Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 22
Filter
1.
Germs ; 12(2):253-261, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1929494

ABSTRACT

Introduction Prior evidence found that bloodstream infections (BSIs) are common in viral respiratory infections and can lead to heightened morbidity and mortality. We described the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of BSIs in patients with COVID'19. Methods This was a single-center retrospective cohort study of adults consecutively admitted from March to June 2020 for COVID-19 with BSIs. Data were collected by electronic medical record review. BSIs were defined as positive blood cultures (BCs) with a known pathogen in one or more BCs or the same commensal organism in two or more BCs. Results We evaluated 290 patients with BCs done;39 (13.4%) had a positive result. In univariable analysis, male sex, black/African American race, admission from a facility, hemiplegia, altered mental status, and a higher Charlson Comorbidity Index were positively associated with positive BCs, whereas obesity and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were negatively associated. Patients with positive BCs were more likely to have severe COVID'19, be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), require mechanical ventilation, have septic shock, and higher mortality. In multivariable logistic regression, factors that were independent predictors of positive BCs were male sex (OR=2.8, p=0.030), hypoalbuminemia (OR=3.3, p=0.013), ICU admission (OR=5.3, p<0.001), SBP<100 mmHg (OR=3.7, p=0.021) and having a procedure (OR=10.5, p=0.019). Patients with an abnormal chest X-ray on admission were less likely to have positive BCs (OR=0.3, p=0.007). Conclusions We found that male sex, abnormal chest X-ray, low SBP, and hypoalbuminemia upon hospital admission, admission to ICU, and having a procedure during hospitalization were independent predictors of BSIs in patients with COVID-19.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730664

ABSTRACT

At a crucial time with rapid spread of Omicron SARS-CoV-2 virus variant globally, the United States Food and Drug Administration has issued an emergency use authorization for two oral antivirals molnupiravir (>18 years) and nirmatrelvir-ritonavir (Paxlovid) (≥12 years; >40kg ) for the outpatient treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 patients who are at risk for progression. Molnupiravir is a nucleoside analogue, whereas nirmatrelvir is a SARS-CoV-2 main protease inhibitor, and ritonavir is an HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Drug interactions are a major concern for nirmatrelvir-ritonavir. Nirmatrelvir-ritonavir demonstrated a greater risk reduction in hospitalization and death than molnupiravir compared to placebo. Both drugs need to be started within five days of symptoms onset and given for five days duration. This article will review the two oral COVID-19 antiviral drugs including the mechanisms of action, antiviral activity, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, clinical experience including trials, adverse events, recommended indications, and formulary considerations.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320723

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Methods: This was a single-center retrospective cohort study of adults admitted for COVID-19 with BSIs. Data were collected by electronic medical record review. BSIs were defined as positive blood cultures (BCs) with a known pathogen in one or more BCs or the same commensal organism in two or more BCs. Results: Of 565 eligible patients, 290 (51.3%) had BCs done, with 39 (13.4%) having a positive result. In univariable analysis, male sex, black/African American race, admission from a facility, hemiplegia, altered mental status, and a higher Charlson Comorbidity Index were positively associated with a positive BC, whereas obesity and low systolic blood pressure (SBP) were negatively associated. Patients with positive BCs were more likely to have severe disease, be admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), require mechanical ventilation, have septic shock, and higher mortality. In multivariable logistic regression, factors that were independent predictors of a positive BC were male sex (OR=2.75, p=0.03), hypoalbuminemia (OR=3.3, p=0.01), ICU admission (OR=5.3, p<0.0001), SBP < 100 (OR=3.7, p=0.03) and having a procedure (OR=10.5, p<0.0001). Patients with an abnormal chest x-ray on admission were less likely to have a positive BC (OR=0.25, p=0.007). Conclusions: We found that independent predictors of BSIs in COVID-19 patients included male sex, abnormal chest x-ray, hypoalbuminemia, admission to ICU, low SBP, and having a procedure during hospital stay.

5.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S262-S263, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601779

ABSTRACT

Background Long term sequelae across multiple medical domains, including the respiratory, psychiatric, and neurocognitive have been reported after COVID-19. Studies evaluating the impact of this symptom burden, however, are lacking. We aimed to describe the self-reported occurrence of symptoms and their effect on patient functioning six months after their acute hospitalization for COVID-19. Methods From a historical cohort study of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 between March 8, and June 14, 2020, we identified patients discharged home. The purpose of the study was explained, and they were asked to consent to a telephone questionnaire. We used a modified version of a previously validated general symptom questionnaire (GSQ-30) to assess multi-system symptom burden. The Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) was used to screen for major depression. Results Of the original 565 patients, 258 patients were discharged home (45%). Of these, 57 (22%) patients were able to be contacted and agreed to participate in the survey. The mean (SD) age of the respondents was 55.1 (14.8) years, and 37 (64.9%) were female. The most common symptoms at follow-up were fatigue (60.0%), dyspnea (57.1%), feeling irritable, sad or decreased pleasure (56.4%), and memory difficulty (56.4%). Females had a significantly higher GSQ score (0.02) than males. Patients ages < 60 years tended to experience similar, if not greater, impaired functioning (p=0.07) compared with those ages ≥ 60 years (Table 1). Females were more likely to be irritable or sad (p=0.007), not feel rested on awakening (p=0.04), have shooting, stabbing and burning pain (p=0.02), have discomfort with normal light and sound (p=0.04), and have memory difficulty (p=0.04) than males (Table 2). Table 1. Self-Reported Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID syndrome in adults younger than 60 versus adults at or older than 60 Years. SD: Standard deviation, ICU: Intensive care unit, ED: Emergency department, GSQ - General symptom questionnaire, PHQ-2: Patient Health Questionnaire-2 Table 2. Self-Reported Post-acute Sequelae of COVID syndrome in female versus male adults. SD: Standard deviation, ED: Emergency department, GSQ - General symptom questionnaire, PHQ-2: Patient Health Questionnaire-2 Conclusion Our study describes the clinical burden of post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) in four core domains: fatigue, neurologic, neuro-psychiatric and viral-like symptoms. Over 45% of patients ages < 60 years suffered impaired functioning, compared with 21.1% of patient’s ages 60 years and above. Females had significantly higher GSQ scores than men which strongly corelates with the functional impairment among the females. Larger studies are needed to further validate our findings. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

8.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S26-S27, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564135

ABSTRACT

Background Little is known about risk factors for readmission after COVID-19 hospitalizations. Knowledge of these factors may help to identify patients at increased risk and may help to prevent these rehospitalizations. Methods This historical cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care academic medical center. We included COVID-19 cases diagnosed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay between March 8th and June 14th, 2020. Patients readmitted within 30 days were identified. Using the electronic medical record, we collected data on demographic and clinical information. Data were analyzed using Student’s t-test, the chi-squared test and multivariable logistic regression. Results We included 391 patients who survived after the index hospitalization for COVID-19. The readmission rate was 13.3% (52/391). The mean time to readmission was 9.2 ± 7.9 days. The mean age (±SD) was 66.3 ± 18.6 years, 44.2% were male, and 78.8% were black/African-American. The most common presenting complaint was shortness of breath (50%). The most frequent diagnosis during the readmission was infectious process (57.7%). The mortality rate on readmission was 11.5%. Patients with a 30-day readmission were older than those not readmitted, mean age (±SD) 66.3 ± 18.6 vs. 61.0 ± 16.0, respectively (p=0.03). Readmitted patients also had a higher prevalence of heart failure and renal disease as comorbidities. Elevated alanine aminotransferase (AST) and low albumin level were also associated with readmission (Table 1). Intensive care unit (ICU) admission or mechanical ventilation during the index admission did not increase the risk of readmission. From multivariable analysis, independent predictors of 30-day readmission were higher Charlson score (p=0.004), higher creatinine on admission in the index hospitalization (p=0.009), and presence of rhabdomyolysis during the index hospitalization (p=0.039) (Table 2). Table 1. Univariable Analysis of Predictors for Readmission within 30 days from COVID-19 Infection Table 2. Multivariable Analysis of Predictors for Readmission within 30 days from COVID-19 Infection Conclusion In our cohort, infectious etiologies were common among those readmitted within 30 days of COVID-19. A higher Charlson score, acute renal failure, and rhabdomyolysis during the index admission were independent predictors of a 30-day readmission. Further studies are required to investigate these contributing factors. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

