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1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 14: 1129793, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242154

ABSTRACT

The past two decades have witnessed telemedicine becoming a crucial part of health care as a method to facilitate doctor-patient interaction. Due to technological developments and the incremental acquisition of experience in its use, telemedicine's advantages and cost-effectiveness has led to it being recognised as specifically relevant to diabetology. However, the pandemic created new challenges for healthcare systems and the rate of development of digital services started to grow exponentially. It was soon discovered that COVID-19-infected patients with diabetes had an increased risk of both mortality and debilitating sequelae. In addition, it was observed that this higher risk could be attenuated primarily by maintaining optimal control of the patient's glucose metabolism. As opportunities for actual physical doctor-patient visits became restricted, telemedicine provided the most convenient opportunity to communicate with patients and maintain delivery of care. The wide range of experiences of health care provision during the pandemic has led to the development of several excellent strategies regarding the applicability of telemedicine across the whole spectrum of diabetes care. The continuation of these strategies is likely to benefit clinical practice even after the pandemic crisis is over.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Telemedicine , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy
2.
N Engl J Med ; 387(21): 1923-1934, 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High triglyceride levels are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but whether reductions in these levels would lower the incidence of cardiovascular events is uncertain. Pemafibrate, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α modulator, reduces triglyceride levels and improves other lipid levels. METHODS: In a multinational, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, we assigned patients with type 2 diabetes, mild-to-moderate hypertriglyceridemia (triglyceride level, 200 to 499 mg per deciliter), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels of 40 mg per deciliter or lower to receive pemafibrate (0.2-mg tablets twice daily) or matching placebo. Eligible patients were receiving guideline-directed lipid-lowering therapy or could not receive statin therapy without adverse effects and had low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels of 100 mg per deciliter or lower. The primary efficacy end point was a composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, coronary revascularization, or death from cardiovascular causes. RESULTS: Among 10,497 patients (66.9% with previous cardiovascular disease), the median baseline fasting triglyceride level was 271 mg per deciliter, HDL cholesterol level 33 mg per deciliter, and LDL cholesterol level 78 mg per deciliter. The median follow-up was 3.4 years. As compared with placebo, the effects of pemafibrate on lipid levels at 4 months were -26.2% for triglycerides, -25.8% for very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, -25.6% for remnant cholesterol (cholesterol transported in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins after lipolysis and lipoprotein remodeling), -27.6% for apolipoprotein C-III, and 4.8% for apolipoprotein B. A primary end-point event occurred in 572 patients in the pemafibrate group and in 560 of those in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.91 to 1.15), with no apparent effect modification in any prespecified subgroup. The overall incidence of serious adverse events did not differ significantly between the groups, but pemafibrate was associated with a higher incidence of adverse renal events and venous thromboembolism and a lower incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with type 2 diabetes, mild-to-moderate hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL and LDL cholesterol levels, the incidence of cardiovascular events was not lower among those who received pemafibrate than among those who received placebo, although pemafibrate lowered triglyceride, VLDL cholesterol, remnant cholesterol, and apolipoprotein C-III levels. (Funded by the Kowa Research Institute; PROMINENT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03071692.).


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hypertriglyceridemia , Hypolipidemic Agents , PPAR alpha , Humans , Apolipoprotein C-III/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cholesterol/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Double-Blind Method , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hyperlipidemias/blood , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Hypertriglyceridemia/blood , Hypertriglyceridemia/complications , Hypertriglyceridemia/drug therapy , Risk Factors , Triglycerides/blood , Hypolipidemic Agents/therapeutic use , PPAR alpha/agonists , Cholesterol, HDL/blood
3.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 131(5): 260-267, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276753

ABSTRACT

The growing amount of evidence suggests the existence of a bidirectional relation between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), as these two conditions exacerbate each other, causing a significant healthcare and socioeconomic burden. The alterations in innate and adaptive cellular immunity, adipose tissue, alveolar and endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulation, the propensity to an increased viral load, and chronic diabetic complications are all associated with glucometabolic perturbations of T2DM patients that predispose them to severe forms of COVID-19 and mortality. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection negatively impacts glucose homeostasis due to its effects on insulin sensitivity and ß-cell function, further aggravating the preexisting glucometabolic perturbations in individuals with T2DM. Thus, the most effective ways are urgently needed for countering these glucometabolic disturbances occurring during acute COVID-19 illness in T2DM patients. The novel classes of antidiabetic medications (dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP-4is), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2is) are considered candidate drugs for this purpose. This review article summarizes current knowledge regarding glucometabolic disturbances during acute COVID-19 illness in T2DM patients and the potential ways to tackle them using novel antidiabetic medications. Recent observational data suggest that preadmission use of GLP-1 RAs and SGLT-2is are associated with decreased patient mortality, while DPP-4is is associated with increased in-hospital mortality of T2DM patients with COVID-19. Although these results provide further evidence for the widespread use of these two classes of medications in this COVID-19 era, dedicated randomized controlled trials analyzing the effects of in-hospital use of novel antidiabetic agents in T2DM patients with COVID-19 are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1/therapeutic use , Glucose
4.
Metabolites ; 13(1)2022 Dec 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232885

ABSTRACT

Periodontitis is a microbially driven, host-mediated disease that leads to loss of periodontal attachment and resorption of bone. It is associated with the elevation of systemic inflammatory markers and with the presence of systemic comorbidities. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although the majority of patients have mild symptoms, others experience important complications that can lead to death. After the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, several investigations demonstrating the possible relationship between periodontitis and COVID-19 have been reported. In addition, both periodontal disease and COVID-19 seem to provoke and/or impair several cardiometabolic complications such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and neurological and neuropsychiatric complications. Therefore, due to the increasing number of investigations focusing on the periodontitis-COVID-19 relationship and considering the severe complications that such an association might cause, this review aims to summarize all existing emerging evidence regarding the link between the periodontitis-COVID-19 axis and consequent cardiometabolic impairments.

5.
J Diabetes Complications ; 36(11): 108336, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117652

ABSTRACT

The raging COVID-19 pandemic is in its third year of global impact. The SARS CoV 2 virus has a high rate of spread, protean manifestations, and a high morbidity and mortality in individuals with predisposing risk factors. The pathophysiologic mechanisms involve a heightened systemic inflammatory state, cardiometabolic derangements, and varying degrees of glucose intolerance. The latter can be evident as significant hyperglycemia leading to new-onset diabetes or worsening of preexisting disease. Unfortunately, the clinical course beyond the acute phase of the illness may persist in the form of a variety of symptoms that together form the so-called "Long COVID" or "Post-COVID Syndrome". It is thought that a chronic, low-grade inflammatory and immunologic state persists during this phase, which may last for weeks or months. Although numerous insights have been gained into COVID-related hyperglycemia and diabetes, its prediction, course, and management remain to be fully elucidated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hyperglycemia , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , COVID-19/complications , RNA, Viral , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Hyperglycemia/complications , Inflammation/complications
6.
Journal of diabetes and its complications ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2058382

ABSTRACT

The raging COVID-19 pandemic is in its third year of global impact. The SARS CoV 2 virus has a high rate of spread, protean manifestations, and a high morbidity and mortality in individuals with predisposing risk factors. The pathophysiologic mechanisms involve a heightened systemic inflammatory state, cardiometabolic derangements, and varying degrees of glucose intolerance. The latter can be evident as significant hyperglycemia leading to new-onset diabetes or worsening of preexisting disease. Unfortunately, the clinical course beyond the acute phase of the illness may persist in the form of a variety of symptoms that together form the so-called “Long COVID” or “Post-COVID Syndrome”. It is thought that a chronic, low-grade inflammatory and immunologic state persists during this phase, which may last for weeks or months. Although numerous insights have been gained into COVID-related hyperglycemia and diabetes, its prediction, course, and management remain to be fully elucidated.

7.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1868(12): 166559, 2022 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041586

ABSTRACT

Obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), hypertension (HTN), and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) often cluster together as "Cardiometabolic Disease" (CMD). Just under 50% of patients with CMD increased the risk of morbidity and mortality right from the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic as it has been reported in most countries affected by the SARS-CoV2 virus. One of the pathophysiological hallmarks of COVID-19 is the overactivation of the immune system with a prominent IL-6 response, resulting in severe and systemic damage involving also cytokines such as IL2, IL4, IL8, IL10, and interferon-gamma were considered strong predictors of COVID-19 severity. Thus, in this mini-review, we try to describe the inflammatory state, the alteration of the adipokine profile, and cytokine production in the obese state of infected and not infected patients by SARS-CoV2 with the final aim to find possible influences of COVID-19 on CMD and CVD. The immunological-based discussion of the molecular processes could inspire the study of promising targets for managing CMD patients and its complications during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adipokines , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cytokines , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Humans , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-2 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 66, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025129

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a continuous and robust impact on world health. The resulting COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating physical, mental and fiscal impact on the millions of people living with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). In addition to older age, people living with CVD, stroke, obesity, diabetes, kidney disease, and hypertension are at a particularly greater risk for severe forms of COVID-19 and its consequences. Meta-analysis indicates that hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and thrombotic complications have been observed as both the most prevalent and most dangerous co-morbidities in COVID-19 patients. And despite the nearly incalculable physical, mental, emotional, and economic toll of this pandemic, forthcoming public health figures continue to place cardiovascular disease as the number one cause of death across the globe in the year 2020. The world simply cannot wait for the next pandemic to invest in NCDs. Social determinants of health cannot be addressed only through the healthcare system, but a more holistic multisectoral approach with at its basis the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is needed to truly address social and economic inequalities and build more resilient systems. Yet there is reason for hope: the 2019 UN Political Declaration on UHC provides a strong framework for building more resilient health systems, with explicit calls for investment in NCDs and references to fiscal policies that put such investment firmly within reach. By further cementing the importance of addressing circulatory health in a future Framework Convention on Emergency Preparedness, WHO Member States can take concrete steps towards a pandemic-free future. As the chief representatives of the global circulatory health community and patients, the Global Coalition for Circulatory Health calls for increased support for the healthcare workforce, global vaccine equity, embracing new models of care and digital health solutions, as well as fiscal policies on unhealthy commodities to support these investments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Aged , Global Health , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Diabetes Ther ; 13(10): 1723-1736, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007290

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, has been shown to disrupt many organ systems in the human body. Though several medical disorders have been affected by this infection, a few illnesses in addition may also play a role in determining the outcome of COVID-19. Obesity is one such disease which is not only affected by the occurrence of COVID-19 but can also result in a worse clinical outcome of COVID-19 infection. This manuscript summarizes the most recent evidence supporting the bidirectional impact of COVID-19 and obesity. It highlights how the presence of obesity can be detrimental to the outcome of COVID-19 in a given patient because of the mechanical limitations in lung compliance and also by the activation of several thrombo-inflammatory pathways. The sociodemographic changes brought about by the pandemic in turn have facilitated the already increasing prevalence of obesity. This manuscript highlights the importance of recognizing these pathways which may further help in policy changes that facilitate appropriate measures to prevent the further worsening of these two pandemics.

10.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 25(4): 101608, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788010

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLH) under combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). OBJECTIVE: We examined the incidence of T2DM, associated factors and mean time to outcome in PLH under cART. METHOD: Data for this multicenter cohort study were obtained from PLH aged over 18, who started cART in 13 Brazilian sites from 2003 to 2013. Factors associated with incident T2DM were evaluated by Cox multiple regression models. RESULTS: A total of 6724 patients (30,997.93 person-years) were followed from January 2003 to December 2016. A T2DM incidence rate of 17.3/1000 person-years (95%CI 15.8-18.8) was observed. Incidence of isolated hypertriglyceridemia and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) were 84.3 (95%CI 81.1-87.6) and 14.5/1000 person-years (95%CI 13.2-15.9), respectively. Mean time to T2DM onset was 10.5 years (95%CI 10.3-10.6). Variables associated with incident T2DM were age 40-50 [Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.7, 95%CI 1.4-2.1] and ≥ 50 years (HR 2.4, 95%CI 1.9-3.1); obesity (HR 2.1, 95%CI 1.6-2.8); abnormal triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol ratio (HR 1.8, 95%CI 1.51-2.2). IFG predicted T2DM (HR 2.6, 95%CI 1.7-2.5) and occurred on average 3.3 years before diabetes onset. Exposure to stavudine for ≥ 2 years was independently associated with incident T2DM [HR 1.6, 95%CI 1.0-2.2). CONCLUSION: Brazilian PLH under cART are at significant risk of developing T2DM and share risk factors for diabetes onset with the general population, such as older age, obesity, and having metabolic abnormalities at baseline. Moreover, stavudine use was independently associated with incident T2DM. Identifying PLH at a higher risk of T2DM can help caretakers trigger health promotion and establish specific targets for implementation of preventive measures.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Risk Factors
11.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 787761, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603363

ABSTRACT

Efforts in the fight against COVID-19 are achieving success in many parts of the world, although progress remains slow in other regions. We believe that a syndemic approach needs to be adopted to address this pandemic given the strong apparent interplay between COVID-19, its related complications, and the socio-structural environment. We have assembled an international, multidisciplinary group of researchers and clinical practitioners to promote a novel syndemic approach to COVID-19: the CArdiometabolic Panel of International experts on Syndemic COvid-19 (CAPISCO). This geographically diverse group aims to facilitate collaborative-networking and scientific exchanges between researchers and clinicians facing a multitude of challenges on different continents during the pandemic. In the present article we present our "manifesto", with the intent to provide evidence-based guidance to the global medical and scientific community for better management of patients both during and after the current pandemic.

12.
Cardiol Ther ; 11(1): 1-7, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520518

ABSTRACT

A recent meta-analysis of over 20,000 individuals showed that hospitalized COVID-19 patients with acute myocardial injury had more than fourfold higher mortality than those without such injury. Since the COVID-19 pandemic exacerbates already existing health inequalities, there is an urgent need to create measures to protect the most vulnerable patient groups, including those with a pre-existing increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). A typical example is familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), a common genetic disease affecting over 30 million individuals worldwide. If left untreated or undertreated, FH patients suffer from complications of premature ASCVD, such as acute coronary syndromes, resulting in acute myocardial injury/infarction. A recent population-based analysis provided strong evidence suggesting that COVID-19 poses an even higher risk for myocardial injury in FH patients. From the long-term preventive point of view, it is important to note that, in addition to the acutely elevated risk of myocardial injury, an elevated risk of ASCVD and its complications will persist after COVID-19. The decline in outpatient preventive care during the pandemic is likely to influence ASCVD risk and outcomes, particularly in high-risk patients, such as those with FH. This commentary aims to raise global awareness of the challenges that clinicians treating FH patients continue to face during the COVID-19 pandemic, with two low- to middle-income countries, South Africa and Brazil, serving as examples.

13.
Atheroscler Plus ; 43: 3-6, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347497

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection continues to cause increased morbidity and mortality, and due to the slow pace of vaccination COVID-19 will probably remain a global burden to health systems for a long time. Unfortunately, the necessary prevention and treatment strategies of COVID-19 have led to restriction measures that are hampering the routine care of common chronic metabolic conditions like hypercholesterolemia. It is of particular concern that during the acute phase of COVID-19, the control of pre-existing metabolic diseases tends to get worse which again increases the risk for complications and a poor outcome in these patients. A significant contributor to these complications is endothelial dysfunction which is associated with COVID-19. This Commentary will discuss the impact of COVID-19 on endothelial function particularly in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), a metabolic inherited disease known to in itself adversely affect endothelial function. There should be no hesitation to continue with statin therapy in severe hypercholesterolemic patients with COVID-19. We argue that in FH patients with COVID-19 the clinicians need even consider intensifying statin therapy as well as the addition of other lipid-lowering agents, such as proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9(PCSK9) inhibitors. In contrast to statins, the PCSK9 inhibitors lower lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] level, and, accordingly, these latter drugs need to be considered particularly in FH patients with an elevated level of Lp(a). This call applies to the in-hospital stay and also beyond. When considering that the vasculopathic effects of COVID-19 may persist, a long-term follow-up of individualized therapies in FH patients is warranted.

14.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e2518, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159487

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) showed increased morbidity and mortality rates and worse prognosis in individuals with underlying chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. There is also evidence of possible links among COVID-19, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Emerging evidence suggests a pro-inflammatory milieu and hypercoagulable state in patients with this infection. Despite anticoagulation, a large proportion of patients requiring intensive care may develop life-threatening thrombotic complications. Indeed, the levels of some markers of hemostatic activation, such as D-dimer, are commonly elevated in COVID-19, indicating potential risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism. In this review, we critically examine and discuss aspects of hypercoagulability and inflammation in COVID-19 and the possible benefits of statins in this scenario, with emphasis on their underlying molecular mechanisms. Moreover, we present recommendations on the use of antiviral drugs in combination with statins.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
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