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1.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 119(1): 37-45, 2022 07.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on mortality from several diseases worldwide, especially cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Brazil is a continent-sized country with significant differences in the health care structure between its federative units. OBJECTIVE: Analyze in-hospital mortality from CVDs in the Brazilian public health system during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic (2020). METHODS: This is an ecological study analyzing the absolute number of in-hospital deaths and the rate of in-hospital mortality in Brazil, its macro-regions, and federative units. Data were obtained from the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. To analyze excess mortality, the P-score was used. It compares the events observed with those expected for a given place and period. The P-score was corrected by the joinpoint regression model, with a 95% confidence interval and 5% significance level. RESULTS: There were 93,104 in-hospital deaths due to CVD in Brazil in 2020, representing 1,495 fewer deaths (P score: -1.58) than expected. The central-west region had a positive P-score, with a 15.1% increase in the number of deaths. Ten federative units showed a greater number of deaths in 2020. There was also a 13.3% excess in-hospital mortality at the country level, and an excess in-hospital mortality in all macro-regions. CONCLUSIONS: There was a decrease in the absolute number of in-hospital deaths, as well as an increase in in-hospital mortality from CVD in Brazil, in 2020, after the COVID-19 pandemic onset.


FUNDAMENTO: A pandemia da COVID-19 tem causado um impacto sobre a mortalidade por várias doenças em todo o mundo, especialmente por doenças cardiovasculares (DCVs). O Brasil é um país de dimensões continentais com diferenças significativas na estrutura de saúde entre seus estados. OBJETIVO: Analisar a mortalidade hospitalar por DCV no sistema público de saúde durante o primeiro ano da pandemia por COVID-19 (2020) no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Este é um estudo ecológico analisando o número absoluto de mortes hospitalares e a taxa de mortalidade hospitalar no Brasil, suas macrorregiões, e unidades federativas. Os dados foram obtidos do Sistema de Informações Hospitalares (SIH) do Ministério da Saúde. O P-escore foi usado para analisar o excesso de mortalidade. O escore compara os eventos observados com os eventos esperados para um dado local e período. O escore-P foi corrigido por um modelo de regressão joinpoint, com um intervalo de confiança de 95% e nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Houve 93.104 óbitos hospitalares por DCV no Brasil em 2020, o que representa 1495 menos óbitos (escore-P: -1,58) que o esperado. A região centro-oeste apresentou um escore-P positivo, com um aumento de 15,1% no número de mortes. Dez estados apresentaram um maior número de óbitos em 2020. Ainda, observou-se um excesso de 13,3% de mortalidade hospitalar no país como um todo, e um excesso de mortalidade hospitalar em todas as macrorregiões. CONCLUSÕES: Houve uma diminuição no número absoluto de óbitos hospitalares, bem como um aumento na taxa de mortalidade por DCV no Brasil em 2020, após o início da pandemia por COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Pandemics
2.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; : 101216, 2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1800125

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Brazil, several government policies have been taken. Herein, we aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hospital admissions and in-hospital lethality for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Brazil in 2020. An ecological and time-series study on hospitalizations and deaths from CVD in Brazil was conducted from January 2018 to December 2020.The hospital admission rate for CVD reduced by 17.1%, with a significant decreasing trend between January and May 2020 (Annual Percent Change: -8,7%; P-value < 0.001). The in-hospital lethality rate increased from 8.2% in 2018 to 9.3% in 2020. During this period, Brazil totaled 21.8 million days of hospital stay. Indicators of hospital admissions and lethality from CVD in Brazil were impacted by the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in different ways in the regions and depending on the nature of the indicator.

3.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 140(2): 305-309, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Meningitis is listed as one of the diseases requiring compulsory notification in Brazil. It can affect all age groups and also has no seasonality. Cases can be recorded in all months of the year and in all states of Brazil. Despite its importance, the obligation of immediate notification may have been compromised by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on compulsory notifications of meningitis in Brazil and its states during the first wave of the pandemic. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was an ecological study involving all confirmed cases of meningitis in Brazil, in its regions and in its states. METHODS: Data for the months from 2015 to 2020 were obtained from the database of the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, SINAN), in the Department of Informatics of the National Health System (Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, DATASUS). The P-score was used to obtain the percentage change in the numbers of cases reported in 2020. RESULTS: A 45.7% reduction in notifications of meningitis in Brazil was observed. Regarding the regions and the states, with the exception of Roraima, all of them showed a negative P-score, with decreasing curves each month. CONCLUSION: The pandemic caused a negative impact on meningitis notifications in Brazil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Meningitis , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Notification , Humans , Meningitis/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control
4.
Rev Bras Med Trab ; 19(3): 372-381, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700896

ABSTRACT

Occupational exposure is an important source of coronavirus transmission among health professionals. The objective of this study is to review the literature on the clinical and epidemiological profile of health professionals infected by COVID-19. An integrative review was conducted based on searches of the LILACS, Medline, and PubMed databases using the following terms: medical workers, healthcare workers, healthcare personnel, and healthcare professionals combined with COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, 2019-nCoV, n-CoV, and coronavirus, with the Boolean operators "AND" and "OR". A total of 710 publications were identified, 18 of which were selected for the review, totaling 2,208 infected health professionals in eight countries. It was observed that 67.4% (n = 1,489) of these professionals were women, and 39.4% of the population described in the 15 studies that provided information on occupation (n = 811) were nurses. Seven publications (n = 553) reported severity, among which the most prevalent category was mild/common (47.3% of cases; n = 213). The most common comorbidities were migraine (9.6%, n = 87 of 906), systemic arterial hypertension (5.5%, n = 78 of 1,427), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (3.7%, n = 52 of 1,399). The most common symptoms were coughing (34.3%, n = 597 of 1,740), headache (36.8%, n = 582 of 1,583), and myalgia (31.6%, n = 544 of 1,720). The most frequent radiological findings were bilateral involvement (34.5%, n = 139 of 403), ground glass (49%, n = 101 of 206), and bilateral pneumonia (77.4%, n = 65 of 84). The study found that the most often affected health professionals were female nursing professionals, the main symptom was coughing, and the most frequent comorbidity was migraine. The study's limitation is the small sample. There is a need for more studies with these professionals.

5.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 117(2): 416-422, 2021 08.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399819

ABSTRACT

Hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) e diabetes mellitus (DM) são dois dos principais fatores de risco para a mortalidade por COVID-19. Descrever a prevalência e o perfil clínico-epidemiológico de óbito por COVID-19 ocorridos em Pernambuco, Brasil, entre 12 de março e 14 de maio de 2020 entre pacientes que possuíam hipertensão arterial sistêmica e/ou diabetes mellitus como doenças prévias. Estudo observacional transversal. Foram analisadas as seguintes variáveis: município de procedência, sexo, faixa etária, tempo entre o início dos sinais/sintomas e o óbito, sinais/sintomas, tipo de comorbidades e hábitos de vida. Variáveis categóricas foram descritas por meio de frequências e variáveis contínuas por meio de medidas de tendência central e de dispersão. Os testes de Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis foram utilizados. Dos 1.276 registros incluídos no estudo, 410 apresentavam HAS e/ou DM. A prevalência de HAS foi 26,5% (n=338) e de DM foi 19,7% (n=252). Dos registros, 158 (12,4%) eram de pacientes que possuíam somente HAS, 72 (5,6%) somente DM e 180 (14,1%) apresentavam HAS e DM. Dos indivíduos com HAS, 53,3% apresentavam DM e 71,4% dos diabéticos apresentam HAS. A mediana (em dias) do tempo entre o início dos sinais/sintomas e o desfecho óbito foi 8,0 (IIQ 9,0), sem diferença significativa entre os grupos de comorbidades (p=0,633), sexo (p=0,364) e faixa etária (p=0,111). Observou-se maior prevalência de DM e HAS na população masculina (DM ­ 61,3% eram homens e 38,9% mulheres; HAS ­ 53,2% eram homens e 46,8% mulheres). Os sinais/sintomas mais frequentes foram dispneia (74,1%; n=304), tosse (72,2%; n=296), febre (68,5%; n=281) e saturação de O2<95% (66,1%; n=271). Dos hipertensos, 73,3% (n=100) apresentavam outras comorbidades/fatores de risco associados, e 54,2% (n=39) dos diabéticos apresentavam outras comorbidades/fatores de risco associados. Destacaramse as cardiopatias (19,5%; n=80), obesidade (8,3%; n=34), doença respiratória prévia (7,3%; n=30) e nefropatia (7,8%; n=32). A prevalência de tabagismo foi 8,8% (n=36) e de etilismo alcançou 3,4% (n=14). O estudo mostrou que a prevalência de HAS foi superior à prevalência de DM nos indivíduos que foram a óbito por COVID-19. Em idosos, a prevalência foi superior à observada em indivíduos não idosos.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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