9.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):326-326, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564646

ABSTRACT

Background Virus-specific antibodies help to understand the prevalence of infections and the course of the immune response. Humans produce antibodies against the spike and nucleocapsid proteins of SARS-COV-2 virus. Patients with COVID-19 who recover from the infections have higher levels of antibodies to spike proteins. Our study aimed to find the levels of antibodies to spike and nucleocapsid proteins in severe COVID-19. Methods A single center prospective study was done at Ascension St John Hospital, Detroit, MI. We included COVID-19 cases diagnosed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR). Quantitative measurements of plasma or serum antibodies to nucleocapsid and spike proteins were done in hospitalized patients with acute COVID-19. Using the electronic medical record, we collected data on demographic and clinical information. Results A total 24 patients were studied. Of which, 15 patients were suffering from severe and critical COVID 19 and 9 patients were suffering from mild to moderate COVID 19. The mean age (standard deviation) of our cohort was 69 ± 10 years and 60% were males. Common comorbid conditions were hypertension, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. We also noted that severe to critical COVID 19 expressed higher level of antibody to nucleocapsid. Conclusion These results display the seroconversion in COVID 19 patients. Our study shows antibody level remain high in severe COVID 19 patients but those are against nucleocapsid protein instead of spike protein. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4005-e4011, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562130

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Racial disparities are central in the national conversation about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) , with Black/African Americans being disproportionately affected. We assessed risk factors for death from COVID-19 among Black inpatients at an urban hospital in Detroit, Michigan. METHODS: This was a retrospective, single-center cohort study. We reviewed the electronic medical records of patients positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (the COVID-19 virus) on qualitative polymerase chain reaction assay who were admitted between 8 March 2020 and 6 May 2020. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: The case fatality rate was 29.1% (122/419). The mean duration of symptoms prior to hospitalization was 5.3 (3.9) days. The incidence of altered mental status on presentation was higher among patients who died than those who survived, 43% vs 20.0%, respectively (P < .0001). From multivariable analysis, the odds of death increased with age (≥60 years), admission from a nursing facility, Charlson score, altered mental status, higher C-reactive protein on admission, need for mechanical ventilation, presence of shock, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: These demographic, clinical, and laboratory factors may help healthcare providers identify Black patients at highest risk for severe COVID-19-associated outcomes. Early and aggressive interventions among this at-risk population may help mitigate adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , African Americans , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Infect Dis Clin Pract (Baltim Md) ; 29(5): e265-e266, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511071
12.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 59(11): 705-712, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) can have a severe presentation characterized by a dysregulated immune response requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Immunomodulatory treatments like tocilizumab were found to improve inflammatory markers and lung injury over time. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of tocilizumab treatment on critically ill patients with severe COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a multi-center retrospective cohort study of 154 adult patients admitted to the ICU for severe COVID-19 pneumonia between March 15 and May 8, 2020. Data were obtained by electronic medical record (EMR) review. The primary outcome of interest was mortality. RESULTS: Of 154 patients, 34 (21.4%) received tocilizumab. Compared to the non-treated group, the treated group was significantly younger, had fewer comorbidities, lower creatinine and procalcitonin levels, and higher alanine aminotransferase levels on admission. The treated group was more likely to receive supportive measures in the context of critical illness. The overall case fatality rate was 71.4%, and it was significantly lower in the treated than the non-treated (52.9 vs. 76.7%, p = 0.007). In multivariable survival analysis, tocilizumab treatment was associated with a 2.1 times lower hazard of mortality when compared to those who were not treated (hazard ratio: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.83; p = 0.009). The prevalence of secondary infection was higher in the treated group compared to the non-treated without significant difference (p = 0.17). CONCLUSION: Tocilizumab treatment for critically ill patients with COVID-19 resulted in a lower likelihood of mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 59(11): 705-712, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) can have a severe presentation characterized by a dysregulated immune response requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Immunomodulatory treatments like tocilizumab were found to improve inflammatory markers and lung injury over time. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of tocilizumab treatment on critically ill patients with severe COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a multi-center retrospective cohort study of 154 adult patients admitted to the ICU for severe COVID-19 pneumonia between March 15 and May 8, 2020. Data were obtained by electronic medical record (EMR) review. The primary outcome of interest was mortality. RESULTS: Of 154 patients, 34 (21.4%) received tocilizumab. Compared to the non-treated group, the treated group was significantly younger, had fewer comorbidities, lower creatinine and procalcitonin levels, and higher alanine aminotransferase levels on admission. The treated group was more likely to receive supportive measures in the context of critical illness. The overall case fatality rate was 71.4%, and it was significantly lower in the treated than the non-treated (52.9 vs. 76.7%, p = 0.007). In multivariable survival analysis, tocilizumab treatment was associated with a 2.1 times lower hazard of mortality when compared to those who were not treated (hazard ratio: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.83; p = 0.009). The prevalence of secondary infection was higher in the treated group compared to the non-treated without significant difference (p = 0.17). CONCLUSION: Tocilizumab treatment for critically ill patients with COVID-19 resulted in a lower likelihood of mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(11): 1441-1442, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363851

ABSTRACT

We investigated the clinical implications of bacteremia among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Higher rates (52.1%) of multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO) were noted on hospital admission compared to nosocomial acquisition (25%). Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant pathogen. Bacteremia with MDRO should be considered in the differential diagnosis among at risk populations especially those admitted from nursing facilities.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 714426, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348514

ABSTRACT

Background: Many patients who have been suffering by Covid-19 suffer of long-Covid syndrome, with symptoms of fatigue and muscular weakness that characterize post-acute sequelae SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC). However, there is limited knowledge about the molecular pathophysiology, and about the serum profile of these patients. Methods: We studied the blood serum profile of 75 selected patients, with previous confirmed Covid-19, 2 months after hospital discharge, who reported new-onset fatigue, muscle weakness and/or dyspnea not present prior to the virus infection and independently from concomitant diseases and/or clinical conditions. Results: All patients had very high serum concentrations of ferritin and D-Dimer. 87 and 72% of patients had clinically significant low levels of hemoglobin and albumin, respectively. Seventy three percentage had elevations in erythrocyte sedimentation rate and CRP. Twenty seven percentage had elevations in LDH. Conclusions: The co-existence of patient symptoms along with blood markers of coagulation, protein disarrangement and inflammation suggests ongoing alterations in the metabolism, promoting an inflammatory/hypercatabolic state which maintains a vicious circles implicated in the persistence of PASC. The persistence of altered D-Dimer levels raises the possibility of long-term risks of thromboembolic disease. All these markers levels should be accurately evaluated in the long-term follow-up, with individualized consideration for prophylactic nutritional, anti-inflammatory and/or anticoagulant therapy if indicated.

17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(10): 1870, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240880
18.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-4, 2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237946

ABSTRACT

We conducted a retrospective chart review examining the demographics, clinical history, physical findings, and comorbidities of patients with influenza and patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Older patients, male patients, patients reporting fever, and patients with higher body mass indexes (BMIs) were more likely to have COVID-19 than influenza.

19.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; 26(5): e12853, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220259

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) patients frequently develop QT interval prolongation that predisposes them to Torsades de Pointes and sudden cardiac death. Continuous cardiac monitoring has been recommended for any COVID-19 patient with a Tisdale Score of seven or more. This recommendation, however, has not been validated. METHODS: We included 178 COVID-19 patients admitted to a non-intensive care unit setting of a tertiary academic medical center. A receiver operating characteristics curve was plotted to determine the accuracy of the Tisdale Score to predict QT interval prolongation. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify additional predictors. RESULTS: The area under the curve of the Tisdale Score was 0.60 (CI 95%, 0.46-0.75). Using the cutoff of seven to stratify COVID-19, patients had a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 7.6%. Risk factors independently associated with QT interval prolongation included a history of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (OR, 6.42; CI 95%, 1.28-32.13), QTc ≥450 ms on admission (OR, 5.90; CI 95%, 1.62-21.50), and serum potassium ≤3.5 mmol/L during hospitalization (OR, 4.97; CI 95%, 1.51-16.36). CONCLUSION: The Tisdale Score is not a useful tool to stratify hospitalized non-critical COVID-19 patients based on their risks of developing QT interval prolongation. Clinicians should initiate continuous cardiac monitoring for patients who present with a history of ESRD, QTc ≥450 ms on admission or serum potassium ≤3.5 mmol/L.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Electrocardiography/methods , Long QT Syndrome/complications , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Long QT Syndrome/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
J Intensive Care Med ; 36(6): 711-718, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148200

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mortality from COVID-19 has been associated with older age, black race, and comorbidities including obesity, Understanding the clinical risk factors and laboratory biomarkers associated with severe and fatal COVID-19 will allow early interventions to help mitigate adverse outcomes. Our study identified risk factors for in-hospital mortality among patients with COVID-19 infection at a tertiary care center, in Detroit, Michigan. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, retrospective cohort study at a 776-bed tertiary care urban academic medical center. Adult inpatients with confirmed COVID-19 (nasopharyngeal swab testing positive by real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay) from March 8, 2020, to June 14, 2020, were included. Clinical information including the presence of comorbid conditions (according to the Charlson Weighted Index of Comorbidity (CWIC)), initial vital signs, admission laboratory markers and management data were collected. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Among 565 hospitalized patients, 172 patients died for a case fatality rate of 30.4%. The mean (SD) age of the cohort was 64.4 (16.2) years, and 294 (52.0%) were male. The patients who died were significantly older (mean [SD] age, 70.4 [14.1] years vs 61.7 [16.1] years; P < 0.0001), more likely to have congestive heart failure (35 [20.3%] vs 47 [12.0%]; P = 0.009), dementia (47 [27.3%] vs 48 [12.2%]; P < 0.0001), hemiplegia (18 [10.5%] vs 18 [4.8%]; P = 0.01) and a diagnosis of malignancy (16 [9.3%] vs 18 [4.6%]; P = 0.03).From multivariable analysis, factors associated with an increased odds of death were age greater than 60 years (OR = 2.2, P = 0.003), CWIC score (OR = 1.1, P = 0.023), qSOFA (OR = 1.7, P < 0.0001), WBC counts (OR = 1.1, P = 0.002), lymphocytopenia (OR = 2.0, P = 0.003), thrombocytopenia (OR = 1.9, P = 0.019), albumin (OR = 0.6, P = 0.014), and AST levels (OR = 2.0, P = 0.004) on admission. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified risk factor for in-hospital mortality among patients admitted with COVID-19 in a tertiary care hospital at the onset of U.S. Covid-19 pandemic. After adjusting for age, CWIC score, and laboratory data, qSOFA remained an independent predictor of mortality. Knowing these risk factors may help identify patients who would benefit from close observations and early interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Tertiary Care Centers , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Michigan , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tertiary Healthcare
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL