard personal protective equipment, once with no barrier device, once with an acrylic box, and once with a modified horizontal drape. The micrometer-sized particle count, generated by a nebulization model, was recorded before and after each intubation. The first-pass intubation rate and time to intubation were recorded. Each operator completed a postsimulation survey about their experience using the barrier devices. RESULTS: Thirty airway proceduralists completed the simulation and survey. There was no significant difference in particle counts (aerosols or droplets) or first-pass intubation, but the horizontal drape was found to significantly increase intubation time (P = 0.01). Most participants preferred the drape over the acrylic box or no barrier device. CONCLUSIONS: The acrylic box and plastic drape did not mitigate particle spread. However, our testing method can be used to test barrier designs using negative pressure or other mitigation strategies for particle spread.

14.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 47(2): 243-247, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511340

ABSTRACT

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Procalcitonin (PCT) levels rise in systemic inflammation, especially if bacterial in origin. COVID-19, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, presents with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Elevated procalcitonin in COVID-19 is considered as a marker for severity of disease. There is no study available that indicates whether elevated PCT in COVID-19 is associated with inflammation or superimposed bacterial infection. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between PCT levels and superadded bacterial infection, and the effect of discontinuation of antibiotic in the low PCT (<0.25 ng/ml) group on patients' outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients admitted with COVID-19 pneumonia at a single tertiary care centre. We collected information on demographics, co-morbidities, PCT level, antibiotic use, culture results for bacterial infection, hospital length of stay (LOS) and mortality. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Continuous variables were summarized with the sample median, interquartile range, mean and range. Categorical variables were summarized with number and percentage of patients. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We studied a total of 147 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. 101 (69%) patients had a low PCT level (< 0.25 ng/ml). Bacterial culture results were negative for all patients, except 1 who had a markedly elevated PCT level (141.ng/ml). In patients with low PCT, 42% received no antibiotics, 59% received antibiotics initially, 32 (57%) patients antibiotic discontinued early (within 24 hours) and their culture remained negative for bacterial infections during hospitalizations. LOS was shorter (6 days in low PCT group compared to 9 days) in high PCT group. LOS was 1 day shorter (5 days vs 6 days) in no antibiotic group compared to antibiotic group. Our study examines the association between PCT level and superadded bacterial infection in COVID-19 pneumonia. Our results demonstrate that most patients admitted with COVID-19 have a low PCT (<0.25 ng/ml), which suggests no superadded bacterial infection and supports the previously published literature regarding low PCT in viral pneumonia. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: Procalcitonin level remains low in the absence of bacterial infection. Early de-escalation/discontinuation of antibiotics is safe without adverse outcomes in COVID-19 pneumonia. Early de-escalation/discontinuation of antibiotics is associated with lower LOS.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Procalcitonin/blood , Withholding Treatment , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(11): e0566, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505988

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: At the start of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, medications repurposed for management of coronavirus disease 2019 were used in the absence of clinical trial evidence. OBJECTIVES: To describe the variation and evolution in use of repurposed medications for coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Observational cohort study of adults hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 between February 15, 2020, and April 12, 2021, across 76 United States and international hospitals within the Society of Critical Care Medicine's Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study coronavirus disease 2019 registry. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Hospital variation was quantified using multivariable adjusted random effects logistic regression models and unsupervised clustering. Repurposed medications included antivirals, corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine, immunomodulators, and therapeutic dose anticoagulants. RESULTS: Among 7,069 adults hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019, 1,979 (28%) received antivirals, 2,876 (41%) received corticosteroids, 1,779 (25%) received hydroxychloroquine, 620 (9%) received immunomodulators, and 2,154 (31%) received therapeutic dose anticoagulants. Contribution of hospital site to risk-adjusted variation was 46% for antivirals, 30% for corticosteroids, 48% for hydroxychloroquine, 46% for immunomodulators, and 52% for therapeutic dose anticoagulants. Compared with the early pandemic, the later pandemic practice phenotypes converged with increased use of antivirals (odds ratio, 3.14; 95% CI, 2.40-4.10) and corticosteroids (odds ratio, 5.43; 95% CI, 4.23-6.97), with decreased use of hydroxychloroquine (odds ratio, 0.02; 95% CI, 0.01-0.04) and immunomodulators (odds ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.34-0.70). There was no clinically significant change in the use of therapeutic dose anticoagulants (odds ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.01-1.02). There were no differences in risk-adjusted mortality between hospitals with high rates of repurposed medication use compared with hospitals with low rates of use. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Hospital variation in the use of repurposed medications varied widely across hospitals early in the pandemic and later converged with the emergence of randomized clinical trials. Platforms developed for rapid activation and enrollment in clinical trials of repurposed medications are needed prior to the next pandemic to expedite effective, evidence-based practice.

