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3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315452

ABSTRACT

BNT162b2 vaccine was introduced in Italy on 27th December 2020 and healthcare workers were rapidly vaccinated. In this study, we demonstrated that one vaccine dose was sufficient for eliciting a sustained humoral and cell-mediated response in SARS-CoV-2 experienced healthcare workers but had a lower effect in SARS-CoV-2 naïve subjects. However, 98% naïve subjects developed both neutralizing antibodies and Spike-specific T-cells after the second dose. Moreover, the antibody and T-cell responses were effective against viral variants since a partial reduction in antibody response was observed only against the South-African variant in SARS-CoV-2 naïve individuals, while the T-cell response was less affected.

4.
Microorganisms ; 9(12)2021 Dec 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580570

ABSTRACT

The immunogenicity of severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 virus (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines in immunocompromised patients remains to be further explored. Here, we evaluated the immunogenicity elicited by complete vaccination with BNT162b2 vaccine in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs). A cohort of 110 SOTRs from Northern Italy were vaccinated with two doses of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine and prospectively monitored at baseline and after 42 days. Both SARS-CoV-2 naïve and recovered subjects were included. Humoral response elicited by vaccination, including SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (SARS-CoV-2 NT Abs), was evaluated; additionally, ex-vivo ELISpot assay was performed for the quantification of Spike-specific T-cell response. Results were compared with those obtained in a cohort of healthy subjects. In a subset of patients, humoral and T-cell responses against delta variant were also evaluated. Less than 20% of transplanted subjects developed a positive humoral and cell-mediated response after complete vaccination schedule. Overall, median levels of immune response elicited by vaccination were significantly lower with respect to controls in SARS-CoV-2 naïve transplant, but not in SARS-CoV-2 recovered transplanted patients. Additionally, a significant impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated response was observed in mycophenolate-treated patients. Positive delta-SARS-CoV-2 NT Abs levels were detected in almost all the SARS-CoV-2 recovered subjects but not in previously uninfected patients. Our study supports previous observations of a low level of seroconversion after vaccination in transplanted patients.

5.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295856

ABSTRACT

Vaccine breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection has been monitored in 3720 healthcare workers receiving 2 doses of BNT162b2. SARS-CoV-2 infection is detected in 33 subjects, with a 100-day cumulative incidence of 0.93%. Vaccine protection against acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 infection is 83% (95%CI: 58-93%) in the overall population and 93% (95%CI: 69-99%) in SARS-CoV-2-experienced subjects, when compared with a non-vaccinated control group from the same Institution, in which SARS-CoV-2 infection occurs in 20/346 subjects (100-day cumulative incidence: 5.78%). The infection is symptomatic in 16 (48%) vaccinated subjects vs 17 (85%) controls (p=0.001). All analyzed patients, in whom the amount of viral RNA was sufficient for genome sequencing, results infected by the alpha variant. Antibody and T-cell responses are not reduced in subjects with breakthrough infection. Evidence of virus transmission, determined by contact tracing, is observed in two (6.1%) cases. This real-world data support the protective effect of BNT162b2 vaccine. A triple antigenic exposure, such as two-dose vaccine schedule in experienced subjects, may confer a higher protection.

6.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(2): 301.e1-301.e8, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474453

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the humoral and cell-mediated response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) elicited by the mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine in SARS-CoV-2-experienced and -naive subjects against a reference strain and SARS-CoV-2 variants. METHODS: The humoral response (including neutralizing antibodies) and T-cell-mediated response elicited by BNT162b2 vaccine in 145 healthcare workers (both naive and positive for previous SARS-CoV-2 infection) were evaluated. In a subset of subjects, the effect of SARS-CoV-2 variants on antibody level and cell-mediated response was also investigated. RESULTS: Overall, 125/127 naive subjects (98.4%) developed both neutralizing antibodies and specific T cells after the second dose of vaccine. Moreover, the antibody and T-cell responses were effective against viral variants since SARS-CoV-2 NT Abs were still detectable in 55/68 (80.9%) and 25/29 (86.2%) naive subjects when sera were challenged against ß and δ variants, respectively. T-cell response was less affected, with no significant difference in the frequency of responders (p 0.369). Of note, two doses of vaccine were able to elicit sustained neutralizing antibody activity against all the SARS-CoV-2 variants tested in SARS-CoV-2-experienced subjects. CONCLUSIONS: BNT162b2 vaccine elicited a sustained humoral and cell-mediated response in immunocompetent subjects after two-dose administration of the vaccine, and the response seemed to be less affected by SARS-CoV-2 variants, the only exceptions being the ß and δ variants. Increased immunogenicity, also against SARS-CoV-2 variant strains, was observed in SARS-CoV-2-experienced subjects. These results suggest that triple exposure to SARS-CoV-2 antigens might be proposed as valuable strategy for vaccination campaigns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Personnel , Humans , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6032, 2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469967

ABSTRACT

Vaccine breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection has been monitored in 3720 healthcare workers receiving 2 doses of BNT162b2. SARS-CoV-2 infection is detected in 33 subjects, with a 100-day cumulative incidence of 0.93%. Vaccine protection against acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 infection is 83% (95%CI: 58-93%) in the overall population and 93% (95%CI: 69-99%) in SARS-CoV-2-experienced subjects, when compared with a non-vaccinated control group from the same Institution, in which SARS-CoV-2 infection occurs in 20/346 subjects (100-day cumulative incidence: 5.78%). The infection is symptomatic in 16 (48%) vaccinated subjects vs 17 (85%) controls (p = 0.01). All analyzed patients, in whom the amount of viral RNA was sufficient for genome sequencing, results infected by the alpha variant. Antibody and T-cell responses are not reduced in subjects with breakthrough infection. Evidence of virus transmission, determined by contact tracing, is observed in two (6.1%) cases. This real-world data support the protective effect of BNT162b2 vaccine. A triple antigenic exposure, such as two-dose vaccine schedule in experienced subjects, may confer a higher protection.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Incidence , Male , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 109: 199-202, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385715

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection induced by SARS-CoV-2 anti-S1 and anti-S2 IgG antibody positivity resulting from natural infection was evaluated. METHODS: The frequency of SARS-CoV-2 infection (as determined by virus RNA detection) was evaluated in a group of 1,460 seropositive and a control group of 8,150 seronegative healthcare workers in three Centres of Northern Italy in the period June-November 2020. Neutralizing serum titers were analyzed in seropositive subjects with or without secondary SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: During the 6-month survey, 1.78% seropositive subjects developed secondary SARS-CoV-2 infection while 6.63% seronegative controls developed primary infection (odds ratio: 0.26; 95% confidence interval: 0.17-0.38). Secondary infection was associated with low or absent serum neutralizing titer (p<0.01) and was mildly symptomatic in 45.8% cases vs 71.4% symptomatic primary infections (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.16-0.78). CONCLUSIONS: Immunity from natural infection appears protective from secondary infection; therefore, vaccination of seronegative subjects might be prioritized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Antibodies, Viral , Health Personnel , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(6): 914.e1-914.e4, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1149122

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To define the seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in blood donors (referred to the first lockdown area (Lodi Red-Zone) of the Lombardy region and in a contiguous area that was not included in the first lockdown); to define the agreement between a commercial serological assay and a reference microneutralization assay; and to evaluate the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies in a cohort of blood donors. METHODS: Blood donors referred to the first lockdown area in Lombardy Region and the neighbouring area were analysed for SARS-CoV-2 IgG-specific antibodies during the period 18 March to 24 June 2020. Serum samples were analysed using both a chemiluminescent immunoassay (LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG, DiaSorin) for the quantitative characterization of SARS-CoV-2 anti-S1 and anti-S2 IgG antibodies and a neutralizing antibodies (NT-Abs) assay. RESULTS: In the period from 18 March to 24 June, 1922 blood donors were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG showing a prevalence of 378/1922 (19.7%). A subgroup of 1139 blood donors were tested in parallel with a SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay and a microneutralization assay showing a prevalence of 22.2% and 21.6%, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 IgG quantification was correlated with NT-Abs titres. In 78.2% of participants the NT-Abs titre was maintained, but in 15.8% it decreased by one four-fold dilution and in 6.0% it increased by one four-fold dilution. CONCLUSIONS: The duration of immunity of SARS-CoV-2 is crucial for the course of the pandemic and for this reason the monitoring of NT Abs is important. Despite a stable NT-Abs titre being observed in the majority of blood donors, our findings need to be validated in a long-term period of follow up.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Blood Donors , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Italy/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serologic Tests
10.
Med (N Y) ; 2(3): 281-295.e4, 2021 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078082

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Monitoring the adaptive immune responses during the natural course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection provides useful information for the development of vaccination strategies against this virus and its emerging variants. We thus profiled the serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody (Ab) levels and specific memory B and T cell responses in convalescent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. METHODS: A total of 119 samples from 88 convalescent donors who experienced mild to critical disease were tested for the presence of elevated anti-spike and anti-receptor binding domain Ab levels over a period of 8 months. In addition, the levels of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing Abs and specific memory B and T cell responses were tested in a subset of samples. FINDINGS: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Abs were present in 85% of the samples collected within 4 weeks after the onset of symptoms in COVID-19 patients. Levels of specific immunoglobulin M (IgM)/IgA Abs declined after 1 month, while levels of specific IgG Abs and plasma neutralizing activities remained relatively stable up to 6 months after diagnosis. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG Abs were still present, although at a significantly lower level, in 80% of the samples collected at 6-8 months after symptom onset. SARS-CoV-2-specific memory B and T cell responses developed with time and were persistent in all of the patients followed up for 6-8 months. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that protective adaptive immunity following natural infection of SARS-CoV-2 may persist for at least 6-8 months, regardless of disease severity. Development of medium- or long-term protective immunity through vaccination may thus be possible. FUNDING: This project was supported by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (ATAC, no. 101003650), the Italian Ministry of Health (Ricerca Finalizzata grant no. GR-2013-02358399), the Center for Innovative Medicine, and the Swedish Research Council. J.A. was supported by the SciLifeLab/KAW national COVID-19 research program project grant 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , T-Lymphocytes
12.
Microorganisms ; 8(7):1052, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-654252

