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1.
The American Journal of Emergency Medicine ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1803390

ABSTRACT

Introduction Noninvasive risk assessment is crucial in patients with COVID-19 in emergency department. Since limited data is known about the role of noninvasive parameters, we aimed to evaluate the role of a noninvasive parameter ‘SpO2/FiO2’ in independently predicting 30-day mortality in patients with COVID-19 and its prognostic utility in combination with a noninvasive score ‘CRB-65’. Methods A retrospective study was performed in a tertiary training and research hospital, which included 272 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia diagnosed with polymerase chain reaction in emergency department. Data on characteristics, vital signs, and laboratory parameters were recorded from electronic medical records. The primary outcome of the study was 30-day mortality, and we assessed the discriminative ability of SpO2/FiO2 in predicting mortality in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and its prognostic utility in combination with conventional pneumonia risk assessment scores. Results Multivariate analysis revealed that only SpO2/FiO2 level was found to be an independent parameter associated with 30-day mortality (OR:0.98, 95% CI: 0.98–0.99, p = 0.003). PSI and CURB-65 were found to be better scores than CRB-65 in predicting 30-day mortality (AUC: 0.79 vs 0.72, p = 0.04;AUC: 0.76 vs 0.72, p = 0.01 respectively). Both SpO2/FiO2 combined with CRB-65 and SpO2/FiO2 combined with CURB-65 have good discriminative ability and seemed to be more favorable than PSI in predicting 30-days mortality (AUC: 0.83 vs 0.75;AUC: 0.84 vs 0.75), however no significant difference was found (p = 0.21 and p = 0.06, respectively). Conclusion SpO2/FiO2 is a promising index in predicting mortality. Addition of SpO2/FiO2 to CRB-65 improved the role of CRB-65 alone, however it performed similar to PSI. The combined noninvasive model of SpO2/FiO2 and CRB-65 may help physicians quickly stratify COVID-19 patients on admission, which is expected to be particularly important in hospitals still stressed by pandemic volumes.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306025

ABSTRACT

Aims: Metabolic Syndrome has become the greatest health hazard in the modern world, along with infectious diseases. We aimed to evaluate the effects of metabolic syndrome on disease course, laboratory values and mortality in patients with COVID 19 pneumonia. Methods: COVID 19 pneumonia patients with and without metabolic syndrome were compared in terms of laboratory parameters, clinical results and mortality rates retrospectively. Results: A total of 194 patients hospitalized with COVID 19 pneumonia (with and without metabolic syndrome n = 93 and 101, respectively) were included in the study. Patients with metabolic syndrome had lower oxygen saturation at the time of admission (88.76 vs 93.66 p <0.0001), higher neutrophil (5.85 vs 4.81 p = 0.02) and CRP levels (88.36 vs 62.93 p = 0.009) and COVID 19 involvement was more common in lung tomography (12.3 vs 7.7 p <0.0001). Total length of stay (12.3 vs 6.5 days p <0.0001) and clinical length of stay (7.8 vs 5.9 days p = 0.003) were longer in patients with metabolic syndrome. Requirement of intensive care (45.2% vs 4.9% p <0.0001) and mortality rates (24.7% vs 0.9% p <0.0001) were higher in patients with metabolic syndrome. Presence of metabolic syndrome (OR 32.86, 95% CI 4.34 to 249 p<0.05) were significantly associated with increased mortality. Discussion and conclusion: Our results demonstrated that patients with metabolic syndrome that were hospitalized with COVID 19 pneumonia had significantly higher mortality and intensive care requirement. They have lower oxygen saturations, higher CRP levels and more widespread radiological involvement. Keywords: Covid 19 - Metabolic syndrome – Pneumonia - Mortality

3.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 291-297, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544344

ABSTRACT

Due to current advances and growing experience in the management of coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), the outcome of COVID-19 patients with severe/critical illness would be expected to be better in the second wave compared with the first wave. As our hospitalization criteria changed in the second wave, we aimed to investigate whether a favorable outcome occurred in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with only severe/critical illness. Among 642 laboratory-confirmed hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the first wave and 1121 in the second wave, those who met World Health Organization (WHO) definitions for severe or critical illness on admission or during follow-up were surveyed. Data on demographics, comorbidities, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels on admission, and outcomes were obtained from an electronic hospital database. Univariate analysis was performed to compare the characteristics of patients in the first and second waves. There were 228 (35.5%) patients with severe/critical illness in the first wave and 681 (60.7%) in the second wave. Both groups were similar in terms of age, gender, and comorbidities, other than chronic kidney disease. Median serum CRP levels were significantly higher in patients in the second wave compared with those in the first wave [109 mg/L (interquartile range [IQR]: 65-157) vs. 87 mg/L (IQR: 39-140); p < 0.001]. However, intensive care unit admission and mortality rates were similar among the waves. Even though a lower mortality rate in the second wave has been reported in previous studies, including all hospitalized COVID-19 patients, we found similar demographics and outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with severe/critical illness in the first and second wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Amides/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Comorbidity , Drug Combinations , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Turkey/epidemiology
6.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5474-5480, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219314

ABSTRACT

In this study, laboratorial parameters of hospitalized novel coronavirus (COVID-19) patients, who were complicated with severe pneumonia, were compared with the findings of cytokine storm developing in macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)/secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH). Severe pneumonia occurred as a result of cytokine storm in some patients who needed intensive care unit (ICU), and it is aimed to determine the precursive parameters in this situation. Also in this study, the aim is to identify laboratory criteria that predict worsening disease and ICU intensification, as well as the development of cytokine storm. This article comprises a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to a single institution with COVID-19 pneumonia. This study includes 150 confirmed COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia. When they were considered as severe pneumonia patients, the clinic and laboratory parameters of this group are compared with H-score criteria. Patients are divided into two subgroups; patients with worsened symptoms who were transferred into tertiary ICU, and patients with stable symptoms followed in the clinic. For the patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection, after they become complicated with severe pneumonia, lymphocytopenia (55.3%), anemia (12.0%), thrombocytopenia (19.3%), hyperferritinemia (72.5%), hyperfibrinogenemia (63.7%) and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (90.8%), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) (31.3%), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) (20.7%) are detected. There were no significant changes in other parameters. Blood parameters between the pre-ICU period and the ICU period (in which their situation had been worsened and acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS] was developed) were also compared. In the latter group lymphocyte levels were found significantly reduced (p = 0.01), and LDH, highly sensitive troponin (hs-troponin), procalcitonin, and triglyceride levels were significantly increased (p < 0.05). In addition, there was no change in hemoglobin, leukocyte, platelet, ferritin, and liver function test levels, including patients who developed ARDS, similar to the cytokine storm developed in MAS/sHLH. COVID-19 pneumonia has similar findings as hyperinflammatory syndromes but does not seem to have typical features as in cytokine storm developed in MAS/sHLH. In the severe patient group who has started to develop ARDS signs, a decrease in lymphocyte level in addition to the elevated LDH, hs-troponin, procalcitonin, and triglyceride levels can be a predictor in progression to ICU admission and could help in the planning of anti-cytokine therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/pathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Anemia/blood , Anemia/diagnosis , Anemia/immunology , Anemia/pathology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Progression , Female , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , Hyperferritinemia/blood , Hyperferritinemia/diagnosis , Hyperferritinemia/immunology , Hyperferritinemia/pathology , Intensive Care Units , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/immunology , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Retrospective Studies , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/pathology , Triglycerides/blood , Troponin/blood
7.
Clin Imaging ; 75: 119-124, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062295

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is scarce data on the impact of the presence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy on the prognosis of coronavirus-disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to investigate whether its presence is associated with increased risk for 30-day mortality in a large group of patients with COVID-19. METHOD: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, 650 adult laboratory-confirmed hospitalized COVID-19 patients were included. Patients with comorbidities that may cause enlarged mediastinal lymphadenopathy were excluded. Demographics, clinical characteristics, vital and laboratory findings, and outcome were obtained from electronic medical records. Computed tomography scans were evaluated by two blinded radiologists. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine independent predictive factors of 30-day mortality. RESULTS: Patients with enlarged mediastinal lymphadenopathy (n = 60, 9.2%) were older and more likely to have at least one comorbidity than patients without enlarged mediastinal lymphadenopathy (p = 0.03, p = 0.003). There were more deaths in patients with enlarged mediastinal lymphadenopathy than in those without (11/60 vs 45/590, p = 0.01). Older age (OR:3.74, 95% CI: 2.06-6.79; p < 0.001), presence of consolidation pattern (OR:1.93, 95% CI: 1.09-3.40; p = 0.02) and enlarged mediastinal lymphadenopathy (OR:2.38, 95% CI:1.13-4.98; p = 0.02) were independently associated with 30-day mortality. CONCLUSION: In this large group of hospitalized patients with COVID-19, we found that in addition to older age and consolidation pattern on CT scan, enlarged mediastinal lymphadenopathy were independently associated with increased mortality. Mediastinal evaluation should be performed in all patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(2): 306-311, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-943338

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 has a great variation from asymptomatic infection to acute respiratory distress syndrome and eventually death. The mortality rates vary across the countries probably due to the heterogeneity in study characteristics and patient cohorts as well as treatment strategies. Therefore, we aimed to summarize the clinical characteristics and outcomes of adult patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia in Istanbul, Turkey. METHODS: A total of 722 adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia were analyzed in this single-center retrospective study between March 15 and May 1, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 722 laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were included in the study. There were 235 (32.5%) elderly patients and 487 (67.5%) non-elderly patients. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (251 [34.8%]), diabetes mellitus (198 [27.4%]), and ischemic heart disease (66 [9.1%]). The most common symptoms were cough (512 [70.9%]), followed by fever (226 [31.3%]), and shortness of breath (201 [27.8%]). Lymphocytopenia was present in 29.7% of the patients, leukopenia in 12.2%, and elevated CRP in 48.8%. By the end of May 20, 648 (89.7%) patients had been discharged and 60 (8.5%) patients had died. According to our study, while our overall mortality rate was 8.5%, this rate was 14.5% in elderly patients, and the difference was significant. CONCLUSIONS: This case series provides characteristics and outcomes of sequentially adult patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia in Turkey.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
Eurasian Journal of Pulmonology ; 22(4):70-75, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-902750

ABSTRACT

Patients with cancer are more susceptible to an infection during the viral epidemic owing to their immunocompromised status. Furthermore, mortality was found to be higher in patients diagnosed with cancer infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). It is a problem managing a process including diagnosis, staging, and treatment for patients with lung cancer. The clinical symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and lung cancer patients are easy to be confused, which will bring great difficulties to the differential diagnosis. Management of patients with cancer at home should be encouraged. This includes telemedicine and phone calls to replace safety visits, as well as replacement of intravenous drugs with oral drugs where possible, along with substructure and coordination to allow home administration of intravenous and subcutaneous anticancer agents. By giving priority to the centers designated as corona-free, the consultation among physicians should be carried out online, and the diagnosis and treatment process of the patients should be continued in a way to minimize the risk of virus transmission. Patients should be evaluated during coronavirus pandemic for antitumor treatment with considering clinical status, stage of cancer, and status of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection.

11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 84-89, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597197

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze the usefulness of CURB-65 and the pneumonia severity index (PSI) in predicting 30-day mortality in patients with COVID-19, and to identify other factors associated with higher mortality. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in a pandemic hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, which included 681 laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19. Data on characteristics, vital signs, and laboratory parameters were recorded from electronic medical records. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to quantify the discriminatory abilities of the prognostic scales. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify other predictors of mortality. RESULTS: Higher CRP levels were associated with an increased risk for mortality (OR: 1.015, 95% CI: 1.008-1.021; p < 0.001). The PSI performed significantly better than CURB-65 (AUC: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.88-0.93 vs AUC: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.85-0.90; p = 0.01), and the addition of CRP levels to PSI did not improve the performance of PSI in predicting mortality (AUC: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.88-0.93 vs AUC: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.94; p = 0.29). CONCLUSION: In a large group of hospitalized patients with COVID-19, we found that PSI performed better than CURB-65 in predicting mortality. Adding CRP levels to PSI did not improve the 30-day mortality prediction.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
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