18.
CHEST ; 160(4):A1099-A1099, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1460816
19.
Clin Med Insights Circ Respir Pulm Med ; 15: 11795484211047432, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450691

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the unprecedented era of COVID-19, ongoing research and evolution of evidence has led to ever-changing guidelines for clinical monitoring and therapeutic options. Formulating treatment protocols requires the understanding and application of the evolving research. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study is to present a systematic evidence-based approach to synthesize the necessary data in order to optimize the management of COVID-19. METHODS: At Mayo Clinic Florida, we developed a multidisciplinary centralized COVID Treatment Review Panel (TRP) of expert pulmonologists, intensivists, infectious disease specialists, anesthesiologists, hematologists, rheumatologists, and hospitalists that in real-time reviews the latest evidence in peer-reviewed journals, the available clinical trials, and help guide the rapid application of therapeutics or interventions to the patient and the bedside provider. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: The multi-disciplinary team approach of synthesizing clinical data and coordinating care is effective in responding to rapidly evolving and changing evidence. Systematic data collection and evidence-based treatment algorithms enable physicians to rapidly translate the current literature to clinical practice, and improve care and outcomes of patients.

20.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 9(6): 1361-1370.e1, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198953

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) compared with that in a matched cohort with similar cardiovascular risk factors and the effects of DVT and PE on the hospital course. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of prospectively collected data from COVID-19 patients who had been hospitalized from March 11, 2020 to September 4, 2020. The patients were randomly matched in a 1:1 ratio by age, sex, hospital of admission, smoking history, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease with a cohort of patients without COVID-19. The primary end point was the incidence of DVT/PE and the odds of developing DVT/PE using a conditional logistic regression model. The secondary end point was the hospitalization outcomes for COVID-19 patients with and without DVT/PE, including mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, ICU stay, and length of hospitalization (LOH). Multivariable regression analysis was performed to identify the variables associated with mortality, ICU admission, discharge disposition, ICU duration, and LOH. RESULTS: A total of 13,310 patients had tested positive for COVID-19, 915 of whom (6.9%) had been hospitalized across our multisite health care system. The mean age of the hospitalized patients was 60.8 ± 17.0 years, and 396 (43.3%) were women. Of the 915 patients, 82 (9.0%) had had a diagnosis of DVT/PE confirmed by ultrasound examination of the extremities and/or computed tomography angiography of the chest. The odds of presenting with DVT/PE in the setting of COVID-19 infection was greater than that without COVID-19 infection (0.6% [5 of 915] vs 9.0% [82 of 915]; odds ratio [OR], 18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.0-51.2; P < .001). The vascular risk factors were not different between the COVID-19 patients with and without DVT/PE. Mortality (P = .02), the need for ICU stay (P < .001), duration of ICU stay (P < .001), and LOH (P < .001) were greater in the DVT/PE cohort than in the cohort without DVT/PE. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, the hemoglobin (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.46-0.95; P = .04) and D-dimer (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.33-1.56; P = .03) levels were associated with higher mortality. Higher activated partial thromboplastin times (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.00-1.12; P = .03) and higher interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 1.01-1.07; P = .05) were associated with a greater risk of ICU admission. IL-6 (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 1.00-1.02; P = .05) was associated with a greater risk of rehabilitation placement after discharge. On multivariable gamma regression analysis, hemoglobin (coefficient, -3.0; 95% CI, 0.03-0.08; P = .005) was associated with a prolonged ICU stay, and the activated partial thromboplastin time (coefficient, 2.0; 95% CI, 0.003-0.006; P = .05), international normalized ratio (coefficient, -3.2; 95% CI, 0.06-0.19; P = .002) and IL-6 (coefficient, 2.4; 95% CI, 0.0011-0.0027; P = .02) were associated with a prolonged LOH. CONCLUSIONS: A significantly greater incidence of DVT/PE occurred in hospitalized COVID-19-positive patients compared with a non-COVID-19 cohort matched for cardiovascular risk factors. Patients affected by DVT/PE were more likely to experience greater mortality, to require ICU admission, and experience prolonged ICU stays and LOH compared with COVID-19-positive patients without DVT/PE. Advancements in DVT/PE prevention are needed for patients hospitalized for COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care , Hospitalization , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Risk Factors , Survival Rate , Venous Thrombosis/virology
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