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J Ayurveda Integr Med ; 13(1): 100424, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838955


For centuries, traditional medicines of Ayurveda have been in use to manage infectious and non-infectious diseases. The key embodiment of traditional medicines is the holistic system of approach in the management of human diseases. SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection is an ongoing pandemic, which has emerged as the major health threat worldwide and is causing significant stress, morbidity and mortality. Studies from the individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection have shown significant immune dysregulation and cytokine overproduction. Neutrophilia and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio has been correlated to poor outcome due to the disease. Neutrophils, component of innate immune system, upon stimulation expel DNA along with histones and granular proteins to form extracellular traps (NETs). Although, these DNA lattices possess beneficial activity in trapping and eliminating pathogens, NETs may also cause adverse effects by inducing immunothrombosis and tissue damage in diseases including Type 2 Diabetes and atherosclerosis. Tissues of SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects showed microthrombi with neutrophil-platelet infiltration and serum showed elevated NETs components, suggesting large involvement and uncontrolled activation of neutrophils leading to pathogenesis and associated organ damage. Hence, traditional Ayurvedic herbs exhibiting anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties may act in a manner that might prove beneficial in targeting over-functioning of neutrophils and there by promoting normal immune homeostasis. In the present manuscript, we have reviewed and discussed pathological importance of NETs formation in SARS-CoV-2 infections and discuss how various Ayurvedic herbs can be explored to modulate neutrophil function and inhibit NETs formation in the context of a) anti-microbial activity to enhance neutrophil function, b) immunomodulatory effects to maintain neutrophil mediated immune homeostasis and c) to inhibit NETs mediated thrombosis.

OMICS ; 26(4): 179-188, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784298


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a systemic disease, impacting multiple organs in the human body. But COVID-19 also impacts other diseases of relevance to public and planetary health. To understand and respond to the COVID-19 pandemic, we need an intersectional conceptual lens and systems thinking. For example, the strain on health care systems due to COVID-19 has adversely impacted global malaria elimination programs. With many epidemiological, clinical, and biological parallels documented, we examined in this study the scenario of malaria and COVID-19 syndemic in India. The disruptive influence of COVID-19 on the National Framework for Malaria Elimination (NFME), impact of unintended chemoprophylaxis, population genetic influences, and the shifting patterns of epidemiology are compared. Importantly, a time series analysis forecasted the burden of malaria increasing in the upcoming years. Although reported malaria cases showed a decline in 2020 compared to the previous years, an increase in cases was documented in 2021, with nine states reporting an increase up to July 2021. Pandemics often cause crosscutting disruptions in health care. Reshaping the priorities of the malaria elimination program and a diligent implementation of the priorities in the NFME would, therefore, be well-advised: (1) vector control, (2) antimalarial therapy recommendations, (3) monitoring drug resistance, (4) prevention of the spread of asymptomatic disease-causing low-density transmission, and (5) large-scale testing measures. In conclusion, the findings from the present study inform future comparative studies in other world regions to better understand the broader, systemic, temporal, and spatial impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on existing and future diseases across public health systems and services.

Antimalarials , COVID-19 , Malaria , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Population Surveillance
OMICS ; 26(2): 93-100, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545889


The Covid-19 pandemic accelerated research and development not only in infectious diseases but also in digital technologies to improve monitoring, forecasting, and intervening on planetary and ecological risks. In the European Commission, the Destination Earth (DestinE) is a current major initiative to develop a digital model of the Earth (a "digital twin") with high precision. Moreover, omics systems science is undergoing digital transformation impacting nearly all dimensions of the field, including real-time phenotype capture to data analytics using machine learning and artificial intelligence, to name but a few emerging frontiers. We discuss the ways in which the current ongoing digital transformation in omics offers synergies with digital twins/DestinE. Importantly, we note here the rise of a new field of scholarship, planetary health genomics. We conclude that digital transformation in public and private sectors, digital twins/DestinE, and their convergence with omics systems science are poised to build robust capacities for pandemic preparedness and resilient societies in the 21st century.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Artificial Intelligence , Genomics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
Per Med ; 18(4): 389-398, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259310


Immunomodulatory and analgesic effects of dexamethasone are clinically well established, and this synthetic corticosteroid acts as an agonist of glucocorticoid receptors. Early results of the RECOVERY Trial from the United Kingdom and others suggest certain benefits of dexamethasone against COVID-19 chronic patients. The efforts have been acknowledged by World Health Organization with an interim guideline to use in patients with a severe and critical illness. The inherent genetic variations in genes such as CYP3A5, NR3C1, NR3C2, etc., involved in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes may influence dexamethasone's effects as an anti-inflammatory drug. Besides, the drug may influence transcriptome or metabolic changes in the individuals. In the present review, we summarize the reported genetic variations that impact dexamethasone response and discuss dexamethasone-induced changes in transcriptome and metabolome that may influence potential treatment outcome against COVID-19.

Lay abstract The surge of COVID-19 cases has increased the need for the development of a cure. This has pushed the barriers of the regulatory controls for randomized controlled trials. There has been the usage of immunomodulatory drugs, such as dexamethasone, with promising results in severe COVID-19 patients to reduce mortality. However, there is a need to consider the inherent genetic factors of an individual that may influence the dexamethasone drug's metabolism and action. To understand this, there is a need to evaluate the genes involved in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic pathways of the drug and study the effects of the drug. This will aid in choosing the right individuals who will benefit from the therapy. Hence, the present review summarized the reported genetic variations that impact dexamethasone drug response.

COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Pharmacogenetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Female , Gene Frequency , Genetic Variation , Humans , Male , Metabolome , Models, Animal , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Transcriptome
J Ovarian Res ; 14(1): 39, 2021 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105725


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) worldwide is a major public health concern. Cancer patients are considered a vulnerable population to SARS-CoV-2 infection and may develop several COVID-19 symptoms. The heightened immunocompromised state, prolonged chronic pro-inflammatory milieu coupled with comorbid conditions are shared in both disease conditions and may influence patient outcome. Although ovarian cancer (OC) and COVID-19 are diseases of entirely different primary organs, both diseases share similar molecular and cellular characteristics in their microenvironment suggesting a potential cooperativity leading to poor outcome. In COVID-19 related cases, hospitalizations and deaths worldwide are lower in women than in males; however, comorbidities associated with OC may increase the COVID-19 risk in women. The women at the age of 50-60 years are at greater risk of developing OC as well as SARS-CoV-2 infection. Increased levels of gonadotropin and androgen, dysregulated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), hyper-coagulation and chronic inflammation are common conditions observed among OC and severe cases of COVID-19. The upregulation of common inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), among others in the sera of COVID-19 and OC subjects suggests potentially similar mechanism(s) involved in the hyper-inflammatory condition observed in both disease states. Thus, it is conceivable that the pathogenesis of OC may significantly contribute to the potential infection by SARS-CoV-2. Our understanding of the influence and mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection on OC is at an early stage and in this article, we review the underlying pathogenesis presented by various comorbidities of OC and correlate their influence on SARS-CoV-2 infection.

COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , Inflammation/epidemiology , Ovarian Neoplasms/epidemiology , Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology , Comorbidity , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Inflammation/virology , Middle Aged , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Tumor Microenvironment
OMICS ; 25(3): 169-175, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-857603


Big data in both the public domain and the health care industry are growing rapidly, for example, with broad availability of next-generation sequencing and large-scale phenomics datasets on patient-reported outcomes. In parallel, we are witnessing new research approaches that demand sharing of data for the benefit of planetary society. Health data cooperatives (HDCs) is one such approach, where health data are owned and governed collectively by citizens who take part in the HDCs. Data stored in HDCs should remain readily available for translation to public health practice but at the same time, governed in a critically informed manner to ensure data integrity, veracity, and privacy, to name a few pressing concerns. As a solution, we suggest that data generated from high-throughput omics research and phenomics can be stored in an open cloud platform so that researchers around the globe can share health data and work collaboratively. We describe here the Global Open Health Data Cooperatives Cloud (GOHDCC) as a proposed cloud platform-based model for the sharing of health data between different HDCCs around the globe. GOHDCC's main objective is to share health data on a global scale for robust and responsible global science, research, and development. GOHDCC is a citizen-oriented model cooperatively governed by citizens. The model essentially represents a global sharing platform that could benefit all stakeholders along the health care value chain.

Big Data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cloud Computing , Global Health , Information Dissemination , International Cooperation , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/virology , Delivery of Health Care , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics