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Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; 16(3):1622-1627, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067515

ABSTRACT

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are a primary health concern. They are commonly differentiated as hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) and community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections, based on their epidemiology, susceptibility findings, and molecular typing patterns. Therefore, appropriate contact precautions and isolation measures should be implemented. CA-MRSA mostly causes skin and soft-tissue infections, but the probability and incidence of it causing sepsis and invasive infections have increased dramatically in recent years. In this study, we report a case of CA-MRSA pneumonia with pan-pneumonic effusion in a 59-year-old male diabetic patient with preexisting comorbidities such as diabetic ketoacidosis and non-ST elevated myocardial infarction. The early reporting of the organism's identity and its antimicrobial susceptibility, as well as timely initiation of antibiotic therapy, aided in the successful management and cure of the patient.

2.
Journal of Communicable Diseases ; 54(2):19-27, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026307

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection affecting humans. The main sources of infection are animal reservoir hosts and man is the accidental host in the disease transmission process. The diagnosis is usually made by microscopy, culture, molecular techniques, and serological tests like ELISA, MAT (Microscopic Agglutination Test) and MSAT (Macroscopic Slide Agglutination Test). The ELISA method to detect IgM antibodies is used as a good cost-effective testing method. An increasing titre of IgM antibody is a sign of active leptospirosis. Aims and Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of Leptospirainfection over a 10-year period in a tertiary care hospital located in Kelambakkam village in Chengalpattu district. Material and Method: The samples were tested for the presence of specific Leptospira IgM antibodies in the patient’s serum using the Panbio Leptospira IgM ELISA kit. The samples were reported as positive/negative/equivocal accordingly. Results: This retrospective study included a total of 2035 patients, clinically suspected of leptospirosis, over a 10-year period from 2011 to 2021. 186 patients tested positive for specific IgM antibodies by ELISA method,giving an overall prevalence rate of 9.14%. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of leptospirosis over a time period of more than 10 years is highlighted in our study. Clinical suspicion of leptospirosis should be kept in mind at all times, especially now during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Panbio Leptospira IgM ELISA test kit used in our study proves to be a very useful method for diagnostic purposes, especially in limited-resource settings. Copyright © 2022: Author(s).

3.
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology ; 39:S102, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1734527

ABSTRACT

Background:Candida species are yeast like fungi that form a part of the human microbiota. They are seen as normal flora in the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, genito urinary tract, respiratory tract and skin. However they have the potential to cause invasive my- cosis.They also colonise IV lines and cannulae and form biofilms that makes treatment difficult. Candidemia, a blood stream infection caused by Candida species, are the most common forms of invasive candidiasis. There are few pointers to clinical suspicion like unre- sponsiveness to antibacterial agents, diabetes, stem cell transplant, patients on antibiotics, ICU stay, steroid therapy, immunosup- presants, prosthetic devices, presence of IV/central lines, urinary catheters, TPN, CRF etc. Methods:Candida species were isolated from blood cultures using conventional and automated (BACTEC) methods over a 4 month period from 20.06.2020 - 20.10.2020. Speciation was done using phenotypic methods, Biochemical tests, Vitek and confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The results of l Gram’s staining l Colony characteristics l growth and ap- pearance by Dalmaus technique l growth in 6.5% NaCl l Temperature differentiation l Growth in the pres- ence of Actidione l Production of Urease l Sugar assimilation were tabulated. Anti -fungal susceptibility testing was done in MHA with 2% glucose according to CLSI guidelines. Biofilm formation was demonstrat- ed by micro-titre plate method. [Formula presented] Results:The results of the phenotypic tests - Awaited. Species distribution using High Chrome Candida agar (FIGURE 1). Confirmation using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry - Results awaited. Confirmation of Candida auris, famata, connerii and 1 rare species by colony PCR - Results awaited Biofilm production by Microtitre plate method and Anti-fungal susceptibility pattern - Results awaited. Conclusions:This study throws light on the Candida species isolated in blood during the COVID19 pandem- ic, over a 4 month period in our institution along with their susceptibility patterns. The ability to form bio - films which is the virulence factor needed for bloodstream/catheter associated fungemia is assessed in our study

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