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1.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 15(12):3777-3778, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1668124

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the C Reactive protein level as early predictor of Covid -19 Patients Methodology: COVID-19 patients were admitted in LG Hospital Lahore. The medical history of established patients of COVID-19 during October 2020 to December 2020 was studied. CRP level of Covid -19 patients were measured. Data was collected and entered using software SPSS version which was later analyzed. Results: A major rise of CRP levels 20 to 50 mg/L in Covid -19 patients was detected. Conclusion: The result of the study shows that rise of CRP level is directly associated with elevation of mortality of Covid -19 ailments. So, therefore, it is essential to observe CRP level .CRP level should be acclaimed for definite sign for sternness guess of Covid-19 patients.

2.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(1):76-77, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1668114

ABSTRACT

Aim: Medical student's outlook about implementation of E-Learning in Covid-19 Methodology: A cross-sectional study was at Quiad-e-Azam Medical College, Bahawalpur on undergraduate medical students from March 2021 to August 2021. Self-administered online questionnaire was used to obtain the perception of medical students about E-learning, effects of this pandemic on medical education and implementation problems of E-learning in Pakistan. E mail and other electronic social media including Face Book, WhatsApp and Instragram were availed to broadcast the questionnaire. Results: Out of 218 respondents, the majority (71.9%) agreed the closure decision of college to prevent the lives from rapid spread of pandemic. 64% students considered E-Learning best available solution during lockdown. E-Learning initiative has a close connection with the residence and opinion regarding this program. Students faced limited connection and bandwidth, new and unfamiliar process of learning, limited technical help, inflexible time despite problems in connection during online examination and unavailable advantage of face to face learning facilities. Conclusion: Majority of students took E-learning positively. But it becomes challenging due to unavailability of essential required electric technology for students.

3.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 15(10):3076-3079, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1573199

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has wreaked havoc throughout the world, with 150 million cases to date and over 3 million lives claimed worldwide Objectives: To assess the immediate side effects of Covid-19 vaccination among the people of Pakistan Study Design: Randomized, descriptive cross-sectional study Methodology: Present study was carried out using an online questionnaire by enrolling 17040 subjects. Inclusion/Exclusion criteria: All citizens of Pakistan over the age of 12, who were eligible for the COVID-19 vaccination were enrolled. Statistical analysis: Data was analyzed by SPSS software, version 25 in terms of frequencies and percentages. Results: In present study, results showed that 76% subjects were vaccinated. Among them 64% received Sinopharm, 30% Sinovac, 0.7% Pfizer, 0.5% Astrazeneca, 2.8% Moderna, 0.8% Cansino, 0.3% PakVac and 0.1% Sputnik V. Most participants (66%) suffered no symptoms post vaccination. Only 15% developed fever, 7% dizziness, 5% vomiting, 4% pain at injection site, 2% headache and 1% fatigue. After vaccination, 1% had a reinfection and 99% so far have not caught Covid-19. Among all participants, 87% found the vaccine safe, 7% were neutral and 5% found it unsafe. Conclusion: We concluded that most Pakistanis have received the Chinese vaccine i.e. Sinopharm. Majority individuals have experienced either no to mild or few moderate type of adverse effects following immunization irrespective of the age and gender that can be easily managed at home.

4.
Asean Journal of Psychiatry ; 22(6):9, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1431614

ABSTRACT

As of August 9, 2021, there have been around 203 million confirmed cases of coronavirus disease (2019) COVID-19, including 4.3 million deaths. Adverse psychological effects are expected to be long-lasting in vulnerable groups, especially among frontline healthcare workers, given the magnitude of the crisis. Observing strict quarantine and social distancing measures, while being an important strategy to curb the spread, have also led to a significant negative impact on mental health indicators;the long-term consequences are yet to be assessed on a global scale. A medical crisis may become a mental health crisis and the updated findings are reviewed in this paper to provide an updated brief for immunological, occupational, socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, psychological predictors while commenting on care recommendations to prevent psychological trauma from progressing to PTSD.

5.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International ; 32(47):49-61, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1168143

ABSTRACT

Background: An unprecedented global effort in identifying potentially viable and emerging drugs for effective treatment of the novel coronavirus disease (2019) is being made. Of the most promising candidate therapies, convalescent plasma (CP), albeit controversial, is approved for emergency use authorization (EUA) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The concept rests on passive immunity, achieved by administering plasma with high titers of neutralizing antibodies to reduce severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality. The aim of this paper is to assess the clinical improvement, patients' discharge status and all-cause mortality in convalescent plasma versus standard of care COVID-19 patient groups. Methods: Using PRISMA guidelines, a review was conducted from January, 2020, until October, 2020 employing keywords including "convalescent plasma", "clinical improvement, "mortality", "adverse events", "viral load", "dosing", and survival." Dichotomous data for all-cause mortality, patients' discharge status, and clinical improvement at day 14 of treatment were meta-analyzed applying the Mantel-Haenszel (M-H) random effects model using Review Manager 5.4. Results: A total of 627 (23.9%) patients in the CP group and 1997 (76.1%) patients in the control group were pooled. The studies were conducted in the United States, China, Netherlands, and Iran. The CP group had a lower association to all-cause mortality as compared to the control group [OR: 0.69;CI: 0.50 to 0.96;P=0.03]. Patients who received CP had higher probability of discharge during the study course [OR: 1.87;CI: 1.1 to 3.18;P=0.02]. Bias was expected in the analysis due to the stratified of study designs included. Conclusion: Convalescent plasma therapy may be an effective and vital tool with promising historical, current, and expected clinical trial evidence of metrics such as increased safety and reduction of all-cause mortality.

6.
Astim Allerji Immunoloji ; 18(3):148-155, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1031193

ABSTRACT

Objective: The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19) emerged in 2019, and ultimately spread worldwide, being defined as a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. The respiratory disease related to COVID-19 can range from being asymptomatic to presenting as devastating ARDS and death. The elderly and individuals with comorbidities and immunocompromised states are at a higher risk. Asthma is an inflammatory spasm of the airways with ACE2 overexpression at the alveolar level. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression mediate SARS-CoV-2 infection of host lung cells and hence might increase disease susceptibility in asthmatics. Materials and Methods: A literature review was done by searching the databases of Pubmed, WHO, clinicaltrials.gov, and Google Scholar, using the keywords of -COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, coronavirus, asthma, and their combinations, following the timeline of December 2019 to August 10, 2020. We included patients with asthma diagnosed with COVID-19 while excluding non-COVID-19 patients, pregnant patients, and patients with other diseases or comorbidities. Primary outcomes included mortality and ICU admissions of both groups. Based on the available data, we conducted a meta-analysis via RevMan 5.4 using a random-effects model and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Patients with and without asthma were compared for risk outcomes of mortality. For the 755 COVID-19 patients with asthma and 4969 non-asthmatic COVID-19 patients, we found that the risk of mortality would increase by 9% in the asthmatic group (RR=1.09, CI= 0.58 to 2.03, I2=72%). There was an increased proportion of ICU admissions among the asthmatic group (RR=1.39, CI = 0.80 to 2.42). There was high heterogeneity among the studies (I-2 = 79%). Medications such as corticosteroids improve the mortality and ICU admission rates. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the number of COVID-19 cases in patients with asthma has been lower than those of the nonasthmatic group. COVID-19 patients with asthma were at increased risk of mortality and ICU admission due to underlying factors or predisposition. Finally, corticosteroids are considered safe and may confer protection against the severity of COVID-19 infection.

7.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20151027

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe role of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin in the treatment of COVID-19 and its effect on SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance is not known. MethodsThis is a retrospective observational study to assess the effect of HCQ and Azithromycin on duration from symptom onset to negative SARS-CoV-2 PCR using nasopharyngeal swab in hospitalized patient with COVID-19. Eighty-five patients were included in the study, 65 in HCQ (Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin) and 20 in non-HCQ group. Measurement of duration from symptom onset to negative PCR and effect of gender, age and disease severity on time to viral clearance was measured. ResultsMedian time to negative PCR in HCQ group was 23 days (IQR: 9, Mean 24+8, N=65) compared with non-HCQ group, 19 days (IQR: 8, Mean 18{+/-}6, N=20), (p <0.05). Forty-one (63%) patients in HCQ group and all patients (100%) in non-HCQ group had mild disease. Multivariate regression model (F=6.8, P<0.002, R2=0.20) shows that being in HCQ group would delay the time to negative PCR by 7 days (95%CI: 2-12) and with every year increase in the age, the time to negative PCR would be delayed by 0.12 days (95%CI: 0.017-0.22). Among HCQ sub-groups, gender and disease severity had no effect on duration (p 0.142 and 0.156 respectively) but older patients [≥]60 year had longer duration compared to patients <60 year of age although p value did not reach significance (p 0.073). Median time to negative PCR in mild- HCQ group (23 days, IQR: 9, Mean 23+8, N=41) was longer when compared with non-HCQ group (p <0.05). On day 28, all patients in non-HCQ group had negative PCR while only 50/65 (77%) were negative in HCQ group. ConclusionHydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin delay SARS-CoV-2 virus clearance in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and it is correlated with older age. Larger studies are needed to confirm this finding.

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