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1.
Immunity ; 55(5): 738-748, 2022 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838897

ABSTRACT

The brutal toll of another viral pandemic can be blunted by investing now in research that uncovers mechanisms of broad-based immunity so we may have vaccines and therapeutics at the ready. We do not know exactly what pathogen may trigger the next wave or next pandemic. We do know, however, that the human immune system must respond and must be bolstered with effective vaccines and other therapeutics to preserve lives and livelihoods. These countermeasures must focus on features conserved among families of pathogens in order to be responsive against something yet to emerge. Here, we focus on immunological approaches to mitigate the impact of the next emerging virus pandemic by developing vaccines that elicit both broadly protective antibodies and T cells. Identifying human immune mechanisms of broad protection against virus families with pandemic potential will be our best defense for humanity in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes
2.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(645): eabm2311, 2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765074

ABSTRACT

The successful development of several coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines has substantially reduced morbidity and mortality in regions of the world where the vaccines have been deployed. However, in the wake of the emergence of viral variants that are able to evade vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies, real-world vaccine efficacy has begun to show differences across the two approved mRNA platforms, BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273; these findings suggest that subtle variation in immune responses induced by the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccines may confer differential protection. Given our emerging appreciation for the importance of additional antibody functions beyond neutralization, we profiled the postboost binding and functional capacity of humoral immune responses induced by the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccines in a cohort of hospital staff. Both vaccines induced robust humoral immune responses to wild-type severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and to variants of concern. However, differences emerged across epitope-specific responses, with higher concentrations of receptor binding domain (RBD)- and N-terminal domain-specific IgA observed in recipients of mRNA-1273. Antibodies eliciting neutrophil phagocytosis and natural killer cell activation were also increased in mRNA-1273 vaccine recipients as compared to BNT162b2 recipients. RBD-specific antibody depletion highlighted the different roles of non-RBD-specific antibody effector functions induced across the mRNA vaccines. These data provide insights into potential differences in protective immunity conferred by these vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331027

ABSTRACT

Next-generation COVID-19 vaccines are critical due to the ongoing evolution of SARS-CoV-2 virus. The mRNA vaccines mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2 were developed using linear transcripts encoding the prefusion-stabilized trimers (S-2P) of the wildtype spike, which have shown a reduced neutralizing activity against the variants of concern B.1.617.2 and B.1.1.529. Recently, a new version of spike trimers namely VFLIP has been suggested to possess native-like glycosylation, as opposed to S-2P. Here, we report that the spike protein VFLIP-X, containing six rationally substituted amino acids (K417N, L452R, T478K, E484K, N501Y and D614G), offers a promising candidate for a next-generation SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Mice immunized by a circular mRNA (circRNA) vaccine prototype producing VFLIP-X elicited neutralizing antibodies for up to 7 weeks post-boost against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) and variants of interest (VOIs). In addition, a balance in T H 1 and T H 2 responses was achieved by the immunization with VFLIP-X. Our results indicate that the VFLIP-X delivered by circRNA confers humoral and cellular immune responses, as well as neutralizing activity against broad SARS-CoV-2 variants.

4.
Science ; 375(6585): 1133-1139, 2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736002

ABSTRACT

The vaccine and drug discovery responses to COVID-19 have worked far better than could have been imagined. Yet by the end of 2021, more than 5 million people had died, and the pandemic continues to evolve and rage globally. This Review will describe how each of the vaccines, antibody therapies, and antiviral drugs that have been approved to date were built on decades of investment in technology and basic science. We will caution that the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus has so far proven a straightforward test of our pandemic preparedness, and we will recommend steps we should undertake now to prepare for, to minimize the effects of, and ideally to prevent future pandemics. Other Reviews in this series describe the interactions of SARS-CoV-2 with the immune system and those therapies that target the host response to infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Disease Progression , Drug Development , Drug Discovery , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vaccinology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313773

ABSTRACT

The robust protection conferred by SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines represents a critical milestone in the COVID-19 vaccine development. However, the emergence of variants has inspired renewed concern related to the protective efficacy of currently approved vaccines, which lose neutralizing potency against some variants. However, emerging data suggest that antibody functions, beyond neutralization, may contribute to protection from disease. Thus, here we profiled the binding and functional capacity of convalescent antibodies and Moderna mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibodies across SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC). While neutralizing antibody responses are affected by VOCs, antibodies generated after infection exhibited robust binding to VOCs but compromised interactions with Fc-receptors. Conversely, vaccine-induced antibodies bound robustly to VOCs and continued interacting with Fc-receptors and mediated antibody effector functions. These data point to a previously unappreciated resilience in the mRNA vaccine-induced humoral immune response that may continue to provide protection from SARS-CoV-2 VOCs independent of neutralization.Trial Registration: This work used samples from the phase 1, dose-escalation, open-labelclinical trial designed to determine the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of mRNA-1273 (mRNA-1273 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04283461 mRNA-1273 study;DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2022483).Funding: We acknowledge support from the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, the Massachusetts Consortium on Pathogen Readiness (MassCPR), the NIH (3R37AI080289-11S1, R01AI146785, U19AI42790-01, U19AI135995-02, U19AI42790-01, 1U01CA260476 – 01, CIVIC75N93019C00052), the Gates Foundation Global Health Vaccine Accelerator Platform funding (OPP1146996 and INV-001650), Translational Research Institute for Space Health through NASA Cooperative Agreement (NNX16AO69A), and the Musk Foundation. This work used samples from the phase 1 mRNA-1273 study (NCT04283461;DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2022483). The mRNA-1273 phase 1 study was sponsored and primarily funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD. This trial has been funded in part with federal funds from the NIAID under grant awards UM1AI148373, to Kaiser Washington;UM1AI148576, UM1AI148684, and NIH P51 OD011132, to Emory University;NIH AID AI149644, and contract award HHSN272201500002C, to Emmes. Funding for the manufacture of mRNA-1273 phase 1 material was provided by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation.Declaration of Interest: G.A. is a founder of Seromyx Systems Inc. A.C. is employee of Moderna Inc. D.D., P.M., A.S.M, and E.R.M. are employees of Space Exploration Technologies Corp. All other authors have declared that no conflict of interest exists.Ethical Approval: The MGH IRB reviewed the ethics protocol for secondary use under record 2020P004042 and the project was deemed Not Human Research.

6.
7.
Cell Res ; 31(12): 1226-1227, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612183
8.
MAbs ; 14(1): 2002236, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585298

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an evolving global public health crisis in need of therapeutic options. Passive immunization of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) represents a promising therapeutic strategy capable of conferring immediate protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Herein, we describe the discovery and characterization of neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 IgG and VHH antibodies from four large-scale phage libraries. Each library was constructed synthetically with shuffled complementarity-determining region loops from natural llama and human antibody repertoires. While most candidates targeted the receptor-binding domain of the S1 subunit of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, we also identified a neutralizing IgG candidate that binds a unique epitope on the N-terminal domain. A select number of antibodies retained binding to SARS-CoV-2 variants Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Kappa and Delta. Overall, our data show that synthetic phage libraries can rapidly yield SARS-CoV-2 S1 antibodies with therapeutically desirable features, including high affinity, unique binding sites, and potent neutralizing activity in vitro, and a capacity to limit disease in vivo.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Surface Display Techniques , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Peptide Library , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Specificity , Binding Sites, Antibody , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Epitopes , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Immunoglobulin G/genetics , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G/pharmacology , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Single-Domain Antibodies/genetics , Single-Domain Antibodies/metabolism , Single-Domain Antibodies/pharmacology , Vero Cells
9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294073

ABSTRACT

Successful control of the COVID-19 pandemic depends on vaccines that prevent transmission. The full-length Spike protein is highly immunogenic but the majority of antibodies do not target the virus: ACE2 interface. In an effort to concentrate the antibody response to the receptor-binding motif (RBM) we generated a series of conformationally-constrained immunogens by inserting solvent-exposed RBM amino acid residues into hypervariable loops of an immunoglobulin molecule. Priming C57BL/6 mice with plasmid (p)DNA encoding these constructs yielded a rapid memory response to booster immunization with recombinant Spike protein. Immune sera antibodies bound strongly to the purified receptor-binding domain (RBD) and Spike proteins. pDNA primed for a consistent response with antibodies efficient at neutralizing authentic WA1 virus and two variants of concern (VOC), B.1.351 and B.1.617.2. These findings demonstrate that immunogens built on structure selection can focus the response to conserved sites of vulnerability shared between wildtype virus and VOCs and induce neutralizing antibodies across variants.

10.
Res Sq ; 2021 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417405

ABSTRACT

Recently approved vaccines have already shown remarkable protection in limiting SARS-CoV-2 associated disease. However, immunologic mechanism(s) of protection, as well as how boosting alters immunity to wildtype and newly emerging strains, remain incompletely understood. Here we deeply profiled the humoral immune response in a cohort of non-human primates immunized with a stable recombinant full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein (NVX-CoV2373) at two dose levels, administered as a single or two-dose regimen with a saponin-based adjuvant Matrix-M™. While antigen dose had some effect on Fc-effector profiles, both antigen dose and boosting significantly altered overall titers, neutralization and Fc-effector profiles, driving unique vaccine-induced antibody fingerprints. Combined differences in antibody effector functions and neutralization were strongly associated with distinct levels of protection in the upper and lower respiratory tract, pointing to the presence of combined, but distinct, compartment-specific neutralization and Fc-mechanisms as key determinants of protective immunity against infection. Moreover, NVX-CoV2373 elicited antibodies functionally target emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, collectively pointing to the critical collaborative role for Fab and Fc in driving maximal protection against SARS-CoV-2. Collectively, the data presented here suggest that a single dose may prevent disease, but that two doses may be essential to block further transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants.

11.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(9): 100405, 2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377862

ABSTRACT

Recently approved vaccines have shown remarkable efficacy in limiting SARS-CoV-2-associated disease. However, with the variety of vaccines, immunization strategies, and waning antibody titers, defining the correlates of immunity across a spectrum of antibody titers is urgently required. Thus, we profiled the humoral immune response in a cohort of non-human primates immunized with a recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (NVX-CoV2373) at two doses, administered as a single- or two-dose regimen. Both antigen dose and boosting significantly altered neutralization titers and Fc-effector profiles, driving unique vaccine-induced antibody fingerprints. Combined differences in antibody effector functions and neutralization were associated with distinct levels of protection in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Moreover, NVX-CoV2373 elicited antibodies that functionally targeted emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Collectively, the data presented here suggest that a single dose may prevent disease via combined Fc/Fab functions but that two doses may be essential to block further transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Saponins/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/drug effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Nanoparticles , Primates/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
12.
Science ; 371(6529)2021 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309798

ABSTRACT

Understanding immune memory to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is critical for improving diagnostics and vaccines and for assessing the likely future course of the COVID-19 pandemic. We analyzed multiple compartments of circulating immune memory to SARS-CoV-2 in 254 samples from 188 COVID-19 cases, including 43 samples at ≥6 months after infection. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) to the spike protein was relatively stable over 6+ months. Spike-specific memory B cells were more abundant at 6 months than at 1 month after symptom onset. SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells declined with a half-life of 3 to 5 months. By studying antibody, memory B cell, CD4+ T cell, and CD8+ T cell memory to SARS-CoV-2 in an integrated manner, we observed that each component of SARS-CoV-2 immune memory exhibited distinct kinetics.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , United States , Young Adult
13.
Cell Rep ; 36(4): 109452, 2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306891

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants that attenuate antibody neutralization could jeopardize vaccine efficacy. We recently reported the protective activity of an intranasally administered spike protein-based chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine (ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S) in animals, which has advanced to human trials. Here, we assessed its durability, dose response, and cross-protective activity in mice. A single intranasal dose of ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S induced durably high neutralizing and Fc effector antibody responses in serum and S-specific IgG and IgA secreting long-lived plasma cells in the bone marrow. Protection against a historical SARS-CoV-2 strain was observed across a 100-fold vaccine dose range and over a 200-day period. At 6 weeks or 9 months after vaccination, serum antibodies neutralized SARS-CoV-2 strains with B.1.351, B.1.1.28, and B.1.617.1 spike proteins and conferred almost complete protection in the upper and lower respiratory tracts after challenge with variant viruses. Thus, in mice, intranasal immunization with ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S provides durable protection against historical and emerging SARS-CoV-2 strains.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , Administration, Intranasal/methods , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , Mice , Vaccination/methods , Viral Vaccines/immunology
15.
Cell ; 183(1): 1-3, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809419

ABSTRACT

The pandemic has impacted every scientist differently. Many negative impacts are frequently discussed. Here we highlight unexpected positives that we have found and hope will persist: improved access to experts; deeper and broader human engagement among colleagues, collaborators, and competitors; and significant democratization of research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics/ethics , Humans , Optimism/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
16.
Trends Microbiol ; 28(8): 605-618, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324606

ABSTRACT

SARS-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an infectious respiratory disease causing thousands of deaths and overwhelming public health systems. The international spread of SARS-CoV-2 is associated with the ease of global travel, and societal dynamics, immunologic naiveté of the host population, and muted innate immune responses. Based on these factors and the expanding geographic scale of the disease, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic-the first caused by a coronavirus. In this review, we summarize the current epidemiological status of COVID-19 and consider the virological and immunological lessons, animal models, and tools developed in response to prior SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV outbreaks that can serve as resources for development of SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics and vaccines. In particular, we discuss structural insights into the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, a major determinant of transmissibility, and discuss key molecular aspects that will aid in understanding and fighting this new global threat.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
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