ABSTRACT

The main object of the study was to investigate the SARS-CoV-2 molecular and serological pattern in patients with mild symptoms including anosmia and ageusia. A cohort of 69 patients with olfactory and taste disorders (OTDs) were enrolled and prospectively monitored. Serological and molecular assays for the characterization of SARS-CoV-2 IgG and SARS-CoV-2 RNA, respectively, were performed at the time of enrolment and after 7 and 14 days. Patients were stratified according to the symptoms"onset. A total of 52 patients (75.4%) were diagnosed as COVID-19 positive being SARS-CoV-2 RNA and/or SARS-CoV-2 IgG positive. The remaining 17 (24.6%) were negative for COVID-19 and excluded from the analysis. We reported that only 34 out of 52 patients (65.4%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Moreover, the median time from onset of symptoms and enrolment was significantly higher in those patients with negative SARS-CoV-2 RNA in nasal swabs, suggesting that symptoms might last longer than SARS-CoV-2 replication. The great majority of patients (80%) developed SARS-CoV-2 IgG at three weeks after symptoms"onset while the detectability of SARS-CoV-2 RNA dramatically decreased over time, suggesting the crucial role of combination of molecular and serological assays for the diagnosis of COVID-19 in those patients reporting mild symptoms.

13.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(9)2020 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613360

ABSTRACT

In the coronavirus (CoV) disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, highly selective serological testing is essential to define exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Many tests have been developed, yet with variable speeds to first results, and are of unknown quality, particularly when considering the prediction of neutralizing capacity. The LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay was designed to measure antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 native S1/S2 proteins in a standardized automated chemiluminescence assay. The clinical and analytical performances of the test were validated in an observational study using residual samples (>1,500) with a positive or negative COVID-19 diagnosis. The LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay proved to be highly selective and specific and offered semiquantitative measures of serum or plasma levels of anti-S1/S2 IgG with neutralizing activity. The assay's diagnostic sensitivities were 91.3% and 95.7% at >5 or ≥15 days from diagnosis, respectively, and 100% when assessed against a neutralizing assay. The assay's specificity ranged between 97% and 98.5%. The average imprecision of the assay was a <5% coefficient of variation. Assay performance at 2 different cutoffs was evaluated to optimize predictive values. The automated LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay brings efficient, sensitive, specific, and precise serological testing to the laboratory, with the capacity to test large amounts of samples per day; first results are available within 35 min, with a throughput of 170 tests/hour. The semiquantitative results provided by the test also associate with the presence of neutralizing antibodies and may provide a useful tool for the large-scale screening of convalescent-phase plasma for safe therapeutic use.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Serologic Tests , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Automation, Laboratory , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods , Serologic Tests/standards , Serologic Tests/statistics & numerical data , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
14.
EMBO Mol Med ; 12(8): e12697, 2020 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-434202

ABSTRACT

Baricitinib is an oral Janus kinase (JAK)1/JAK2 inhibitor approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that was independently predicted, using artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms, to be useful for COVID-19 infection via proposed anti-cytokine effects and as an inhibitor of host cell viral propagation. We evaluated the in vitro pharmacology of baricitinib across relevant leukocyte subpopulations coupled to its in vivo pharmacokinetics and showed it inhibited signaling of cytokines implicated in COVID-19 infection. We validated the AI-predicted biochemical inhibitory effects of baricitinib on human numb-associated kinase (hNAK) members measuring nanomolar affinities for AAK1, BIKE, and GAK. Inhibition of NAKs led to reduced viral infectivity with baricitinib using human primary liver spheroids. These effects occurred at exposure levels seen clinically. In a case series of patients with bilateral COVID-19 pneumonia, baricitinib treatment was associated with clinical and radiologic recovery, a rapid decline in SARS-CoV-2 viral load, inflammatory markers, and IL-6 levels. Collectively, these data support further evaluation of the anti-cytokine and anti-viral activity of baricitinib and support its assessment in randomized trials in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Artificial Intelligence , Azetidines/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azetidines/pharmacokinetics , Azetidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Repositioning , Female , Humans , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Leukocytes/drug effects , Liver , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Purines , Pyrazoles , SARS-CoV-2 , Spheroids, Cellular/drug effects , Spheroids, Cellular/virology , Sulfonamides/pharmacokinetics , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use
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