Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 5 de 5
Filter
1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988047

ABSTRACT

Essential agricultural workers work under occupational conditions that may increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure and transmission. Data from an agricultural worker cohort in Guatemala, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid IgG (anti-N IgG) testing were used to estimate past infections and analyze risk factors associated with seropositivity at enrollment and association with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The stability of neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses were assessed in a subset of participants. The adjusted relative risk (aRR) for seroprevalence at enrollment was estimated accounting for correlations within worksites. At enrollment, 616 (46.2%) of 1334 (93.2%) participants had anti-N IgG results indicating prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. A cough ≤ 10 days prior to enrollment (aRR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.13-1.46) and working as a packer (aRR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.67-2.38) or packing manager within the plants (aRR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.36-2.43) were associated with increased risk of seropositivity. COVID-19 incidence density among seronegative workers was 2.3/100 Person-Years (P-Y), higher than seropositive workers (0.4/100 P-Y). Most workers with follow-up NAb testing (65/77, 84%) exhibited a 95% average decrease in NAb titers in <6 months. While participants seropositive at baseline were less likely to experience a symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection during follow-up, NAb titers rapidly waned, underscoring the need for multipronged COVID-19 prevention strategies in the workplace, including vaccination.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(32): e2203760119, 2022 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960625

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants with enhanced transmissibility, pathogenesis, and resistance to vaccines presents urgent challenges for curbing the COVID-19 pandemic. While Spike mutations that enhance virus infectivity or neutralizing antibody evasion may drive the emergence of these novel variants, studies documenting a critical role for interferon responses in the early control of SARS-CoV-2 infection, combined with the presence of viral genes that limit these responses, suggest that interferons may also influence SARS-CoV-2 evolution. Here, we compared the potency of 17 different human interferons against multiple viral lineages sampled during the course of the global outbreak, including ancestral and five major variants of concern that include the B.1.1.7 (alpha), B.1.351 (beta), P.1 (gamma), B.1.617.2 (delta), and B.1.1.529 (omicron) lineages. Our data reveal that relative to ancestral isolates, SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern exhibited increased interferon resistance, suggesting that evasion of innate immunity may be a significant, ongoing driving force for SARS-CoV-2 evolution. These findings have implications for the increased transmissibility and/or lethality of emerging variants and highlight the interferon subtypes that may be most successful in the treatment of early infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Interferons , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Interferons/pharmacology , Interferons/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(11)2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713294

ABSTRACT

The impacts of interferon (IFN) signaling on COVID-19 pathology are multiple, with both protective and harmful effects being documented. We report here a multiomics investigation of systemic IFN signaling in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, defining the multiomics biosignatures associated with varying levels of 12 different type I, II, and III IFNs. The antiviral transcriptional response in circulating immune cells is strongly associated with a specific subset of IFNs, most prominently IFNA2 and IFNG. In contrast, proteomics signatures indicative of endothelial damage and platelet activation associate with high levels of IFNB1 and IFNA6. Seroconversion and time since hospitalization associate with a significant decrease in a specific subset of IFNs. Additionally, differential IFN subtype production is linked to distinct constellations of circulating myeloid and lymphoid immune cell types. Each IFN has a unique metabolic signature, with IFNG being the most associated with activation of the kynurenine pathway. IFNs also show differential relationships with clinical markers of poor prognosis and disease severity. For example, whereas IFNG has the strongest association with C-reactive protein and other immune markers of poor prognosis, IFNB1 associates with increased neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, a marker of late severe disease. Altogether, these results reveal specialized IFN action in COVID-19, with potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications.


Subject(s)
Blood/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Interferons/blood , Proteome , Transcriptome , COVID-19/blood , Case-Control Studies , Datasets as Topic , Humans , Inpatients
4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(2): 562-565, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614119

ABSTRACT

The dried-tube specimen (DTS) procedure was used to develop the COVID-19 serology control panel (CSCP). The DTS offers the benefit of shipping materials without a cold chain, allowing for greater access without deterioration of material integrity. Samples in the panel were sourced from COVID-19 convalescent persons from March to May 2020. The immunoglobulin subtypes (total Ig, IgM, and IgG) and their respective reactivity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 nucleocapsid, spike, and receptor-binding domain antigens of the samples were delineated and compared with the WHO International Standard to elucidate the exact binding antibody units of each CSCP sample and ensure the CSCP provides adequate reactivity for different types of serological test platforms. We distribute the CSCP as a kit with five coded tubes to laboratories around the world to be used to compare test kits for external quality assurance, for harmonizing laboratory testing, and for use as training materials for laboratory workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Specimen Handling/methods , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Specimen Handling/standards , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , World Health Organization
5.
mBio ; 12(4): e0150321, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327616

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with T cell lymphopenia, but no causal effect of T cell deficiency on disease severity has been established. To investigate the specific role of T cells in recovery from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, we studied rhesus macaques that were depleted of either CD4+, CD8+, or both T cell subsets prior to infection. Peak virus loads were similar in all groups, but the resolution of virus in the T cell-depleted animals was slightly delayed compared to that in controls. The T cell-depleted groups developed virus-neutralizing antibody responses and class switched to IgG. When reinfected 6 weeks later, the T cell-depleted animals showed anamnestic immune responses characterized by rapid induction of high-titer virus-neutralizing antibodies, faster control of virus loads, and reduced clinical signs. These results indicate that while T cells play a role in the recovery of rhesus macaques from acute SARS-CoV-2 infections, their depletion does not induce severe disease, and T cells do not account for the natural resistance of rhesus macaques to severe COVID-19. Neither primed CD4+ nor CD8+ T cells appeared critical for immunoglobulin class switching, the development of immunological memory, or protection from a second infection. IMPORTANCE Patients with severe COVID-19 often have decreased numbers of T cells, a cell type important in fighting most viral infections. However, it is not known whether the loss of T cells contributes to severe COVID-19 or is a consequence of it. We studied rhesus macaques, which develop only mild COVID-19, similar to most humans. Experimental depletion of T cells slightly prolonged their clearance of virus, but there was no increase in disease severity. Furthermore, they were able to develop protection from a second infection and produced antibodies capable of neutralizing the virus. They also developed immunological memory, which allows a much stronger and more rapid response upon a second infection. These results suggest that T cells are not critical for recovery from acute SARS-CoV-2 infections in this model and point toward B cell responses and antibodies as the essential mediators of protection from re-exposure.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Lymphopenia/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Lymphocyte Depletion/methods , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Male
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL