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Scientifica (Cairo) ; 2021: 2706789, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329067


SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, uses the host cell membrane receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for anchoring its spike protein, and the subsequent membrane fusion process is facilitated by host membrane proteases. Recent studies have shown that transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), a protease known for similar role in previous coronavirus infections, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), is responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, enabling host cell fusion of the virus. TMPRSS2 is known to be expressed in the epithelial cells of different sites including gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary system. The infection site of the SARS-CoV-2 correlates with the coexpression sites of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Besides, age-, sex-, and comorbidity-associated variation in infection rate correlates with the expression rate of TMPRSS2 in those groups. These findings provide valid reasons for the assumption that inhibiting TMPRSS2 can have a beneficial effect in reducing the cellular entry of the virus, ultimately affecting the infection rate and case severity. Several drug development studies are going on to develop potential inhibitors of the protease, using both conventional and computational approaches. Complete understanding of the biological roles of TMPRSS2 is necessary before such therapies are applied.

Front Pharmacol ; 11: 563478, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-909021


At the end of 2019, a novel coronavirus (CoV) was found at the seafood market of Hubei province in Wuhan, China, and this virus was officially named coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) by World Health Organization (WHO). COVID-19 is mainly characterized by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2) and creates public health concerns as well as significant threats to the economy around the world. Unfortunately, the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is unclear and there is no effective treatment of this newly life-threatening and devastating virus. Therefore, it is crucial to search for alternative methods that alleviate or inhibit the spread of COVID-19. In this review, we try to find out the etiology, epidemiology, symptoms as well as transmissions of this novel virus. We also summarize therapeutic interventions and suggest antiviral treatments, immune-enhancing candidates, general supplements, and CoV specific treatments that control replication and reproduction of SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).