Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 5 de 5
Filter
1.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):246, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880203

ABSTRACT

Background: Randomized COVID-19 trials provide opportunities to describe post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC)-related symptom burden longitudinally and assess the impact of early use of antivirals on PASC prevalence. Methods: ACTIV-2 evaluates safety and efficacy of investigational agents for non-hospitalized adults with mild to moderate COVID-19 in a Phase II/III trial. In Phase II, participants were randomized within 10 days of symptom onset and a positive SARS-CoV-2 virologic test to receive bamlanivimab (BAM) or placebo as a single infusion at 7000mg (n=94) or 700mg (n=225). In a subsequent single-arm open-label study, 1059 participants received 700mg BAM. Participants completed a 13-symptom daily diary from enrollment through Day 28. A long-term (LT) diary (14 additional symptoms) introduced after the study was underway was completed by a subset of individuals every 12 weeks. We report Week 24 findings. Results: Between Aug 2020 to Feb 2021 605 participants enrolled and completed LT diary at Week 24 [Phase II: 7000mg vs. placebo (n=25);700mg vs. placebo (n=68);single-arm open-label cohort: 700mg (n=512)]. Median age was 50 years, 51% female sex, 99% identified as cis-gender, 5% Black/African American, and 35% Hispanic/Latino. At enrollment, 53% reported ≥1 high-risk comorbidity and 0.3% were vaccinated against COVID-19. By Week 24, 14% (87/605) had not returned to their pre-COVID-19 health by self-report, with 57% (50/87) reporting ≥3 PASC symptoms. The most common symptoms were fatigue (45% of 87), smell disorder (36%), breathing difficulties (30%), taste disorders (25%), musculoskeletal pain (26%) or weakness (23%), and cognitive complaints: difficulty concentrating/thinking (30%), difficulty reasoning and solving problems (21%), memory loss (25%) and insomnia (23%). Most reported symptoms as "mild". Participants who reported acute viral illness symptoms between Days 22-28 were more likely to report PASC symptoms at Week 24 than those who did not report symptoms at Days 22-28 [51% (164/320) vs. 27% (76/285);p<0.0001]. Conclusion: In outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19, 14% had not returned to pre-COVID-19 health by 24 weeks post infection, with generally mild but multiple symptoms. Presence of acute viral illness symptoms at 3-4 weeks was associated with an increased risk of PASC symptoms months later. Larger placebo-controlled studies within ACTIV-2 will assess the potential for early antiviral therapies to mitigate or prevent PASC.

3.
Comput Biol Med ; 139: 104964, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525749

ABSTRACT

The open reading frame 8 (ORF8) protein of SARS-CoV-2 has been implicated in the onset of cytokine storms, which are responsible for the pathophysiology of COVID-19 infection. The present study investigated the potential of isolated compounds from Clerodendrum volubile leaves to stall oxidative bursts in vitro and interact with ORF8 mRNA segments of the SARS-CoV-2 whole genome using computational tools. Five compounds, namely, harpagide, 1-(3-methyl-2-butenoxy)-4-(1-propenyl)benzene, ajugoside, iridoid glycoside and erucic acid, were isolated from C. volubile leaves, and their structures were elucidated using conventional spectroscopy tools. Iridoid glycoside is being reported for the first time and is thus regarded as a new compound. The ORF8 mRNA sequences of the translation initiation sites (TIS) and translation termination sites (TTSs) encoding ORF8 amino acids were retrieved from the full genome of SARS-CoV-2. Molecular docking studies revealed strong molecular interactions of the isolated compounds with the TIS and TTS of ORF8 mRNA. Harpagide showed the strongest binding affinity for TIS, while erucic acid was the strongest for TTS. The immunomodulatory potentials of the isolated compounds were investigated on neutrophil phagocytic respiratory bursts using luminol-amplified chemiluminescence technique. The compounds significantly inhibited oxidative burst, with 1-(3-methyl-2-butenoxy)-4-(1-propenyl)benzene having the best activity. Ajugoside and erucic acid showed significant inhibitory activity on T-cell proliferation. These results indicate the potential of C. volubile compounds as immunomodulators and can be utilized to curb cytokine storms implicated in COVID-19 infection. These potentials are further corroborated by the strong interactions of the compounds with the TIS and TTS of ORF8 mRNA from the SARS-CoV-2 whole genome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clerodendrum , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Open Reading Frames , Plant Leaves , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 736511, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430718

ABSTRACT

The possible evolutionary trend of COVID-19 in South Africa was investigated by comparing the genome of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from a patient in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa with those isolated from China, Spain, Italy, and United States, as well as the genomes of Bat SARS CoV, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Mouse Hepatitis Virus (MHV), and Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed a strong homology (96%) between the genomes of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and those isolated from the study countries as well as those isolated from bat SARS CoV, MERS-CoV, MHV and IBV. The ability of phytocannabinoids from Cannabis sativa infusion to interact with gene segments (mRNAs) coding for proteins implicated in viral replication, assembly and release were also investiagted using computational tools. Hot water infusion of C. sativa leaves was freeze-dried and subjected to Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy analysis which revealed the presence of tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabispiran, cannabidiol tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabigerol, and cannabinol. Molecular docking analysis revealed strong binding affinities and interactions between the phytocannabinoids and codon mRNAs for ORF1ab, Surface glycoprotein, Envelope protein and Nucleocapsid phosphoprotein from SARS-CoV-2 whole genome which may be due to chemico-biological interactions as a result of nucleophilic/electrophilic attacks between viral nucleotides and cannabinoids. These results depict the spread of SARS-CoV-2 is intercontinental and might have evolved from other coronaviruses. The results also portray the phytocannabinoids of C. sativa infusion as potential therapies against COVID-19 as depicted by their ability to molecularly interact with codon mRNAs of proteins implicated in the replication, translation, assembly, and release of SARS-CoV-2. However, further studies are needed to verify these activities in pre-clinical and clinical studies.

5.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 40(6): 2475-2488, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900176

ABSTRACT

The global spread of the coronavirus infections disease - 2019 (COVID-19) and the search for new drugs from natural products particularly from plants are receiving much attention recently. In this study, the therapeutic potential of a new iridoid glycoside isolated from the leaves of Clerodendrum volubile against COVID-19 was investigated. Harpagide 5-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (HG) was isolated, characterised and investigated for its druglikeness, optimized geometry, and pharmacokinetics properties. Its immunomodulatory was determined by chemiluminescence assay using polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in addition to T-cell proliferation assay. In silico analysis was used in determining its molecular interaction with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-COV-2). HG displayed potent druglikeness properties, with no inhibitory effect on cytochrome P450 (1A2, 2C19, 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4) and a predicted LD50 of 2000 mg/kg. Its 1H-NMR chemical shifts showed a little deviation of 0.01 and 0.11 ppm for H-4 and H-9, respectively. HG significantly suppressed oxidative bursts in PMNs, while concomitantly inhibiting T-cell proliferation. It also displayed a very strong binding affinity with the translation initiation and termination sequence sites of spike (S) protein mRNA of SARS-COV-2, its gene product, and host ACE2 receptor. These results suggest the immunomodulatory properties and anti-SARS-COV-2 potentials of HG which can be explored in the treatment and management of COVID-19.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
Clerodendrum , Glucosides/pharmacology , Iridoid Glycosides/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , COVID-19/drug therapy , Clerodendrum/chemistry , Codon, Terminator , Humans , Pyrans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL