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1.
JMIR Form Res ; 6(3): e34088, 2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736653

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic prompted safety-net health care systems to rapidly implement telemedicine services with little prior experience, causing disparities in access to virtual visits. While much attention has been given to patient barriers, less is known regarding system-level factors influencing telephone versus video-visit adoption. As telemedicine remains a preferred service for patients and providers, and reimbursement parity will not continue for audio visits, health systems must evaluate how to support higher-quality video visit access. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess health system-level factors and their impact on telephone and video visit adoption to inform sustainability of telemedicine for ambulatory safety-net sites. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among ambulatory care clinicians at a hospital-linked ambulatory clinic network serving a diverse, publicly insured patient population between May 28 and July 14, 2020. We conducted bivariate analyses assessing health care system-level factors associated with (1) high telephone adoption (4 or more visits on average per session); and (2) video visit adoption (at least 1 video visit on average per session). RESULTS: We collected 311 responses from 643 eligible clinicians, yielding a response rate of 48.4%. Clinician respondents (N=311) included 34.7% (n=108) primary or urgent care, 35.1% (n=109) medical, and 7.4% (n=23) surgical specialties. Our sample included 178 (57.2%) high telephone adopters and 81 (26.05%) video adopters. Among high telephone adopters, 72.2% utilized personal devices for telemedicine (vs 59.0% of low telephone adopters, P=.04). Video nonadopters requested more training in technical aspects than adopters (49.6% vs 27.2%, P<.001). Primary or urgent care had the highest proportion of high telephone adoption (84.3%, compared to 50.4% of medical and 37.5% of surgical specialties, P<.001). Medical specialties had the highest proportion of video adoption (39.1%, compared to 14.8% of primary care and 12.5% of surgical specialties, P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Personal device access and department specialty were major factors associated with high telephone and video visit adoption among safety-net clinicians. Desire for training was associated with lower video visit use. Secure device access, clinician technical trainings, and department-wide assessments are priorities for safety-net systems implementing telemedicine.

2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 195, 2022 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690919

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic triggered unprecedented expansion of outpatient telemedicine in the United States in all types of health systems, including safety-net health systems. These systems generally serve low-income, racially/ethnically/linguistically diverse patients, many of whom face barriers to digital health access. These patients' perspectives are vital to inform ongoing, equitable implementation efforts. METHODS: Twenty-five semi-structured interviews exploring a theoretical framework of technology acceptability were conducted from March through July 2020. Participants had preferred languages of English, Spanish, or Cantonese and were recruited from three clinics (general medicine, obstetrics, and pulmonary) within the San Francisco Health Network. Both deductive and inductive coding were performed. In a secondary analysis, qualitative data were merged with survey data to relate perspectives to demographic factors and technology access/use. RESULTS: Participants were diverse with respect to language (52% non-English-speaking), age (range 23-71), race/ethnicity (24% Asian, 20% Black, 44% Hispanic/Latinx, 12% White), & smartphone use (80% daily, 20% weekly or less). All but 2 had a recent telemedicine visit (83% telephone). Qualitative results revealed that most participants felt telemedicine visits fulfilled their medical needs, were convenient, and were satisfied with their telemedicine care. However, most still preferred in-person visits, expressing concern that tele-visits relied on patients' abilities to access telemedicine, as well as monitor and manage their own health without in-person physical evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: High satisfaction with telemedicine can co-exist with patient-expressed hesitations surrounding the perceived effectiveness, self-efficacy, and digital access barriers associated with a new model of care. More research is needed to guide how healthcare systems and clinicians make decisions and communicate about visit modalities to support high-quality care that responds to patients' needs and circumstances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Satisfaction , Personal Satisfaction , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
3.
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(5): 1270-1274, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634005

