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1.
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering ; 11(3), 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2293894

ABSTRACT

Ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin belong to a class of antibiotics called Fluoroquinolones (FQs), which have a wide anti-bacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Since the recent Covid-19 pandemic witnessed a magnanimous rise in the use of antibiotics to prevent secondary bacterial infections, it led to vast production and use of such antibiotics. Ultimately the antibiotics get discharged into the municipal sewer pipes, thereby killing the useful microbial colony. In order to prevent environmental degradation a commercial scale-up of the adsorption of these antibiotics using raw sewage sludge is an absolute necessity. In this study, a continuous adsorption operation is conducted in a packed bed of semi-dried raw sewage sludge to remove the FQs from wastewater. Two transient convective-diffusion models are developed including pseudo-first and second-order kinetics driven depletion terms. The models are optimised using the data collected under various dynamic conditions in order to analyse the performance of the packed bed in terms of bed height, flow rate and initial concentration of the FQs. Damköhler numbers of the FQs are estimated to predict the breakthrough times of both the FQs. The ratios of Damköhler numbers of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin do not change much with flow rate. In all the experiments, Das << 1 for both the FQs, indicating a faster diffusion process with respect to the rate of pseudo-reaction. Diffusion reaches an ‘equilibrium' well before the reaction achieves pseudo-chemical equilibrium. Ratios of the Damköhler numbers, meant to represent the first-order and second-order convective-diffusion models for ciprofloxacin to ofloxacin is < 1. © 2023 Elsevier Ltd

2.
European Journal of Operational Research ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2229286

ABSTRACT

The spread of epidemics is a common societal problem across the world. Can operational research be used to predict such outbreaks? While equation-based approaches are used to model the trajectory of epidemics, can a network-based approach also be used? This paper presents an innovative application of epidemic modelling through the design of both approaches and compares between the two. The network-based approach proposed in this paper allows implementing heterogeneity at the level of individuals and incorporates flexibility in the variety of situations the model can be applied to. In contrast to the equation-based approach, the network-based approach can address the role of individual differences, network properties, and patterns of social contacts responsible for the spread of epidemics but are much more complex to implement. In this paper, we simulated the spread of infection at the beginning of Covid-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) using both approaches. The results are showcased using empirical data for eight countries. Sophisticated measures, including partial curve mapping, are used to compare the simulated results with the actual number of infections. We find that the plots generated by the network-based approach match the empirical data better than the equation-based approach. While both approaches can be used to predict the spread of infections, we conclusively show that the proposed network-based approach is better suited with its ability to model the spread of epidemics at the level of an individual. Hence, this can be a model of choice for epidemiologists who are interested to model the spread of an epidemic. © 2023 Elsevier B.V.

3.
International Journal of Life Science and Pharma Research ; 12(5):L206-L220, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082683

ABSTRACT

Deadly COVID-19 viruses have raised a pandemic situation in the year 2019, causing serious and contagious respiratory infections in humans. SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) is the main causative agent for this disease outbreak. The pandemic created a critical impact on the global economy. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in late 2019 was followed by a period of relative evolutionary stasis that lasted about 11 months. Since, late 2020, SARS-CoV-2 evolution has been characterized by the emergence of sets of mutations. This resulted so far, in over 2.7 million deaths and near about 122 million infection cases. Most mutations in the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome are either deleterious and swiftly purged or relatively neutral. As far as the concern is the variants it impacts the virus characteristics, including antigenicity and transmissibility in response to the modification of the human immune profile. In recent days, COVID-19 affected cases are rapidly increasing and it became difficult to inhibit this virus as they are continuously mutated in the host cell forming various new strains like B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, P.2, B.1.1.529, etc. These monitoring, surveillance of variation, and sequencing efforts within the SARS-CoV-2 genome enabled the rapid identification of the first some of Variants of Concern (VOCs) in late 2020, where genome changes became the most observable impact on virus biology and disease transmission. In this review article, we tried to focus and spot the light on the genetic diversification of various strains, their nature, similarities and dissimilarities, mechanism of action, and the prophylactic interventions which could prevent this life-threatening disease in the long run.

4.
Journal of General Internal Medicine ; 37:S154, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1995733

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic forced many primary care visits from in-person to remote via telemedicine, including phone and video visits. Health systems face challenges ensuring telemedicine access for patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) who are disproportionately seen in safetynet health settings. METHODS: We examined safety-net health settings delivering primary care via telemedicine during the pandemic and participating in a quality improvement collaborative across California (n=43 sites, n=11 interview sites). All sites reported the number and modality of primary care visits (in-person, phone, video), patient demographics, payer mix, and language needs. For qualitative data, we purposively sampled to capture sites representing geographic diversity, a range of telemedicine maturity, and with large populations of patients best served in non-English languages. We then conducted semistructured interviews focused on barriers and facilitators to use and uptake of telemedicine among patients, providers, and staff. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed with a focus on language-specific considerations, using a mixed inductive/deductive approach informed by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. RESULTS: The sites cared for racially and ethnically diverse patients with nearly 75% on Medicaid. Over half of patients (52%) across sites were better served in a language other than English (median: 50%, range 39-83%). All sites experienced an immense increase in the number of telemedicine visits conducted in the six months after March 2020 compared with the six months prior (range: 258-8,273,200%). As of February 2021, most sites provided a minority of telemedicine visits over video compared with phone (median: 5% video, range 0-69%). Interview data showed that most sites mapped telephone visits workflows onto pre-existing infrastructure and resources. Telemedicine vendors provided limited language options and sites faced challenges integrating interpretation services into video visits. Interview respondents were concerned that patients with LEP faced intersecting challenges related to technology access and limited digital literacy, exacerbating language-related barriers to telemedicine. Sites relied on language concordant staff and additional technical support to overcome barriers and facilitate access for LEP patients. CONCLUSIONS: While telemedicine has potential to increase access to primary care, care settings must prioritize language concordance among patients, providers, and staff, and telemedicine platform developers must adapt existing tools to improve their accessibility for patients with LEP.

5.
Aquaculture ; 548:N.PAG-N.PAG, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1544781

ABSTRACT

A detailed investigation on mass mortality of fishes was conducted in a small tropical reservoir- Derjang (20o50'32.0"N, 85o01'14.8″E), Odisha, India. Mortality mostly occurred in Systomus sarana followed by Labeo rohita , Cirrhinus mrigala , Labeo catla , Ompok bimaculatus , Labeo calbasu and Mastacembelus armatus. During 20 days of disease occurrence in May–June 2019, a total of about 3000 kg of fish died. The clinical signs in Cyprinid group were haemorrhagic spots, ulcerative lesions, rotten and pale patches in gills due to septicemic disease whereas haemorrhagic spots were the only prominent symptoms observed in Silurid group. Bacteriological isolation and identification through conventional and molecular techniques revealed that Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common pathogen recovered from S. sarana , C. mrigala and O. bimaculatus. Further Aeromonas hydrophila , Acinetobacter baumannii were isolated from L. rohita and L. catla respectively. The role of these pathogens for this disease outbreak in multiple fish species is discussed in perspective of environmental factors. Sudden environmental alternation by the supercyclone Fani (3rd May 2019) on the coastal part of Odisha might have played a key role to translate the aquatic bacteria into the virulent infective pathogens. In the experimental challenge study, isolated bacteria showed pathogenicity in respective hosts as that in the reservoir. Thus this further revealed both bacteria and fish specific virulency with a variation in LD 50 values. All the gram negative bacterial isolates were found to resist ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and most of them were TEM gene positive. However, the bacteria were found to be susceptible to the rest of the nineteen antibiotics. These findings suggested that the sudden cyclone is an enormous threat to reservoir aquaculture, and should be taken into consideration before breeding, stocking and harvesting of fishes. • Disease outbreak in reservoir during Summer, 2019 caused mass mortality of many freshwater fishes with septicemic symptoms • Klebsiella pnumoniae was the most dominating pathogen recovered, besides Aeromonas hydrophila and Acinetobacter baumannii • Sudden environmental alternation by the cyclone Fani might have played a key role to flare up the virulent pathogens. • Specificity and virulence of bacteria were found host-dependent with variable LD 50 as revealed by challenge experiments [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Aquaculture is the property of Elsevier B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

6.
Journal of General Internal Medicine ; 36(SUPPL 1):S13-S13, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1348898
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