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1.
Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1719642

ABSTRACT

Objectives To assess HAV serologic and vaccination status among people who live with HIV (PLWH), and to evaluate the impact of a vaccination-based strategy on HAV-negative patients in Seville, Spain. Methods Study with two time-overlapping phases: (i) cross-sectional study of HAV immunity prevalence among PLWH followed at a Spanish hospital between August 2019 and March 2020. (ii) Patients seronegative for HAV, reliably unvaccinated were included in a before-and-after quasi-experimental study, with an intervention focused on HAV vaccination according to national recommendations in force. Results Six hundred and fifty-six patients were included, of which 111 [17%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 14–20%] were seronegative for HAV. Of these, 48 [43% (95% CI, 34–53%)] individuals were MSM. The absence of HAV immunity was attributed in 69 [62% (95% CI, 52–71%)] patients to non-referral to vaccination, followed by lack of achievement of a correct vaccination scheme [n=26;23% (95% CI, 16–32%)]. After the program implementation, 96 [15% (95% CI, 12–18%)] individuals were seronegative (17% vs. 15%, p=0.256), of whom 42 [41% (95% CI, 32–51%)] were MSM. The absence of immunity after the intervention was mainly attributed to: adherence failure in 23 [24.0% (95% CI, 15.8–33.7%)] patients, on-course immunization scheme in 34 [33% (95% CI, 24–43%)] individuals and pending appointment at the vaccine delivery unit in 20 [20.8% (95% CI, 13.2–30.3%)] patients. Conclusions A sizeable proportion of PLWH remains susceptible for HAV infection in future outbreaks. A program based on referral to the vaccine delivery unit yields poor results, largely due to program adherence failures. New strategies are needed to increase HAV vaccination coverage. Resumen Objetivos Evaluar la prevalencia de inmunidad frente al VHA en personas que viven con VIH así como el impacto de una intervención basada en la vacunación de pacientes seronegativos frente al VHA. Métodos Estudio con dos fases solapadas en el tiempo: 1) transversal de prevalencia de inmunidad frente al VHA en personas que viven con VIH seguidas en un hospital de tercer nivel, entre agosto de 2019 y el inicio de las medidas nacionales de contención de la epidemia por SARS-CoV-2, marzo de 2020. 2) Cuasiexperimental, con una intervención centrada en la vacunación frente a VHA de pacientes seronegativos, en la unidad responsable de esta. Resultados Ciento once (17%, [95% IC, 14-20%]) de los 656 pacientes incluidos eran seronegativos frente al VHA. Las principales causas de la ausencia de inmunidad fueron: 69 (62% [95% IC, 52-71%]) individuos no derivados a la unidad responsable de la vacunación;26 pacientes (23% [95% CI, 16-32%]) no completaron el esquema vacunal. Tras la intervención, 96 (15% [95% IC, 12-18%]) pacientes continuaron siendo seronegativos frente al VHA (comparada con la prevalencia basal, p=0,256), 42 (18% [95% IC, 13-23%]) eran HSH. Las principales causas de la ausencia de inmunidad fueron: 26 (23% [95% IC, 15-32%]) individuos presentaron fallos de adherencia al circuito vacunal;34 (33% [95% IC, 24-43%]) pacientes habían recibido una sola dosis;22 (22% [95% IC, 14-31%]) seguían sin una primera valoración por parte de la unidad responsable de la vacunación. Conclusiones Una proporción considerable de personas que viven con VIH, particularmente HSH, sigue siendo susceptible a la infección por VHA. La derivación sistemática a la unidad responsable de la vacunación se traduce en modestos incrementos de la prevalencia de inmunidad. Son necesarias nuevas estrategias para aumentar la cobertura vacunal.

2.
COVID ; 2(2):200-210, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1686626

ABSTRACT

Background: To analyze the prevalence and impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection in people with lived experience of mental illness integrated into community-based psychosocial rehabilitation structures in Portugal. Methods: One hundred and thirty-nine people with lived experience of mental illness integrated into community-based psychosocial rehabilitation structures in Portugal answered an online survey that included dimensions related to COVID-19 pandemic prevalence, routine/lifestyle, social support, access to health care, mental health and well-being during the pandemic and confinement, and life satisfaction and postpandemic future expectations. Results: The results point to a low prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infections in this sample. High levels of resilience and mental well-being were identified in the individuals. We also found that participants were satisfied with the social support during this phase and their routine/lifestyle. Conclusions: The study showed that the COVID-19 pandemic seems not to have had a significant negative impact on people with experience of mental illness integrated into community-based psychosocial rehabilitation structures in Portugal. However, more research in this field should be done in the future.

3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e210166, 2021. graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1511857

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) B.1.1.33-derived lineage named N.9 was described recently in Brazil and it's considered a potential variant of interest (VOI) due to the presence of E484K substitution at the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the Spike (S) protein. OBJECTIVE To describe the first detection of variant N.9 in Rio de Janeiro State. METHODS SARS-CoV-2 N.9 was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. FINDINGS Here, we report two SARS-CoV-2 N.9 lineage strains in Rio de Janeiro. One of them had only the E484K substitution of the six N.9 lineage-defining mutations. Other three strains pre-defined as N.9 have the same genomic profile. These four strains are grouped within the B.1.1.33 lineage and basal to the N.9 lineage in our phylogenetic analysis, and we call them "N.9-like/B.1.1.33 + E484K". MAIN CONCLUSIONS The phylogenetic analysis shows four independent introductions of N.9 in the state of Rio de Janeiro in October and December 2020, January and March 2021. SARS-CoV-2 N.9 dissemination in the Rio de Janeiro could have been limited by the emergence and dominance of other variants, mainly by the lineage P.2 VOI Zeta that emerged in the same period and co-circulated with N.9, as observed in the neighboring State of São Paulo.


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Phylogeny , Brazil , Mutation
4.
Cureus ; 13(10): e18850, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485466

ABSTRACT

Background Although evidence has emerged indicating that patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia present a high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), its real incidence and best diagnosis course remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine the incidence of pulmonary embolism in these patients and the role of D-dimer serum level as a predictive factor of a new VTE event. Methodology This was a single-center retrospective observational cohort study conducted in a tertiary hospital. All patients admitted to the infectious diseases ward with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia with clinical or laboratory criteria for suspected VTE events were eligible for inclusion in the study. The t-test or Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the differences between the with-VTE group and the without-VTE group. Results Overall, VTE incidence was registered to be 30%. Chest computed tomography angiography data revealed thrombus mainly in segmental (five patients, 71%) and subsegmental pulmonary artery branches (four patients, 57%). No thrombus on major branches was documented. D-dimer serum levels (collected at hospital admission, 48 hours before the suspected VTE event date and at suspected VTE event date) were analyzed, and, despite a consistent tendency of higher values in the with-VTE group, no statistical difference was observed. Moreover, no statistical difference was observed between the two groups in mortality rates. Conclusions A clear higher risk of VTE events in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patients was not documented, and a link between the impact of VTE occurrence and a worse prognosis was not demonstrated. Therefore, we suggest that the use of D-dimer serum level should not be used as a predictor of VTE in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patients.

5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 379-381, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385707

ABSTRACT

Microbiological response of SARS-CoV-2 to remdesivir in immunocompromised patients has not been evaluated. We present the case of a severely immunocompromised patient with persistent replication of SARS-CoV-2, who required different courses of remdesivir. Short courses of remdesivir might be insufficient in immunocompromised patients due to prolonged viral clearance.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adult , Alanine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
6.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(supl.1): 57-62, 2021. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1309988

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To assess the credibility and the quality content of COVID-19 pandemic information on Brazilian websites. METHODS: We performed Google searches and screened the first 45 websites. The websites were categorized as academic, commercial, government, hospital, media, nongovernmental organizations, and professionals. The credibility was assessed by JAMA benchmark criteria and HONCODE. A checklist with WHO information about COVID-19 was developed to assess the quality content. For each website, the level of agreement with WHO information was categorized into "total," "partial," or "disagreement". RESULTS: A total of 20 websites were analyzed. None of the websites had HONCODE certification. Six websites (30%) met none of the four JAMA criteria and only one website (5%) fulfilled all the four criteria. Only 11 out of 20 websites showed overall coverage >50% for the checklist. Overall, 70% (14/20) of the websites had at least 50% total agreement with WHO items. The government websites presented more disagreement with the WHO items than media websites in the overall quality content analysis. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 information on Brazilian websites have a moderate-to-low credibility and quality, particularly on the government websites.

7.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 639655, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133929

ABSTRACT

In 2016, the world experienced the unprecedented Zika epidemic. The ZIKV emerged as a major human pathogen due to its association with the impairment of perinatal development and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The occurrence of these severe cases of Zika points to the significance of studies for understanding the molecular determinants of flavivirus pathogenesis. Reverse genetics is a powerful method for studying the replication and determinants of pathogenesis, virulence, and viral attenuation of flaviviruses, facilitating the design of vaccines and therapeutics. However, the main hurdle in the development of infectious clones is the instability of full-length cDNA in Escherichia coli. Here, we described the development of a genetically stable and efficient infectious clone based on the ZIKV Rio-U1 isolated in the 2016 epidemic in Brazil. The employed strategy consisted of cloning the viral cDNA genome into two stable plasmid subclones and obtaining a high-quality cDNA template with increment in DNA mass for in vitro transcription by PCR amplification. The strategy for developing a ZIKV infectious cDNA clone designed in this study was successful, yielding a replicative and efficient clone-derived virus with high similarities with its parental virus, Rio-U1, by comparison of the proliferation capacity in mammal and insect cells. The infection of AG129 immunocompromised mice caused identical mortality rates, with similar disease progression and morbidity in the animals infected with the parental and the cDNA-derived virus. Histopathological analyses of mouse brains infected with the parental and the cDNA-derived viruses revealed a similar pathogenesis degree. We observed meningoencephalitis, cellular pyknosis, and neutrophilic invasion adjacent to the choroid plexus and perivascular cuffs with the presence of neutrophils. The developed infectious clone will be a tool for genetic and functional studies in vitro and in vivo to understand viral infection and pathogenesis better.

8.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e039951, 2020 11 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944946

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: About 25% of patients with COVID-19 develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) associated with a high release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6). The aim of the SARICOR study is to demonstrate that early administration of sarilumab (an IL-6 receptor inhibitor) in hospitalised patients with COVID-19, pulmonary infiltrates and a high IL-6 or D-dimer serum level could reduce the progression of ARDS requiring high-flow nasal oxygen or mechanical ventilation (non-invasive or invasive). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Phase II, open-label, randomised, multicentre, controlled clinical trial to study the efficacy and safety of the administration of two doses of sarilumab (200 and 400 mg) plus best available therapy (BAT) in hospitalised adults with COVID-19 presenting cytokine release syndrome. This strategy will be compared with a BAT control group. The efficacy and safety will be monitored up to 28 days postadministration. A total of 120 patients will be recruited (40 patients in each arm). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The clinical trial has been approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the coordinating centre and authorised by the Spanish Agency of Medicines and Medical Products. If the hypothesis is verified, the dissemination of the results could change clinical practice by increasing early administration of sarilumab in adult patients with COVID-19 presenting cytokine release syndrome, thus reducing intensive care unit admissions. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04357860.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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