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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(9): ofac427, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2212860

ABSTRACT

In this study, abnormal levels of myeloid activation, endothelial damage, and innate immune markers were associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), while higher levels of metabolic biomarkers (irisin, leptin) demonstrated a protective effect. These data support a model for COVID-19 immunopathogenesis linking robust inflammation and endothelial damage in metabolically predisposed individuals.

2.
Vaccines ; 11(1):63, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2217041

ABSTRACT

Since May 2022, the monkeypox (MPX) virus has represented an emerging issue due to outbreaks in non-endemic areas. This report presents the first case of paraphimosis caused by an MPX infection during the outbreak. The patient accessed the emergency department for a sudden onset of swelling of the penis and paraphimosis caused by MPX lesions that brought about stenosis of the foreskin. He therefore underwent a dorsal slit procedure with resolution. No antiviral therapy was required. A multidisciplinary approach should be preferred for the management of MPX, due to the possibility of uncommon and disseminated presentations.

3.
Medicina ; 59(2):203, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2200514

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: COVID-19 induces massive systemic inflammation. Researchers have spent much time and effort finding an excellent and rapid image tool to evaluate COVID-19 patients. Since the pandemic's beginning, lung ultrasound (LUS) has been identified for this purpose. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were used to treat mild patients and prevent respiratory disease worsening. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 15 Caucasian patients with mild COVID-19 who did not require home oxygen, treated with Bamlanivimab and Etesevimab (Group 1). A molecular nose-throat swab test confirmed the diagnosis. All were office patients, and nobody was affected by respiratory failure. They were admitted to receive the single-day infusion of mAb treatment in agreement with the Italian Drug Agency (AIFA) rules for approval. LUS was performed before the drug administration (T0) and after three months (T1). We compared LUS at T1 in other outpatients who came for follow-up and were overlapping at the time of diagnosis for admittance criteria to receive mAb (Group 2). Results: Our COVID-19 outpatients reported no hospitalization in a follow-up visit after recovery. All patients became SARS-CoV-2 negative within one month since T0. LUS score at T0 was 8.23 ±6.46. At T1 we found a significant decrease in Group 1 LUS score (5.18 ±4.74;p < 0.05). We also found a significant decrease in the LUS score of Group 1 T1 compared to Group2 T1 (5.18 ±4.74 vs 7.82 ±5.21;p < 0.05). Conclusion: Early treatment of the SARS-CoV-2 virus effectively achieves a better recovery from disease and reduces lung involvement after three months as evaluated with LUS. Despite extrapolation to the general population may be done with caution, based on our data this ultrasound method is also effective for evaluating and following lung involvement in COVID-19 patients.

4.
Internal and emergency medicine ; : 1-9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2147209

ABSTRACT

The long-term consequences of the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) are likely to be frequent but results hitherto are inconclusive. Therefore, we aimed to define the incidence of long-term COVID signs and symptoms as defined by the World Health Organization, using a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. A systematic search in several databases was carried out up to 12 January 2022 for observational studies reporting the cumulative incidence of long COVID signs and symptoms divided according to body systems affected. Data are reported as incidence and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Several sensitivity and meta-regression analyses were performed. Among 11,162 papers initially screened, 196 were included, consisting of 120,970 participants (mean age: 52.3 years;48.8% females) who were followed-up for a median of six months. The incidence of any long COVID symptomatology was 56.9% (95% CI 52.2–61.6). General long COVID signs and symptoms were the most frequent (incidence of 31%) and digestive issues the least frequent (7.7%). The presence of any neurological, general and cardiovascular long COVID symptomatology was most frequent in females. Higher mean age was associated with higher incidence of psychiatric, respiratory, general, digestive and skin conditions. The incidence of long COVID symptomatology was different according to continent and follow-up length. Long COVID is a common condition in patients who have been infected with SARS-CoV-2, regardless of the severity of the acute illness, indicating the need for more cohort studies on this topic.

5.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143711

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is constantly evolving, leading to new variants. We analysed data from 4400 SARS-CoV-2-positive samples in order to pursue epidemiological variant surveillance and to evaluate their impact on public health in Italy in the period of April-December 2021. The main circulating strain (76.2%) was the Delta variant, followed by the Alpha (13.3%), the Omicron (5.3%), and the Gamma variants (2.9%). The B.1.1 lineages, Eta, Beta, Iota, Mu, and Kappa variants, represented around 1% of cases. There were 48.2% of subjects who had not been vaccinated, and they had a lower median age compared to the vaccinated subjects (47 vs. 61 years). An increasing number of infections in the vaccinated subjects were observed over time, with the highest proportion in November (85.2%). The variants correlated with clinical status; the largest proportion of symptomatic patients (59.6%) was observed with the Delta variant, while subjects harbouring the Gamma variant showed the highest proportion of asymptomatic infection (21.6%), albeit also deaths (5.4%). The Omicron variant was only found in the vaccinated subjects, of which 47% had been hospitalised. The diffusivity and pathogenicity associated with the different SARS-CoV-2 variants are likely to have relevant public health implications, both at the national and international levels. Our study provides data on the rapid changes in the epidemiological landscape of the SARS-CoV-2 variants in Italy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology
6.
Intern Emerg Med ; 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2129115

ABSTRACT

The long-term consequences of the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) are likely to be frequent but results hitherto are inconclusive. Therefore, we aimed to define the incidence of long-term COVID signs and symptoms as defined by the World Health Organization, using a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. A systematic search in several databases was carried out up to 12 January 2022 for observational studies reporting the cumulative incidence of long COVID signs and symptoms divided according to body systems affected. Data are reported as incidence and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Several sensitivity and meta-regression analyses were performed. Among 11,162 papers initially screened, 196 were included, consisting of 120,970 participants (mean age: 52.3 years; 48.8% females) who were followed-up for a median of six months. The incidence of any long COVID symptomatology was 56.9% (95% CI 52.2-61.6). General long COVID signs and symptoms were the most frequent (incidence of 31%) and digestive issues the least frequent (7.7%). The presence of any neurological, general and cardiovascular long COVID symptomatology was most frequent in females. Higher mean age was associated with higher incidence of psychiatric, respiratory, general, digestive and skin conditions. The incidence of long COVID symptomatology was different according to continent and follow-up length. Long COVID is a common condition in patients who have been infected with SARS-CoV-2, regardless of the severity of the acute illness, indicating the need for more cohort studies on this topic.

8.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089985

ABSTRACT

Secondary bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by KPC- and NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (K.p.) during the course of COVID-19 infections lead to significant mortality. Herein, a comparative retrospective case series of KPC- or NDM-K.p. BSIs occurring in COVID-19 subjects treated with Ceftazidime/Avibactam (CAZ/AVI) for KPC-K.p., or CAZ/AVI+ Aztreonam (ATM) for NDM-K.p is reported. All patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in two Italian hospitals with a BSI between March and September 2021 were included. The main outcome was 14-day mortality. Overall, 44 patients were included: 23 with KPC-K.p. and 21 with NDM-K.p. BSIs. The median (q1-q3) age was 67 (57-75) years, and 32 (72%) were males. The two groups were similar in terms of baseline comorbidity, or severity of COVID-19. Notably, 14-day mortality of KPC-K.p. BSIs and NDM-K.p. BSIs (26% vs. 38%, p = 0.521) and 28-day mortality (35% vs. 48%, p = 0.541) were similar. A Cox regression model of delayed initiation of an appropriate antibiotic therapy after the onset of symptoms independently predicted mortality: initiation between 24 and 72 h (aHR = 12.03; 95% CI = 1.10-130, p = 0.041); and initiation after 72h (aHR = 36.9, 95% CI = 3.22-424, p = 0.004). Moreover, a trend towards an increased risk of mortality was observed for polymicrobial infections (aHR = 3.73, 95% CI = 0.87-15.8, p = 0.074), while a protective effect was observed for a beta-lactam loading dose at the start of treatment (aHR = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.02-1.10, p = 0.064). The high mortality of KPC and NDM-K.p. BSIs in COVID-19 patients may be reduced by an early and appropriate antibiotic therapy. Further efforts should be made to develop antimicrobial stewardship and infection control programs in COVID-19 wards.

9.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2012411

ABSTRACT

In this study, abnormal levels of myeloid activation, endothelial damage and innate immune markers were associated with severe COVID-19, while higher levels of metabolic biomarkers (irisin, leptin), demonstrated a protective effect. These data support a model for COVID-19 immunopathogenesis linking robust inflammation and endothelial damage in metabolically-predisposed individuals.

10.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997811

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although the understanding of several aspects of long COVID-19 syndrome is increasing, there is limited literature regarding the treatment of these signs and symptoms. The aim of our systematic review was to understand which therapies have proved effective against the symptoms of long COVID-19. METHODS: A systematic search for randomized controlled or clinical trials in several databases was conducted through 15 May 2022. Specific inclusion criteria included: (1) intervention studies, either randomized controlled (RCTs) or clinical trials; (2) diagnosis of long COVID-19, according to the World Health Organization criteria; (3) presence of long COVID-19 for at least 12 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: We initially found 1638 articles to screen. After removing 1602 works based on their title/abstract, we considered 35 full texts, and among them, two intervention studies were finally included. The first RCT focused on the greater improvement of treatment combining olfactory rehabilitation with oral supplementation with Palmitoylethanolamide and Luteolin in patients with olfactory dysfunction after COVID-19. The second study evaluated the positive impact of aromatherapy vs. standard care in adult females affected by fatigue. CONCLUSION: Our systematic review found only two intervention studies focused on patients affected by long COVID-19. More intervention studies are needed to investigate potentially positive interventions for long COVID-19 symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Luteolin , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Microorganisms ; 10(8)2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987895

ABSTRACT

Recently, numerous cases of monkeypox were reported from several non-endemic countries in Europe, North America, and Oceania, suggesting an unusual and alarming public health issue, particularly considering that the disease is not directly related to human or animal travels. Attention is currently being drawn to this phenomenon since more than 70% of the global population is no longer vaccinated against smallpox. Indeed, the smallpox vaccination also confers some indirect degree of protection against other poxviruses, including monkeypox. We performed a narrative review to describe the existing literature with regard to monkeypox using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Scopus databases. This review aims to provide updated evidence of findings on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, management, and prevention of monkeypox, also considering the concurrent zoonotic pandemic caused by the COVID-19 coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2.

12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 668, 2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968551

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Uganda accounts for 5% of all malaria cases and deaths reported globally and, in endemic countries, pregnancy is a risk factor for both acquisition of P. falciparum infection and development of severe malaria. In recent years, malaria control has been threatened by COVID-19 pandemic and by the emergence, in Northern Uganda, of both resistance to artemisinin derivatives and to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. METHODS: In this facility-based, prospective, observational study, pregnant women will be recruited at antenatal-care visits and followed-up until delivery. Collected data will explore the incidence of asymptomatic parasitemia and malaria-related outcomes, as well as the attitudes towards malaria prevention, administration of intermittent preventive treatment, healthcare seeking behavior and use of insecticide-treated nets. A subpopulation of women diagnosed with malaria will be recruited and their blood samples will be analyzed for detection of genetic markers of resistance to artemisinin derivatives and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Also, to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on malaria care among pregnant women, a retrospective, interrupted-time series will be conducted on at the study sites for the period January 2018 to December 2021. DISCUSSION: The present study will explore the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on incidence of malaria and malaria-related adverse outcomes, along with the prevalence of resistance to artemisinin derivatives and to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. To our knowledge, this is the first study aiming to explore the combined effect of these factors on a cohort of pregnant women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study has been registered on the ClinicalTrials.gov public website on 26th April, 2022. CLINICALTRIALS: gov Identifier: NCT05348746.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , Artemisinins , COVID-19 , Malaria, Falciparum , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Artemisinins/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Drug Resistance , Female , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Malaria, Falciparum/prevention & control , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prospective Studies , Pyrimethamine/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Sulfadoxine/therapeutic use , Uganda/epidemiology
13.
JAC Antimicrob Resist ; 4(3): dlac064, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961072

