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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1):14050, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1991675

ABSTRACT

Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a quaternary ammonium compound, which is present in mouthwash, is effective against bacteria, fungi, and enveloped viruses. This study was conducted to explore the antiviral effect of CPC on SARS-CoV-2. There are few reports on the effect of CPC against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 at low concentrations such as 0.001%-0.005% (10-50 µg/mL). Interestingly, we found that low concentrations of CPC suppressed the infectivity of human isolated SARS-CoV-2 strains (Wuhan, Alpha, Beta, and Gamma) even in saliva. Furthermore, we demonstrated that CPC shows anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects without disrupting the virus envelope, using sucrose density analysis and electron microscopic examination. In conclusion, this study provided experimental evidence that CPC may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection even at lower concentrations.

2.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-337991

ABSTRACT

One of the bottlenecks in the application of basic research findings to patients is the enormous cost, time, and effort required for high-throughput screening of potential drugs for given therapeutic targets. Here we have developed LIGHTHOUSE, a graph-based deep learning approach for discovery of the hidden principles underlying the association of small-molecule compounds with target proteins. Without any 3D structural information for proteins or chemicals, LIGHTHOUSE estimates protein-compound scores that incorporate known evolutionary relations and available experimental data. It identified novel therapeutics for cancer, lifestyle-related disease, and bacterial infection. Moreover, LIGHTHOUSE predicted ethoxzolamide as a therapeutic for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and this agent was indeed effective against alpha, beta, gamma, and delta variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that are rampant worldwide. We envision that LIGHTHOUSE will bring about a paradigm shift in translational medicine, providing a bridge from bench side to bedside.

3.
IEEE Access ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1840229

ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of the first dose of vaccination for COVID-19 is different from that of the second dose;therefore, in several studies, various mathematical models that can represent the states of the first and second vaccination doses have been developed. Using the results of these studies and considering the effects of the first and second vaccination doses, we can simulate the spread of infectious diseases. The susceptible-infected-recovered-vaccination1-vaccination2-death (SIRVVD) model is one of the proposed mathematical models;however, it has not been sufficiently theoretically analyzed. Therefore, we obtained an analytical expression for the number of infected persons by considering the numbers of susceptible and vaccinated persons as parameters. We used the solution to determine the target vaccination rate for decreasing the infection numbers of the COVID-19 Delta variant (B.1.617) in Japan. Furthermore, we investigated the target vaccination rates for cases with strong or weak variants by comparing with the COVID-19 Delta variant (B.1.617). This study contributes to the mathematical development of the SIRVVD model and provides insights into the target vaccination rate for decreasing the number of infections. Author

4.
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology ; 76(SUPPL 110):649-650, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1570431

ABSTRACT

Background: It is well accepted that specific micronutrients can enhance the immune response to improve resistance to viral respiratory tract infections (RTIs), such as COVID-19. The primary objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence for primary prevention of any respiratory viral infection through supplementation with nutrients that already have a recognized role in immune function. Method: We conducted a systematic search in EMBASE, AMED, CAB International, MEDLINE, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science papers, published from the inception of these respective databases until 10th of April 2020. Our primary outcome was the incidence of RTIs with (potential) viral origins in subjects without increased risk of RTIs. Results: The search produced 15,163 records of which 93 papers (based on 115 studies) met the criteria to be included in the review. These studies included 199,055 study participants (191,636 children and 7,419 adults) in 37 countries around the world on supplementation with multiple micronutrients, vitamin A, folic acid, vitamin B12, C, D, E, beta-carotene, zinc, iron and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The overall ROB across all studies was moderate. Sixty-three studies were included in the meta-analyses, which was performed for children and adults separately. Supplementation with zinc in children showed a non-significant decreased risk of incidence of RTI (RR 0.91, 95%CI 0.82-1.01, I2 = 83.70% p = 0.000.) By stratifying the meta-analysis by regions of the world, only studies performed in Asia showed a significant (RR 0.86, 95%CI 0.7-0.96, I2 = 79.1%, p = 0.000) protective effect of zinc supplementation on RTI. Vitamin D supplementation in adults showed a significant decreased incidence of RTI (RR 0.89, 95%CI 0.79-0.99, I2 = 20.7%), p = 0.272). However, when subdivided by world regions, studies performed in North America showed a significant effect (RR 0.82 95%CI 0.68-0.97), but not those from Europe (RR 1.02, 95%CI 0.60-1.44) or Oceania (RR 0.97, (95%CI 0.84-1.10). Conclusion: Based on the systematic review and meta-analyses, supplementation of vitamins, multiple nutrients or fatty acids in the general population has no, or at least very limited, effect in the prevention of respiratory infections, such as COVID-19. However, there was some evidence that zinc supplementation among children in Asia, and vitamin D among adults in the USA and Canada might potentially confer protection.

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