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1.
Journal of Clinical Medicine ; 11(7):1774, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762610

ABSTRACT

Background: Endothelial dysfunction has a role in acute COVID-19, contributing to systemic inflammatory syndrome, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and vascular events. Evidence regarding COVID-19 middle- and long-term consequences on endothelium are still lacking. Our study aimed to evaluate if COVID-19 severity could significantly affect the endothelial function after three months from the acute phase. Methods: We assessed endothelial function in outpatients with previous COVID-19 three months after negative SARS-CoV-2 molecular test by measuring flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in patients categorized according to a four-variable COVID-19 severity scale ('home care';;'hospital, no oxygen';;'hospital, oxygen';;'hospital requiring high-flow nasal canula, non-invasive ventilation, invasive mechanical ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation';). FMD difference among COVID-19 severity categories was assessed with analysis of variance;we further clarified the relationship between FMD and previous COVID-19 severity with multivariate logistic models. Results: Among 658 consecutive COVID-19 subjects, we observed a significant linear trend of FMD reduction with the increase of the COVID-19 category (p < 0.0001). The presence of endothelial dysfunction was more frequent among hospitalized patients (78.3%) with respect to home-care patients (21.7%;p < 0.0001). COVID-19 severity was associated with increased endothelial dysfunction risk (OR: 1.354;95% CI: 1.06–1.71;p = 0.011) at multivariate binary logistic analysis. FMD showed a significant direct correlation with PaO2 (p = 0.004), P/F ratio (p = 0.004), FEV1 (p = 0.008), and 6MWT (p = 0.0001). Conclusions: Hospitalized COVID-19 subjects showed an impaired endothelial function three months after the acute phase that correlated with pulmonary function impairment. Further studies are needed to evaluate if these subjects are at higher risk of developing pulmonary disease or future cardiovascular events.

2.
EClinicalMedicine ; 27: 100553, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385448

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interleukin-6 signal blockade showed preliminary beneficial effects in treating inflammatory response against SARS-CoV-2 leading to severe respiratory distress. Herein we describe the outcomes of off-label intravenous use of Sarilumab in severe SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia. METHODS: 53 patients with SARS-CoV-2 severe pneumonia received intravenous Sarilumab; pulmonary function improvement or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission rate in medical wards, live discharge rate in ICU treated patients and safety profile were recorded. Sarilumab 400 mg was administered intravenously on day 1, with eventual additional infusion based on clinical judgement, and patients were followed for at least 14 days, unless previously discharged or dead. FINDINGS: Of the 53 SARS-CoV-2pos patients receiving Sarilumab, 39(73·6%) were treated in medical wards [66·7% with a single infusion; median PaO2/FiO2:146(IQR:120-212)] while 14(26·4%) in ICU [92·6% with a second infusion; median PaO2/FiO2: 112(IQR:100-141.5)].Within the medical wards, 7(17·9%) required ICU admission, 4 of whom were re-admitted to the ward within 5-8 days. At 19 days median follow-up, 89·7% of medical inpatients significantly improved (46·1% after 24 h, 61·5% after 3 days), 70·6% were discharged from the hospital and 85·7% no longer needed oxygen therapy. Within patients receiving Sarilumab in ICU, 64·2% were discharged from ICU to the ward and 35·8% were still alive at the last follow-up. Overall mortality rate was 5·7%. INTERPRETATION: IL-6R inhibition appears to be a potential treatment strategy for severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and intravenous Sarilumab seems a promising treatment approach showing, in the short term, an important clinical outcome and good safety.

4.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; 31(6): 2886-2893, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The possible transmission of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by tears and conjunctiva is still debated. METHODS: Main outcome was to investigate the agreement between nasopharyngeal swab (NPs) and conjunctival swabs (Cs) in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We divided patients into four groups: (1) NPs and Cs both negative (C-NF-), (2) NPs positive and Cs negative (NFs+Cs-), (3) NPs negative and Cs positive (NFs-Cs+), and (4) NPs and Cs both positive (NFs-Cs+). The secondary outcomes were to correlate Cs results with systemic clinical parameters such as: oxygen saturation (SpO2), dyspnea degree (DP), radiologic pulmonary impairment based on chest radiography (XR) or computed tomography (CT), blood chemistry as D-Dimer (D-Dimer), fibrinogen, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and C-reactive protein (C-RP). RESULTS: A total of 100 conjunctival swabs in 50 patients with SARS-CoV-2 have been enrolled in this interventional clinical trials. Ocular signs (conjunctivitis) were present in five patients (10%). NPs and Cs highlighted a poor level of agreement (0.025; p = 0.404). Median SpO2 levels are the highest in the NF-C- group (98%) and the lowest (90%) in the group NF+C+ (p = 0.001). Pulmonary impairment was statistically significantly different between NFs and Cs groups (p = 0.019). Pulmonary impairment score increased from NFs-Cs- group (3.8 ± 3.9), to NFs+Cs+ group (6.7 ± 4.1). Intensive care unit patients showed higher COVID-19 Cs positivity in conjunctiva (12.5%) against hospitalized ones (5.8%). CONCLUSIONS: In patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 the virus can be detected in conjunctival swab. Intensive care unit patients may reveal a higher COVID-19 presence in the conjunctiva. The most severe pulmonary impairment can be observed in NFs and Cs positivity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov registration. ETHICAL COMMITTEE AUTHORIZATION: ID number: 0013008/20.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Conjunctiva/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Italy
6.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(9): 2358-2363, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635452

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A remarkably high incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) has been reported among critically ill patients with COVID-19 assisted in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, VTE burden among non-ICU patients hospitalized for COVID-19 that receive guideline-recommended thromboprophylaxis is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of VTE among non-ICU patients hospitalized for COVID-19 that receive pharmacological thromboprophylaxis. METHODS: We performed a systematic screening for the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) by lower limb vein compression ultrasonography (CUS) in consecutive non-ICU patients hospitalized for COVID-19, independent of the presence of signs or symptoms of DVT. All patients were receiving pharmacological thromboprophylaxis with either enoxaparin or fondaparinux. RESULTS: The population that we screened consisted of 84 consecutive patients, with a mean age of 67.6 ± 13.5 years and a mean Padua Prediction Score of 5.1 ± 1.6. Seventy-two patients (85.7%) had respiratory insufficiency, required oxygen supplementation, and had reduced mobility or were bedridden. In this cohort, we found 10 cases of DVT, with an incidence of 11.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.98-18.82). Of these, 2 were proximal DVT (incidence rate 2.4%, 95% CI -0.87-5.67) and 8 were distal DVT (incidence rate 9.5%, 95% CI 3.23-5.77). Significant differences between subjects with and without DVT were D-dimer > 3000 µg/L (P < .05), current or previous cancer (P < .05), and need of high flow nasal oxygen therapy and/or non-invasive ventilation (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: DVT may occur among non-ICU patients hospitalized for COVID-19, despite guideline-recommended thromboprophylaxis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Female , Fondaparinux/therapeutic use , Guidelines as Topic , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Lower Extremity/blood supply , Male , Middle Aged , Ultrasonography
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