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1.
J Infect Dis ; 224(3): 415-419, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526165

ABSTRACT

Mutagenic ribonucleosides can act as broad-based antiviral agents. They are metabolized to the active ribonucleoside triphosphate form and concentrate in genomes of RNA viruses during viral replication. ß-d-N4-hydroxycytidine (NHC, initial metabolite of molnupiravir) is >100-fold more active than ribavirin or favipiravir against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with antiviral activity correlated to the level of mutagenesis in virion RNA. However, NHC also displays host mutational activity in an animal cell culture assay, consistent with RNA and DNA precursors sharing a common intermediate of a ribonucleoside diphosphate. These results indicate highly active mutagenic ribonucleosides may hold risk for the host.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Mutagens/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , CHO Cells/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Cricetulus , Cytidine/adverse effects , Cytidine/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Mutagenesis/drug effects , Mutagens/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Replication/drug effects
2.
Health Sci Rep ; 4(3): e345, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340259

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 75.7 million confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), have been reported so far. Researchers are working relentlessly to find effective solutions to this catastrophe, using genomic sequence-based investigation, immunological analysis, and more. The role of health disparity has also emerged as an intriguing factor that made a huge impact on the lives of people. Methods: We analyzed various factors that triggered the health disparity in the United States of America along with the rate of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, we have also focused on the State of Mississippi, which is suffering from an extreme health disparity. Data have been obtained from publicly available data sources including, Center for Disease Control and Prevention and Mississippi State Department of Health. Correlation analysis of the dataset has been performed using R software. Results: Our analysis suggested that the COVID-19 infection rate per 100 000 people is directly correlated with the increasing number of the African American population in the United States. We have found a strong correlation between the obesity and the COVID-19 cases as well. All the counties in Mississippi demonstrate a strong correlation between a higher number of African American population to COVID-19 cases and obesity. Our data also indicate that a higher number of African American populations are facing socioeconomic disadvantages, which enhance their chances of becoming vulnerable to pre-existing ailments such as obesity, type-2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Conclusion: We proposed a possible explanation of increased COVID-19 infectivity in the African American population in the United States. This work has highlighted the intriguing factors that increased the health disparity at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
J Infect Dis ; 224(3): 415-419, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221478

ABSTRACT

Mutagenic ribonucleosides can act as broad-based antiviral agents. They are metabolized to the active ribonucleoside triphosphate form and concentrate in genomes of RNA viruses during viral replication. ß-d-N4-hydroxycytidine (NHC, initial metabolite of molnupiravir) is >100-fold more active than ribavirin or favipiravir against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with antiviral activity correlated to the level of mutagenesis in virion RNA. However, NHC also displays host mutational activity in an animal cell culture assay, consistent with RNA and DNA precursors sharing a common intermediate of a ribonucleoside diphosphate. These results indicate highly active mutagenic ribonucleosides may hold risk for the host.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Mutagens/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , CHO Cells/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Cricetulus , Cytidine/adverse effects , Cytidine/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Mutagenesis/drug effects , Mutagens/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Replication/drug effects
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