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Front Psychol ; 12: 622132, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167367


INTRODUCTION: Frontline healthcare workers (HCW) have faced significant plight during the ongoing Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Studies have shown their vulnerabilities to depression, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress, and insomnia. In a developing country like India, with a rising caseload, resource limitations, and stigma, the adversities faced by the physicians are more significant. We attempted to hear their "voices" to understand their adversities and conceptualize their resilience framework. METHODS: A qualitative approach was used with a constructivist paradigm. After an initial pilot, a socio-demographically heterogeneous population of 172 physicians working in COVID-designated centers were purposively sampled from all over India. Following in-depth virtual interviews using a pre-formed semi-structured guide, the data was transcribed and translated verbatim. The interview was focused on their challenges, needs, and processes of coping and support. Charmaz's grounded theory was used for analysis supplemented by NVivo 10 software. RESULTS: Fear of infection, uncertainty, stigma, guilt, and social isolation emerged as the main challenges. Simultaneously, their "unmet needs" were flexible work policies, administrative measures for better medical protection, the sensitivity of media toward the image of HCW, effective risk communication for their health, and finally, social inclusion. Their resilience "framework" emerged as a process while navigating these adversities and consisted of three facets: forming a "resilient identity," managing the resilience, and working through the socio-occupational distress. The role of mental well-being, social network, peer support, problem negotiation, and self-care emerged as the key coping strategies. CONCLUSION: The study findings support the global call for better psychosocial health and quality of life of the frontline HCWs. Their "unheard voices" explored in the study can anchor subsequent resilience-enhancing interventions and policies. Guidelines focusing on the psychological wellbeing of frontline HCWs need to be grounded in their unmet needs and lived experiences.

Psychiatry Res ; 295: 113577, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933417


The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a new global health threat. By increasing the risk of isolation, fear, stigma, abuse and economic fallout, COVID-19 has led to increase in risk of psychiatric disorders, chronic trauma and stress, which eventually increase suicidality and suicidal behavior. There is limited data on association of pandemics and suicides. Cases of suicides have been rising since COVID-19 first emerged in China. The association between suicides and pandemics can possibly be explained through various models like Durkheim's theory, Joiner's interpersonal theory, social stress theory, biological theories, etc. The frontline workers, elderly, migrants, homeless, socio-economically impoverished classes as well as those with pre-existing mental disorders, substance abuse and family history of suicides are at higher risk. Suicides are preventable and need early detection, awareness and socio-culturally tailored interventions. This narrative review draws global perspectives on the association of suicidality and pandemics, the theories and risk factors related to same based on the available evidence. It also hypothesizes neuroimmunity and immune based risk factors as possible links between the psychosocial vulnerabilities and suicide during outbreaks like COVID-19. Proposed strategies of suicide-prevention, as an integral part of public health response to the pandemic are subsequently discussed.

COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Suicide Prevention
Indian J Psychiatry ; 62(4): 354-362, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738100


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a complete shut-down of the entire world and almost all the countries are presently in a "lockdown" mode. While the lockdown strategy is an essential step to curb the exponential rise of COVID-19 cases, the impact of the same on mental health is not well known. AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the psychological impact of lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic on the general public with an objective to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety, perceived stress, well-being, and other psychological issues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was an online survey conducted under the aegis of the Indian Psychiatry Society. Using the Survey Monkey platform, a survey link was circulated using the Whatsapp. The survey questionnaire included perceived stress scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale to assess perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and mental well-being, respectively. The survey link was circulated starting from April 6, 2020 and was closed on April 24, 2020. RESULTS: During the survey, a total of 1871 responses were collected, of which 1685 (90.05%) responses were analyzed. About two-fifth (38.2%) had anxiety and 10.5% of the participants had depression. Overall, 40.5% of the participants had either anxiety or depression. Moderate level of stress was reported by about three-fourth (74.1%) of the participants and 71.7% reported poor well-being. CONCLUSIONS: The present survey suggests that more than two-fifths of the people are experiencing common mental disorders, due to lockdown and the prevailing COVID-19 pandemic. This finding suggests that there is a need for expanding mental health services to everyone in the society during this pandemic situation.

Journal of Indian Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health ; 16(3):17-31, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-718270
Non-conventional in English | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-671515