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To describe clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients who developed secondary infections due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE). Methods: Retrospective observational study including COVID-19 patients admitted to 12 Italian hospitals from March to December 2020 who developed a superinfection by CRE. Superinfection was defined as the occurrence of documented bacterial infection >48 h from admission. Patients with polymicrobial infections were excluded. Demographic, clinical characteristics and outcome were collected. Isolates were classified as KPC, metallo-ß-lactamase (MBL) and OXA-48-producing CRE. A Cox regression analysis was performed to identify factors independently associated with 30 day mortality. Results: Overall, 123 patients (median age 66 years, IQR 59-75) were included. The majority of infections occurred in the ICU (81, 65.9%), while 42 (34.1%) in medical wards. The most common types of infection were bloodstream infections (BSI) (n = 64, 52%), followed by urinary-tract infections (UTI) (n = 28, 22.8%), hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated pneumonia (HAP/VAP) (n = 28, 22.8%), intra-abdominal infections (n = 2, 1.6%) and skin infections (n = 1, 0.8%). Sixty-three (51.2%) infections were caused by KPC-, 54 (43.9%) by MBL-, and 6 (4.8%) by OXA-48-producing CRE. Thirty-day mortality was 33.3% (41/123). On Cox regression analysis, HAP/VAP compared with UTI (HR 7.23, 95% CI 2.09-24.97, P = 0.004), BSI compared with UTI (HR 3.96, 95% CI, 1.33-11.77, P = 0.004), lymphopenia on admission (HR 3, 95% CI 1.44-6.26, P = 0.003) and age (HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.08, P = 0.002) were predictors of 30 day mortality. Conclusions: Superinfections by CRE were associated with high risk of 30 day mortality in patients with COVID-19. HAP/VAP was the strongest predictor of death in these patients.

14.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 26, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847566

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has undone years of progress in providing essential TB services and controlling the TB burden. Italy, a low TB burden country, has an incidence of 7.1 cases per 100,000 people. To control the TB spreading in Italy is critical to investigate the characteristics of patients with the worst outcomes and the highest risk of adverse events related to antituberculosis therapy. Therefore, we conducted a large retrospective study in TB patients admitted to the Clinic of Infectious Diseases University of Bari, Italy, in order to describe the clinical presentation and the factors associated with adverse events and outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the patients admitted to the Clinic of Infectious Diseases from January 2013 to 15 December 2021. We stratified our cohort into two groups: <65 years of age and ≥65 years in order to assess any differences between the two groups. Two logistic regression models were implemented considering the dependent variables as: (I) the adverse events; and (II) the unsuccessful treatments. Results: In total, 206 consecutive patients [60% (n = 124) M, median age 39 years, range 16-92] were diagnosed and admitted with TB at Clinic of Infectious Diseases. Of the whole sample, 151 (74%) were <65 years and 55 (26%) were ≥65. Statistically significant differences between the two groups were detected (p-value < 0.05) for nationality (p-value = 0.01), previous contact with TB patient (p-value = 0.00), type of TB (p-value = 0.00), unsuccessful treatment (p-value = 0.00), length of hospitalization (p-value = 0.02) and diagnostic delay (p-value = 0.01). Adverse events related to TB drug regimen were reported in 24% (n = 49). Age < 65 years (O.R. = 3.91; 95% CI 1.72-4.21), non-Italian nationality (O.R. = 4.45; 95% CI 2.22-4.98.), homeless (O.R. = 3.23; 95% CI 2.58-4.54), presence of respiratory symptoms (O.R. = 1.23; 95% CI 1.10-1.90), diagnostic delay (O.R = 2.55; 95% CI 1.98-3.77) resulted associated with unsuccessful treatment outcome (death, failure or lost to follow up). Finally, age < 65 years (O.R. = 1.73; 95% CI 1.31-2.49), presence of pulmonary TB (O.R. = 1.15; 95% CI 1.02-1.35), length of hospitalization (O.R. = 1.82; 95% CI 1.35-2.57) and TB culture positive (O.R. = 1.35; 95% CI 1.12-1.82) were associated with adverse events in our populations. Conclusions: The pharmacological approach alone seems insufficient to treat and cure a disease whose ethiopathogenesis is not only due to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but also to the poverty or the social fragility. Our data suggest that young foreigners, the homeless, and the people with low social and economic status are at higher risk of an unfavorable outcome in low incidence TB countries. Targeted actions to support this highly vulnerable population both in terms of outcome and occurrence of adverse events are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antitubercular Agents/adverse effects , Delayed Diagnosis , Hospitals , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Young Adult
15.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 2230-2236, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777592

ABSTRACT

In March, people living with HIV infection (PLWH) were included in the risk category of fragile people for severe COVID-19 receiving priority access to vaccination with BNT162b2 vaccine. The aim of the study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of the two doses regimen. The antibodies titer for severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was evaluated after 21 days since the first administration (Time 1), 1 (Time 2), and 3 (Time 3) months post-vaccination. Information regarding virological and immunological conditions at baseline, previous SARS-CoV-2 state of infection, other immunodeficiencies, current antiretroviral therapy (ART), comorbidities, and severe adverse events (SAE) to vaccination was collected. Six hundred and ninety-seven patients were tested for quantitative anti-spike antibodies at Time 1, 577 patients had a second detection at Time 2, and 491 patients had the third detection. Baseline characteristics of the study population are reported in Table 1. At the time of vaccine administration, all patients were on ART (except one long-term nonprogressor); 632 (90.7%) patients had undetectable HIV-RNA; 12 (1.7%) patients were immunosuppressed due to chemotherapy or other immunosuppressive drugs; 345 (49.5%) patients had at least one COVID-19 related comorbidity and 155 (22.2%) had two or more comorbidities. No SAEs were reported. Final serological results are available for 694 patients after the first dose, 577 and 491 after the second and third ones, respectively; positive titer (values ≥ 50 AU/ml) was demonstrated in 653 (94.1%), 576 (99.8%), 484 (98.6%) patients, respectively. Only one patient was a nonresponder after completing vaccination, who was a newly diagnosed one for HIV infection. All vaccinations were well tolerated, with no SAEs. BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine was immunogenic and safe in PLWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
16.
Children (Basel) ; 9(1)2022 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580981

ABSTRACT

The strategy for the selection of patients with a suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection is relevant for the organization of a children's hospital to provide optimal separation into COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 areas and pathways. We analyzed the proportion of children with COVID-19 presenting with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in 137 consecutive patients admitted between January 2020 and August 2021. GI symptoms were present as follows: diarrhea in 35 patients (26%), vomiting in 16 (12%), and both of them in five (3%); the combination of fever, respiratory symptoms, and diarrhea was observed in 16 patients (12%). Of the 676 adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to our hospital in the same time interval, 62 (9.2%) had diarrhea, 30 (4.4%) had vomiting, and 11 (1.6%) had nausea; only one patient, a 38-year-old male, presented with isolated GI symptoms at the diagnosis. Although diarrhea was observed in one quarter of cases, one-half of them had the complete triad of fever, respiratory syndrome, and diarrhea, and only five had isolated diarrhea, of which two were diagnosed with a Campylobacter infection. The occurrence of either respiratory symptoms or gastrointestinal symptoms in our patients was not related to the patient age, while younger children were more likely to have a fever. Of the 137 patients, 73 (53%) could be tested for their serum level of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies. The observed titer ranged between 0 (n = 3) and 1729 BAU/mL (median, 425 BAU/mL). Of 137 consecutive patients with COVID-19 admitted to our referral children's hospital, only three presented with an isolated GI manifestation. It is interesting to note that this finding turned out to be fully in keeping with what was observed on adult patients with COVID-19 in our hospital. The additive diagnostic impact of gastrointestinal involvement for the triage of children with suspected COVID-19 appears limited.

17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(24)2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580509

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected hundreds of millions of individuals and caused millions of deaths worldwide. Predicting the clinical course of the disease is of pivotal importance to manage patients. Several studies have found hematochemical alterations in COVID-19 patients, such as inflammatory markers. We retrospectively analyzed the anamnestic data and laboratory parameters of 303 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who were admitted to the Polyclinic Hospital of Bari during the first phase of the COVID-19 global pandemic. After the pre-processing phase, we performed a survival analysis with Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox Regression, with the aim to discover the most unfavorable predictors. The target outcomes were mortality or admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Different machine learning models were also compared to realize a robust classifier relying on a low number of strongly significant factors to estimate the risk of death or admission to ICU. From the survival analysis, it emerged that the most significant laboratory parameters for both outcomes was C-reactive protein min; HR=17.963 (95% CI 6.548-49.277, p < 0.001) for death, HR=1.789 (95% CI 1.000-3.200, p = 0.050) for admission to ICU. The second most important parameter was Erythrocytes max; HR=1.765 (95% CI 1.141-2.729, p < 0.05) for death, HR=1.481 (95% CI 0.895-2.452, p = 0.127) for admission to ICU. The best model for predicting the risk of death was the decision tree, which resulted in ROC-AUC of 89.66%, whereas the best model for predicting the admission to ICU was support vector machine, which had ROC-AUC of 95.07%. The hematochemical predictors identified in this study can be utilized as a strong prognostic signature to characterize the severity of the disease in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Machine Learning , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4031-e4038, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559750

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prolonged QTc intervals and life-threatening arrhythmias (LTA) are potential drug-induced complications previously reported with antimalarials, antivirals, and antibiotics. Our objective was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of QTc interval prolongation and incidences of LTA during hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among patients with normal admission QTc. METHODS: We enrolled 110 consecutive patients in a multicenter international registry. A 12-lead electrocardiograph was performed at admission, after 7, and at 14 days; QTc values were analyzed. RESULTS: After 7 days, 15 (14%) patients developed a prolonged QTc (pQTc; mean QTc increase 66 ± 20 msec; +16%; P < .001); these patients were older and had higher basal heart rates, higher rates of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, and lower platelet counts. The QTc increase was inversely proportional to the baseline QTc level and leukocyte count and directly proportional to the basal heart rate (P < .01).We conducted a multivariate stepwise analysis including age, male gender, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, basal QTc values, basal heart rate, and dual antiviral therapy; age (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.13; P < .05), basal heart rate (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.13; P < .01), and dual antiviral therapy (OR, 12.46; 95% CI, 2.09-74.20; P < .1) were independent predictors of QT prolongation.The incidence rate of LTA during hospitalization was 3.6%. There was 1 patient who experienced cardiac arrest and 3 with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia. LTAs were recorded after a median of 9 days from hospitalization and were associated with 50% of the mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: After 7 days of hospitalization, 14% of patients with COVID-19 developed pQTc; age, basal heart rate, and dual antiviral therapy were found to be independent predictors of pQTc. Life-threatening arrhythmias have an incidence rate of 3.6%, and were associated with a poor outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Long QT Syndrome , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Electrocardiography , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2136246, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540039

ABSTRACT

Importance: Convalescent plasma (CP) has been generally unsuccessful in preventing worsening of respiratory failure or death in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of CP plus standard therapy (ST) vs ST alone in preventing worsening respiratory failure or death in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial enrolled (1:1 ratio) hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia to receive CP plus ST or ST alone between July 15 and December 8, 2020, at 27 clinical sites in Italy. Hospitalized adults with COVID-19 pneumonia and a partial pressure of oxygen-to-fraction of inspired oxygen (Pao2/Fio2) ratio between 350 and 200 mm Hg were eligible. Interventions: Patients in the experimental group received intravenous high-titer CP (≥1:160, by microneutralization test) plus ST. The volume of infused CP was 200 mL given from 1 to a maximum of 3 infusions. Patients in the control group received ST, represented by remdesivir, glucocorticoids, and low-molecular weight heparin, according to the Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco recommendations. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of worsening respiratory failure (Pao2/Fio2 ratio <150 mm Hg) or death within 30 days from randomization. Results: Of the 487 randomized patients (241 to CP plus ST; 246 to ST alone), 312 (64.1%) were men; the median (IQR) age was 64 (54.0-74.0) years. The modified intention-to-treat population included 473 patients. The primary end point occurred in 59 of 231 patients (25.5%) treated with CP and ST and in 67 of 239 patients (28.0%) who received ST (odds ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.59-1.33; P = .54). Adverse events occurred more frequently in the CP group (12 of 241 [5.0%]) compared with the control group (4 of 246 [1.6%]; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia, high-titer anti-SARS-CoV-2 CP did not reduce the progression to severe respiratory failure or death within 30 days. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04716556.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Immunization, Passive , Plasma , Respiratory Insufficiency , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Standard of Care
20.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533837

ABSTRACT

The quality of life of people living with HIV (PLWH) has remarkably increased thanks to the introduction of combined antiretroviral therapy. Still, PLWH are exposed to an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and liver disease. Hence, the purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about diagnosis and nutritional management with specific indication of macro and micronutrients intake for the main comorbidities of PLWH. In fact, a prompt diagnosis and management of lifestyle behaviors are fundamental steps to reach the "fourth 90". To achieve an early diagnosis of these comorbidities, clinicians have at their disposal algorithms such as the Framingham Score to assess cardiovascular risk; transient elastography and liver biopsy to detect NAFLD and NASH; and markers such as the oral glucose tolerance test and GFR to identify glucose impairment and renal failure, respectively. Furthermore, maintenance of ideal body weight is the goal for reducing cardiovascular risk and to improve diabetes, steatosis and fibrosis; while Mediterranean and low-carbohydrate diets are the dietetic approaches proposed for cardioprotective effects and for glycemic control, respectively. Conversely, diet management of chronic kidney disease requires different nutritional assessment, especially regarding protein intake, according to disease stage and eventually concomitant diabetes.

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