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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5458, 2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768858

ABSTRACT

Type III interferons (IFNs) play an important role in respiratory viral infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. This study aimed to determine whether the expression of serum type III IFNs predicted disease severity among patients with the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). A retrospective cohort study was conducted of patients admitted to a single hospital between March 21, 2020, and March 31, 2021. Patients were divided into mild to moderate I (MM) and moderate II to severe (MS) groups based on the COVID-19 severity classification developed by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. A total of 257 patients were included in the analysis. Human interleukin-28A (IL-28A/IFN-λ2) expression was significantly lower, and interleukin (IL)-6 expression was significantly higher in the MS group than in the MM group (both p < 0.001). In addition, IL-28A/IFN-λ2 was statistically significantly inversely correlated with the time from disease onset to negative SARS-CoV-2 PCR results (p = 0.049). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that IL-28A/IFN-λ2 was an independent predictor of disease severity (p = 0.021). The low expression of IL-28A/IFN-λ2 may serve as a serum biomarker that predicts the severity of COVID-19, possibly through the mechanism of delayed viral elimination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukins , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines , Humans , Interleukins/blood , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
2.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 90: 106731, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587517

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging data indicate that gastrointestinal disorders, in addition to pulmonary dysfunction, are also hallmarks of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 42-year-old man with maintenance hemodialysis developed high fever and dyspnea. He was positive for SARS-CoV-2 and was diagnosed with pneumonia. After treatment for SARS-CoV-2, his respiratory condition improved. However, he developed right upper quadrant pain with elevated inflammatory markers (white blood cells, 21,160/µL; c-reactive protein, 163.9 mg/L) on the 13th day. Abdominal computed tomography revealed acute acalculous cholecystitis. Percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) was performed together with antibiotic therapy, which resulted in improvement of symptoms. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed 36 days after PTGBD. CONCLUSION: We report a rare case of acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) following pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also conducted a literature search to characterize SARS-CoV-2-related cholecystitis. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 is an important trigger for AAC, and appropriate therapeutic alternatives should be cautiously selected according to individual cases.

3.
J Epidemiol ; 31(11): 573-580, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease is suspected to be triggered by previous infection. The prevention measures for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have reportedly reduced transmission of certain infectious diseases. Under these circumstances, the prevention measures for COVID-19 may reduce the incidence of Kawasaki disease. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study using registration datasets of patients with Kawasaki disease who were diagnosed in all 11 inpatient pediatric facilities in Yamanashi Prefecture. The eligible cases were 595 cases that were diagnosed before the COVID-19 pandemic (from January 2015 through February 2020) and 38 cases that were diagnosed during the COVID-19 pandemic (from March through November 2020). Incidence of several infectious disease were evaluated using data from the Infectious Disease Weekly Report conducted by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases. RESULTS: Epidemics of various infectious diseases generally remained at low levels during the first 9 months (March through November 2020) of the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, the incidence of COVID-19 was 50-80 times lower than the incidence in European countries and the United States. The total number of 38 cases with Kawasaki disease for the 9 months during the COVID-19 pandemic was 46.3% (-3.5 standard deviations [SDs] of the average [82.0; SD, 12.7 cases] for the corresponding 9 months of the previous 5 years. None of the 38 cases was determined to be triggered by COVID-19 based on their medical histories and negative results of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 testing at admission. CONCLUSION: These observations provide a new epidemiological evidence for the notion that Kawasaki disease is triggered by major infectious diseases in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies
4.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 724679, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450828

ABSTRACT

Creative problem solving has been important for the advent of new technologies. In this study, we hypothesized that subjective ratings of answers should be useful for evaluating the answer quality in creative problem solving. To test this hypothesis and extract objective indicators of the subjective ratings of answers, we evaluated the relationship between subjective ratings of task performance and behavioral and autonomic nervous activities during a creative problem-solving task performed via online conversation. The task involved an answerer and a supporter, and in the experiment, each pair performed 10 trials. The trials were categorized as highly or lowly rated according to the answerer's confidence in the answer. The task performance and behavioral and autonomic nervous activities were then compared between these categories of trials. Behavioral activity was evaluated via movements and speech activities, while for autonomic nervous activity, sympathetic nervous activity (SNA) was evaluated via skin conductance. The task performance was significantly better in the highly rated trials, whereas there were no significant differences in the behavioral activities between the highly and lowly rated trials. Moreover, in the highly rated trials, the skin conductance of the answerer was significantly high, whereas that of the supporter was significantly low. The results support the hypothesis and suggest that contrasting differences in SNA between an answerer and a supporter are indicators of the subjective ratings of answers in creative problem solving.

5.
Dig Endosc ; 2021 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402913

ABSTRACT

AIM: To elucidate the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the practice of high-resolution manometry (HRM) and peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) in Japan. METHODS: We utilized a large-scale database involving 14 high-volume centers in Japan to investigate changes in the numbers of HRM and POEM procedures performed and outcomes of POEM between 2019 and 2020. A questionnaire survey was also conducted to analyze pandemic-associated changes in the HRM and POEM protocols. RESULTS: Compared to that in 2019, the number of HRM and POEM procedures decreased by 17.2% (1587-1314) and 20.9% (630-498), respectively. These declines were prominent during the state of emergency from April to May 2020, particularly in pandemic areas. HRM and POEM in nonpandemic areas were relatively unaffected. From 2019 to 2020, there was a 0.4% (254-248) decrease in POEM cases within the prefecture, but the number outside the prefecture decreased by 33.6% (372-247). During the pandemic, the safety and efficacy of POEM were maintained. The implementation of personal protective equipment (PPE) measures varied among facilities, and PPE for POEM was relatively insufficient compared to that for HRM. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic influenced HRM and POEM practices in Japan. It is necessary to establish a sufficient system for HRM and POEM in each hospital as well as countrywide to overcome the effects of the pandemic.

7.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 31: 101200, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-731894

ABSTRACT

Use of systemic corticosteroids for the treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is not well described. A 58-year-old man with fever and progressive dyspnea was admitted to the Showa University Hospital, and showed severe respiratory failure which needed mechanical ventilation. His chest computed tomography scanning showed emphysema and bilateral ground-glass opacity caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. He received 30 mg prednisolone for five days with antiviral drug of favipiravir, and was successfully extubated on day five. A SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test became negative on day 15. He was discharged on day 21. Serum IgM and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 converted to positive on day 7 and they kept positive on day 54 for both IgM and IgG. Combination treatment of short-course systemic corticosteroid and favipiravir might improve the prognosis for critically ill COVID-19 pneumonia with COPD without negative influence on viral clearance or antibody production.

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