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2.
Preprint | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296962

ABSTRACT

Mucosal immune responses are critical to prevent respiratory infections but it is unclear to what extent antigen specific mucosal secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies are induced by mRNA vaccination in humans. We analyzed, therefore, paired serum and saliva samples from study participants with and without COVID-19 at multiple timepoints before and after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mRNA vaccination. Our results suggest that the level of mucosal SIgA responses induced by mRNA vaccination depend on pre-existing immunity. Indeed, vaccination induced only a weak mucosal SIgA response in individuals without pre-existing mucosal antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 while SIgA induction after vaccination was efficient in COVID-19 survivors. Our data indicate that vaccinated seropositive individuals were able to swiftly induce relatively high anti-spike SIgA responses by boosting pre-existing mucosal immunity. In contrast, seronegative individuals did not have pre-existing anti-SARS-CoV-2 or cross-reacting anti-HCoV SIgA antibodies prior to vaccination, and, thus, little or no anti-SARS-CoV-2 SIgA antibodies were induced by vaccination in these individuals.

3.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296101

ABSTRACT

Summary There are several recommendations for the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. However, the selection of appropriate PPE for the current situation remains controversial. We measured serum antibody titers for SARS-CoV-2 in 10 participants who were engaged in the operation of charter flights for the evacuation of Japanese residents from Hubei Province. All participants wore PPE in accordance with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. A total of 17 samples were tested, and all were seronegative. Hence, we conclude that the current PPE recommendation is effective to protect healthcare workers from SARS-CoV-2 infection.

4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6197, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493100

ABSTRACT

Rapid development of COVID-19 vaccines has helped mitigating SARS-CoV-2 spread, but more equitable allocation of vaccines is necessary to limit the global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the emergence of additional variants of concern. We have developed a COVID-19 vaccine candidate based on Newcastle disease virus (NDV) that can be manufactured at high yields in embryonated eggs. Here, we show that the NDV vector expressing an optimized spike antigen (NDV-HXP-S) is a versatile vaccine inducing protective antibody responses. NDV-HXP-S can be administered intramuscularly as inactivated vaccine or intranasally as live vaccine. We show that NDV-HXP-S GMP-produced in Vietnam, Thailand and Brazil is effective in the hamster model. Furthermore, we show that intramuscular vaccination with NDV-HXP-S reduces replication of tested variants of concerns in mice. The immunity conferred by NDV-HXP-S effectively counteracts SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice and hamsters.


Subject(s)
Newcastle disease virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , Female , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Newcastle disease virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccines, Attenuated/therapeutic use
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 848, 2021 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069106

ABSTRACT

The causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2, is steadily mutating during continuous transmission among humans. Such mutations can occur in the spike (S) protein that binds to the ACE2 receptor and is cleaved by TMPRSS2. However, whether S mutations affect SARS-CoV-2 cell entry remains unknown. Here, we show that naturally occurring S mutations can reduce or enhance cell entry via ACE2 and TMPRSS2. A SARS-CoV-2 S-pseudotyped lentivirus exhibits substantially lower entry than that of SARS-CoV S. Among S variants, the D614G mutant shows the highest cell entry, as supported by structural and binding analyses. Nevertheless, the D614G mutation does not affect neutralization by antisera against prototypic viruses. Taken together, we conclude that the D614G mutation increases cell entry by acquiring higher affinity to ACE2 while maintaining neutralization susceptibility. Based on these findings, further worldwide surveillance is required to understand SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility among humans.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Internalization , Binding, Competitive , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Models, Molecular , Pandemics , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
6.
Virol J ; 18(1): 16, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059645

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus that emerged in 2019 and is now classified in the genus Coronavirus with closely related SARS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2 is highly pathogenic in humans and is classified as a biosafety level (BSL)-3 pathogen, which makes manipulating it relatively difficult due to its infectious nature. METHODS: To circumvent the need for BSL-3 laboratories, an alternative assay was developed that avoids live virus and instead uses a recombinant VSV expressing luciferase and possesses the full length or truncated spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, to measure SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies under BSL2 conditions, a chemiluminescence reduction neutralization test (CRNT) for SARS-CoV-2 was developed. The neutralization values of the serum samples collected from hospitalized patients with COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2 PCR-negative donors against the pseudotyped virus infection evaluated by the CRNT were compared with antibody titers determined from an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). RESULTS: The CRNT, which used whole blood collected from hospitalized patients with COVID-19, was also examined. As a result, the inhibition of pseudotyped virus infection was specifically observed in both serum and whole blood and was also correlated with the results of the IFA. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the CRNT for COVID-19 is a convenient assay system that can be performed in a BSL-2 laboratory with high specificity and sensitivity for evaluating the occurrence of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/blood , Neutralization Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line , Convalescence , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Luminescence , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
7.
Virol J ; 18(1): 16, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024369

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus that emerged in 2019 and is now classified in the genus Coronavirus with closely related SARS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2 is highly pathogenic in humans and is classified as a biosafety level (BSL)-3 pathogen, which makes manipulating it relatively difficult due to its infectious nature. METHODS: To circumvent the need for BSL-3 laboratories, an alternative assay was developed that avoids live virus and instead uses a recombinant VSV expressing luciferase and possesses the full length or truncated spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, to measure SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies under BSL2 conditions, a chemiluminescence reduction neutralization test (CRNT) for SARS-CoV-2 was developed. The neutralization values of the serum samples collected from hospitalized patients with COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2 PCR-negative donors against the pseudotyped virus infection evaluated by the CRNT were compared with antibody titers determined from an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). RESULTS: The CRNT, which used whole blood collected from hospitalized patients with COVID-19, was also examined. As a result, the inhibition of pseudotyped virus infection was specifically observed in both serum and whole blood and was also correlated with the results of the IFA. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the CRNT for COVID-19 is a convenient assay system that can be performed in a BSL-2 laboratory with high specificity and sensitivity for evaluating the occurrence of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/blood , Neutralization Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line , Convalescence , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Luminescence , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
8.
Arch Virol ; 165(2): 471-477, 2020 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-825199

ABSTRACT

We sequenced the complete genome of a porcine torovirus (PToV) strain from Japan for the first time. Whole-genome analysis revealed that this strain (Iba/2018) has a mosaic sequence composed of at least three genome backgrounds, related to US, Chinese and German PToV strains. Clear recombination breakpoints were detected in the M and HE coding regions. A similarity plot and structural analysis demonstrated that the HE coding region exhibits the highest diversity, and the most sequence variation was found in the lectin domain. PToVs were divided into two lineages in the HE region, whereas clear lineages were not found in other regions.


Subject(s)
Feces/virology , Genome, Viral , Torovirus Infections/veterinary , Torovirus/genetics , Torovirus/isolation & purification , Whole Genome Sequencing , Animals , Computational Biology , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Japan , Recombination, Genetic , Swine , Torovirus Infections/virology
9.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 120-122, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753273

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Information on the effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) for preventing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among healthcare workers (HCWs), especially among HCWs with frequent contact with patients with SARS-CoV-2, is limited. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study on 49 HCWs who worked in close contact with patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. HCWs had blood samples taken every 2 weeks to test for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using two different types of assay. RESULTS: Forty-nine participants (31 nurses, 15 doctors, 3 other workers) were enrolled. In total, 112 blood samples are obtained from participants. The median work days in 2 weeks was 9 (interquartile range (IQR): 5-10) days. In a single work day, 30 of the 49 participants (61.5%) had contact with patients with suspected or conformed SARS-CoV-2 at least 8 times, and approximately 60% of participants had more than 10 min of contact with a single patient. The median self-reported compliance to PPE was 90% (IQR: 80-100%). Seven participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibody using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); however, none were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody, so the positive ELISA results were assumed to be false-positive. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides evidence that appropriate PPE is sufficient to prevent infection amongHCWs. It is necessary to establish a system that provides a stable supply of PPE for HCWs to perform their duties.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Health Personnel , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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