Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 7 de 7
Filter
1.
Infect Genet Evol ; 102: 105299, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821418

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia, an acute respiratory tract infection, is one of the major causes of mortality worldwide. Depending on the site of acquisition, pneumonia can be community acquired pneumonia (CAP) or nosocomial pneumonia (NP). The risk of pneumonia, is partially driven by host genetics. CYP1A1 is a widely studied pulmonary CYP family gene primarily expressed in peripheral airway epithelium. The CYP1A1 genetic variants, included in this study, alter the gene activity and are known to contribute in lung inflammation, which may cause pneumonia pathogenesis. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to establish the possible contribution of CYP1A1 gene, and its three variants (rs2606345, rs1048943 and rs4646903) towards the genetic etiology of pneumonia risk. Using PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed and meta-analysed case-control studies, evaluating risk of pneumonia in patients carrying the risk alleles of CYP1A1 variants. Heterogeneity across the studies was evaluated using I2 statistics. Based on heterogeneity, a random-effect (using maximum likelihood) or fixed-effect (using inverse variance) model was applied to estimate the effect size. Pooled odds ratio (OR) was calculated to estimate the overall effect of the risk allele association with pneumonia susceptibility. Egger's regression test and funnel plot were used to assess publication bias. Subgroup analysis was performed based on pneumonia type (CAP and NP), population, as well as age group. A total of ten articles were identified as eligible studies, which included 3049 cases and 2249 healthy controls. The meta-analysis findings revealed CYP1A1 variants, rs2606345 [T vs G; OR = 1.12 (0.75-1.50); p = 0.02; I2 = 84.89%], and rs1048943 [G vs T; OR = 1.19 (0.76-1.61); p = 0.02; I2 = 0.00%] as risk markers whereas rs4646903 showed no statistical significance for susceptibility to pneumonia. On subgroup analysis, both the genetic variants showed significant association with CAP but not with NP. We additionally performed a spatial analysis to identify the key factors possibly explaining the variability across countries in the prevalence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a viral pneumonia. We observed a significant association between the risk allele of rs2606345 and rs1048943, with a higher COVID-19 prevalence worldwide, providing us important links in understanding the variability in COVID-19 prevalence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , COVID-19/genetics , Cues , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Human Genetics , Humans , Pneumonia/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Factors
2.
Comput Biol Med ; 146: 105419, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803804

ABSTRACT

Data science has been an invaluable part of the COVID-19 pandemic response with multiple applications, ranging from tracking viral evolution to understanding the vaccine effectiveness. Asymptomatic breakthrough infections have been a major problem in assessing vaccine effectiveness in populations globally. Serological discrimination of vaccine response from infection has so far been limited to Spike protein vaccines since whole virion vaccines generate antibodies against all the viral proteins. Here, we show how a statistical and machine learning (ML) based approach can be used to discriminate between SARS-CoV-2 infection and immune response to an inactivated whole virion vaccine (BBV152, Covaxin). For this, we assessed serial data on antibodies against Spike and Nucleocapsid antigens, along with age, sex, number of doses taken, and days since last dose, for 1823 Covaxin recipients. An ensemble ML model, incorporating a consensus clustering approach alongside the support vector machine model, was built on 1063 samples where reliable qualifying data existed, and then applied to the entire dataset. Of 1448 self-reported negative subjects, our ensemble ML model classified 724 to be infected. For method validation, we determined the relative ability of a random subset of samples to neutralize Delta versus wild-type strain using a surrogate neutralization assay. We worked on the premise that antibodies generated by a whole virion vaccine would neutralize wild type more efficiently than delta strain. In 100 of 156 samples, where ML prediction differed from self-reported uninfected status, neutralization against Delta strain was more effective, indicating infection. We found 71.8% subjects predicted to be infected during the surge, which is concordant with the percentage of sequences classified as Delta (75.6%-80.2%) over the same period. Our approach will help in real-world vaccine effectiveness assessments where whole virion vaccines are commonly used.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Machine Learning , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated , Virion
3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1726, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773977

ABSTRACT

Immunization is expected to confer protection against infection and severe disease for vaccines while reducing risks to unimmunized populations by inhibiting transmission. Here, based on serial serological studies of an observational cohort of healthcare workers, we show that during a Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome -Coronavirus 2 Delta-variant outbreak in Delhi, 25.3% (95% Confidence Interval 16.9-35.2) of previously uninfected, ChAdOx1-nCoV19 double vaccinated, healthcare workers were infected within less than two months, based on serology. Induction of anti-spike response was similar between groups with breakthrough infection (541 U/ml, Inter Quartile Range 374) and without (342 U/ml, Inter Quartile Range 497), as was the induction of neutralization activity to wildtype. This was not vaccine failure since vaccine effectiveness estimate based on infection rates in an unvaccinated cohort were about 70% and most infections were asymptomatic. We find that while ChAdOx1-nCoV19 vaccination remains effective in preventing severe infections, it is unlikely to be completely able to block transmission and provide herd immunity.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunization , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
4.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296195

ABSTRACT

Immunization is expected to confer protection against infection and severe disease for vaccinees, while reducing risks to unimmunized populations by inhibiting transmission. Here, based on serial serological studies, we show that during a severe SARS-CoV2 Delta-variant outbreak in Delhi, 25.3% (95% CI 16.9 - 35.2) of previously uninfected, ChAdOx1-nCoV19 double vaccinated, healthcare-workers (HCW) were infected within a period of less than two months, based on serology. Induction of anti-spike response was similar between groups with breakthrough infection (541 U/ml, IQR 374) or not (342 U/ml, IQR 497), as was induction of neutralization activity to wildtype. Most infections were unrecognized. The Delta-variant thus causes frequent unrecognized breakthrough infections in adequately immunized subjects, reducing any herd-effect of immunity, and requiring reinstatement of preventive measures such as masking.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23210, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545637

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV2 pandemic exposed the limitations of artificial intelligence based medical imaging systems. Earlier in the pandemic, the absence of sufficient training data prevented effective deep learning (DL) solutions for the diagnosis of COVID-19 based on X-Ray data. Here, addressing the lacunae in existing literature and algorithms with the paucity of initial training data; we describe CovBaseAI, an explainable tool using an ensemble of three DL models and an expert decision system (EDS) for COVID-Pneumonia diagnosis, trained entirely on pre-COVID-19 datasets. The performance and explainability of CovBaseAI was primarily validated on two independent datasets. Firstly, 1401 randomly selected CxR from an Indian quarantine center to assess effectiveness in excluding radiological COVID-Pneumonia requiring higher care. Second, curated dataset; 434 RT-PCR positive cases and 471 non-COVID/Normal historical scans, to assess performance in advanced medical settings. CovBaseAI had an accuracy of 87% with a negative predictive value of 98% in the quarantine-center data. However, sensitivity was 0.66-0.90 taking RT-PCR/radiologist opinion as ground truth. This work provides new insights on the usage of EDS with DL methods and the ability of algorithms to confidently predict COVID-Pneumonia while reinforcing the established learning; that benchmarking based on RT-PCR may not serve as reliable ground truth in radiological diagnosis. Such tools can pave the path for multi-modal high throughput detection of COVID-Pneumonia in screening and referral.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Deep Learning , Expert Systems , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Algorithms , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Neural Networks, Computer , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
6.
Science ; 374(6570): 995-999, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526449

ABSTRACT

Delhi, the national capital of India, experienced multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreaks in 2020 and reached population seropositivity of >50% by 2021. During April 2021, the city became overwhelmed by COVID-19 cases and fatalities, as a new variant, B.1.617.2 (Delta), replaced B.1.1.7 (Alpha). A Bayesian model explains the growth advantage of Delta through a combination of increased transmissibility and reduced sensitivity to immune responses generated against earlier variants (median estimates: 1.5-fold greater transmissibility and 20% reduction in sensitivity). Seropositivity of an employee and family cohort increased from 42% to 87.5% between March and July 2021, with 27% reinfections, as judged by increased antibody concentration after a previous decline. The likely high transmissibility and partial evasion of immunity by the Delta variant contributed to an overwhelming surge in Delhi.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Humans , Immune Evasion , India/epidemiology , Molecular Epidemiology , Phylogeny , Reinfection , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
7.
Elife ; 102021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194809

ABSTRACT

To understand the spread of SARS-CoV2, in August and September 2020, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (India) conducted a serosurvey across its constituent laboratories and centers across India. Of 10,427 volunteers, 1058 (10.14%) tested positive for SARS-CoV2 anti-nucleocapsid (anti-NC) antibodies, 95% of which had surrogate neutralization activity. Three-fourth of these recalled no symptoms. Repeat serology tests at 3 (n = 607) and 6 (n = 175) months showed stable anti-NC antibodies but declining neutralization activity. Local seropositivity was higher in densely populated cities and was inversely correlated with a 30-day change in regional test positivity rates (TPRs). Regional seropositivity above 10% was associated with declining TPR. Personal factors associated with higher odds of seropositivity were high-exposure work (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval, p value: 2.23, 1.92-2.59, <0.0001), use of public transport (1.79, 1.43-2.24, <0.0001), not smoking (1.52, 1.16-1.99, 0.0257), non-vegetarian diet (1.67, 1.41-1.99, <0.0001), and B blood group (1.36, 1.15-1.61, 0.001).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , India/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Time Factors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL