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1.
Science ; 376(6590): eabi9591, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731250

ABSTRACT

In this work, we find that CD8+ T cells expressing inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are the human equivalent of Ly49+CD8+ regulatory T cells in mice and are increased in the blood and inflamed tissues of patients with a variety of autoimmune diseases. Moreover, these CD8+ T cells efficiently eliminated pathogenic gliadin-specific CD4+ T cells from the leukocytes of celiac disease patients in vitro. We also find elevated levels of KIR+CD8+ T cells, but not CD4+ regulatory T cells, in COVID-19 patients, correlating with disease severity and vasculitis. Selective ablation of Ly49+CD8+ T cells in virus-infected mice led to autoimmunity after infection. Our results indicate that in both species, these regulatory CD8+ T cells act specifically to suppress pathogenic T cells in autoimmune and infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Mice , Receptors, KIR , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
2.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750507

ABSTRACT

During virus infection B cells are critical for the production of antibodies and protective immunity. Here we show that the human B cell compartment in patients with diagnostically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 and clinical COVID-19 is rapidly altered with the early recruitment of B cells expressing a limited subset of IGHV genes, progressing to a highly polyclonal response of B cells with broader IGHV gene usage and extensive class switching to IgG and IgA subclasses with limited somatic hypermutation in the initial weeks of infection. We identify extensive convergence of antibody sequences across SARS-CoV-2 patients, highlighting stereotyped naive responses to this virus. Notably, sequence-based detection in COVID-19 patients of convergent B cell clonotypes previously reported in SARS-CoV infection predicts the presence of SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive antibody titers specific for the receptor-binding domain. These findings offer molecular insights into shared features of human B cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 and other zoonotic spillover coronaviruses.

3.
Cell Rep ; 35(13): 109305, 2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260679

ABSTRACT

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-bound viral antigens serve as an immunological signature that can be selectively recognized by T cells. As viruses evolve by acquiring mutations, it is essential to identify a range of presented viral antigens. Using HLA peptidomics, we are able to identify severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-derived peptides presented by highly prevalent HLA class I (HLA-I) molecules by using infected cells as well as overexpression of SARS-CoV-2 genes. We find 26 HLA-I peptides and 36 HLA class II (HLA-II) peptides. Among the identified peptides, some are shared between different cells and some are derived from out-of-frame open reading frames (ORFs). Seven of these peptides were previously shown to be immunogenic, and we identify two additional immunoreactive peptides by using HLA multimer staining. These results may aid the development of the next generation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines based on presented viral-specific antigens that span several of the viral genes.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Peptides/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antigen Presentation , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cell Line , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/immunology , Humans , Peptidomimetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , T-Lymphocytes
4.
Cell ; 184(7): 1790-1803.e17, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139467

ABSTRACT

The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) XIST establishes X chromosome inactivation (XCI) in female cells in early development and thereafter is thought to be largely dispensable. Here, we show XIST is continually required in adult human B cells to silence a subset of X-linked immune genes such as TLR7. XIST-dependent genes lack promoter DNA methylation and require continual XIST-dependent histone deacetylation. XIST RNA-directed proteomics and CRISPRi screen reveal distinctive somatic cell-type-specific XIST complexes and identify TRIM28 that mediates Pol II pausing at promoters of X-linked genes in B cells. Single-cell transcriptome data of female patients with either systemic lupus erythematosus or COVID-19 infection revealed XIST dysregulation, reflected by escape of XIST-dependent genes, in CD11c+ atypical memory B cells (ABCs). XIST inactivation with TLR7 agonism suffices to promote isotype-switched ABCs. These results indicate cell-type-specific diversification and function for lncRNA-protein complexes and suggest expanded roles for XIST in sex-differences in biology and medicine.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , RNA, Long Noncoding/physiology , Toll-Like Receptor 7/immunology , X Chromosome Inactivation , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line , DNA Methylation , Female , Gene Silencing , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/genetics , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/immunology
5.
Cell ; 184(9): 2394-2411.e16, 2021 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126769

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of a pandemic with growing global mortality. Using comprehensive identification of RNA-binding proteins by mass spectrometry (ChIRP-MS), we identified 309 host proteins that bind the SARS-CoV-2 RNA during active infection. Integration of this data with ChIRP-MS data from three other RNA viruses defined viral specificity of RNA-host protein interactions. Targeted CRISPR screens revealed that the majority of functional RNA-binding proteins protect the host from virus-induced cell death, and comparative CRISPR screens across seven RNA viruses revealed shared and SARS-specific antiviral factors. Finally, by combining the RNA-centric approach and functional CRISPR screens, we demonstrated a physical and functional connection between SARS-CoV-2 and mitochondria, highlighting this organelle as a general platform for antiviral activity. Altogether, these data provide a comprehensive catalog of functional SARS-CoV-2 RNA-host protein interactions, which may inform studies to understand the host-virus interface and nominate host pathways that could be targeted for therapeutic benefit.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/virology , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Genome, Viral , Humans , Lung/virology , Male , Mass Spectrometry , Mitochondria/metabolism , Mitochondria/ultrastructure , Proteome/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Vero Cells
6.
medRxiv ; 2020 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808855

ABSTRACT

Recovery from COVID-19 is associated with production of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, but it is uncertain whether these confer immunity. We describe viral RNA shedding duration in hospitalized patients and identify patients with recurrent shedding. We sequenced viruses from two distinct episodes of symptomatic COVID-19 separated by 144 days in a single patient, to conclusively describe reinfection with a new strain harboring the spike variant D614G. With antibody and B cell analytics, we show correlates of adaptive immunity, including a differential response to D614G. Finally, we discuss implications for vaccine programs and begin to define benchmarks for protection against reinfection from SARS-CoV-2.

7.
Cell Host Microbe ; 28(4): 516-525.e5, 2020 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743914

ABSTRACT

B cells are critical for the production of antibodies and protective immunity to viruses. Here we show that patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) who develop coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) display early recruitment of B cells expressing a limited subset of IGHV genes, progressing to a highly polyclonal response of B cells with broader IGHV gene usage and extensive class switching to IgG and IgA subclasses with limited somatic hypermutation in the initial weeks of infection. We identify convergence of antibody sequences across SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, highlighting stereotyped naive responses to this virus. Notably, sequence-based detection in COVID-19 patients of convergent B cell clonotypes previously reported in SARS-CoV infection predicts the presence of SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive antibody titers specific for the receptor-binding domain. These findings offer molecular insights into shared features of human B cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibody Formation , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunogenetics , Immunoglobulin A/genetics , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/genetics , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
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