ABSTRACT

The exponential growth of telemedicine in ambulatory care triggered by the COVID-19 public health emergency has undoubtedly impacted the quality of care and patient safety. In particular, the increased adoption of remote care has impacted communication, care teams, and patient engagement, which are key factors that impact patient safety in ambulatory care. In this perspective, we draw on a scoping review of the literature, our own clinical experiences, and conversations with patient safety experts to describe how changes in communication, care teams, and patient engagement have impacted two high priority areas in ambulatory safety: diagnostic errors and medication safety. We then provide recommendations for research funders, researchers, healthcare systems, policy makers, and healthcare payors for how to improve patient safety in telemedicine based on what is currently known as well as next steps for how to advance understanding of the safety implications of telemedicine utilization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Patient Safety
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(9): e26623, 2021 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443943

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prior studies have shown that virtual reality (VR) is an efficacious treatment modality for opioid-sparing pain management. However, the majority of these studies were conducted among primarily White, relatively advantaged populations and in well-resourced settings. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a qualitative, theory-informed implementation science study to assess the readiness for VR in safety-net settings. METHODS: Using the theoretical lens of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) framework, we conducted semistructured interviews with current VR users and nonusers based in safety-net health systems (n=15). We investigated barriers and facilitators to a commercially available, previously validated VR technology platform AppliedVR (Los Angeles, CA, USA). We used deductive qualitative analysis using the overarching domains of the CFIR framework and performed open, inductive coding to identify specific themes within each domain. RESULTS: Interviewees deemed the VR intervention to be useful, scalable, and an appealing alternative to existing pain management approaches. Both users and nonusers identified a lack of reimbursement for VR as a significant challenge for adoption. Current users cited positive patient feedback, but safety-net stakeholders voiced concern that existing VR content may not be relevant or appealing to diverse patients. All respondents acknowledged the challenge of integrating and maintaining VR in current pain management workflows across a range of clinical settings, and this adoption challenge was particularly acute, given resource and staffing constraints in safety-net settings. CONCLUSIONS: VR for pain management holds interest for frontline pain management clinicians and leadership in safety-net health settings but will require significant tailoring and adaption to address the needs of diverse populations. Integration into complex workflows for pain management is a significant barrier to adoption, and participants cited structural cost and reimbursement concerns as impediments to initial implementation and scaling of VR use.


Subject(s)
Virtual Reality , Analgesics, Opioid , Humans , Implementation Science , Pain Management
6.
JAMA ; 326(2): 127-128, 2021 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328582
7.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 28(9): 1982-1989, 2021 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238212

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the usability of mobile COVID-19 contact tracing apps, especially for individuals with barriers to communication and limited digital literacy skills. We searched the Apple App Store, Google Play, peer-reviewed literature, and lay press to find contact tracing apps in the United States. We evaluated apps with a framework focused on user characteristics and user interface. Of the final 26 apps, 77% were on both iPhone and Android. 69% exceeded 9th grade readability, and 65% were available only in English. Only 12% had inclusive illustrations (different genders, skin tones, physical abilities). 92% alerted users of an exposure, 42% linked to a testing site, and 62% linked to a public health website within 3 clicks. Most apps alert users of COVID-19 exposure but require high English reading levels and are not fully inclusive of the U.S. population, which may limit their reach as public health tools.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Contact Tracing , Female , Humans , Male , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
8.
The American Journal of Psychiatry ; 178(2):203-204, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1208454

ABSTRACT

The letter presents a study on the impact of COVID-19 on mental health of physician mothers. To quantify the mental health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on a predominantly U.S. cohort of physician mothers, authors surveyed the Physician Moms Group on Facebook from April 18 to April 29, 2020, after receiving approval from the institutional review board at Stanford University. The rates of anxiety among physician mothers in this study appear substantial;for context, in the general U.S. population in normal circumstances, about 19% of adults had any anxiety disorder in the past year. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

9.
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved ; 32(2 Supplement):220-240, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1208000

ABSTRACT

Objective. The COVID-19 pandemic prompted unprecedented expansion of telemedicine services. We sought to describe clinician experiences providing telemedicine to publiclyinsured, lowincome patients during COVID-19. Methods. Online survey of ambulatory clinicians in an urban safetynet hospital system, conducted May 28, 2020–July 14, 2020. Results. Among 311 participants (response rate 48.3%), 34.7% (n=108/311) practiced in primary/urgent care, 37.0% (n=115/311) medical specialty, and 7.7% (n=24/311) surgical clinics. A large majority (87.8%, 273/311) had conducted telephone visits, 26.0% (81/311) video. Participants reported observing both technical and nontechnical patient barriers. Clinicians reported concerns about the diagnostic safety of telephone (58.9%, 129/219) vs. video (35.3%, 24/68). However, clinician comfort with telemedicine was high for telephone (89.3%, 216/242) and for video (91.0%, 61/67), with many clinicians (92.1%, 220/239 telephone;90.9%, 60/66 video) planning to continue telemedicine after COVID-19. Conclusions. Clinicians in a safetynet health care system report great comfort with and intention to continue telemedicine after the pandemic, despite safety concerns and patient challenges.

11.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(4): 514-524, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147921

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has presented extreme challenges for health care workers. This study sought to characterize challenges faced by physician mothers, compare differences in challenges by home and work characteristics, and elicit specific needs and potential solutions. Methods: We conducted a mixed-methods online survey of the Physician Moms Group (PMG) and PMG COVID19 Subgroup on Facebook from April 18th to 29th, 2020. We collected structured data on personal and professional characteristics and qualitative data on home and work concerns. We analyzed qualitative data thematically and used bivariate analyses to evaluate variation in themes by frontline status and children's ages. Results: We included 1,806 participants in analysis and identified 10 key themes. The most frequently identified need/solution was for Community and Government Support (n = 545, 47.1%). When comparing frontline and nonfrontline physicians, those on the frontline more frequently raised concerns about Personal Health and Safety (67.8% vs. 48.4%, p < 0.001), Organizational Communication and Relationships (31.8% vs. 23.8%, p < 0.001), and Family Health and Safety (27.2 vs. 16.6, p < 0.001), while nonfrontline physicians more frequently addressed Patient Care and Safety (56.4% vs. 48.2%, p < 0.001) and Financial/Job Security (33.8% vs. 46.9%, p < 0.001). Participants with an elementary school-aged child more frequently raised concerns about Parenting/Homeschooling (44.0% vs. 31.1%, p < 0.001) and Work/Life Balance (28.4 vs. 13.7, p < 0.001), and participants with a preschool-aged child more frequently addressed Access to Childcare (24.0 vs. 7.7, p < 0.001) and Spouse/Partner Relationships (15.8 vs. 9.5, p < 0.001), when compared to those without children in these age groups. Conclusions: The physician workforce is not homogenous. Health care and government leaders need to understand these diverse challenges in order to meet physicians' professional and family needs during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mothers/psychology , Occupational Stress/psychology , Pandemics , Physicians, Women/psychology , Work-Life Balance , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
13.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 28(2): 365-370, 2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-923385

ABSTRACT

Peer mentors have been proven to improve diabetes outcomes, especially among diverse patients. Delivering peer mentoring via remote strategies (phone, text, mobile applications) is critical, especially in light of the recent pandemic. We conducted a real-world evaluation of a remote diabetes intervention in a safety-net delivery system in New York. We summarized the uptake, content, and pre-post clinical effectiveness for English- and Spanish-speaking participants. Of patients who could be reached, 71% (n = 690/974) were enrolled, and 90% of those (n = 618/690) participated in coaching. Patients and mentors had a mean of 32 check-ins, and each patient set an average of 10 goals. 29% of the participants accessed the program via the smartphone application. Among participants with complete hemoglobin A1c data (n = 179), there was an absolute 1.71% reduction (P < .01). There are multiple lessons for successful implementation of remote peer coaching into settings serving diverse patients, including meaningful patient-mentor matching and addressing social determinants.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Mentoring/methods , Peer Group , Safety-net Providers , Academic Medical Centers , Aged , Delivery of Health Care , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York , Smartphone , Telephone
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