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1.
Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2013704

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus infection (COVID‐19) is a considerably dangerous disease with a high demise rate around the world. There is no known vaccination or medicine until our time because the unknown aspects of the virus are more significant than our theoretical and experimental knowledge. One of the most effective strategies for comprehending and controlling the spread of this epidemic is to model it using a powerful mathematical model. However, mathematical modeling with a fractional operator can provide explanations for the disease's possibility and severity. Accordingly, basic information will be provided to identify the kind of measure and intrusion that will be required to control the disease's progress. In this study, we propose using a fractional‐order SEIARPQ model with the Caputo sense to model the coronavirus (COVID‐19) pandemic, which has never been done before in the literature. The stability analysis, existence, uniqueness theorems, and numerical solutions of such a model are displayed. All results were numerically simulated using MATLAB programming. The current study supports the applicability and influence of fractional operators on real‐world problems. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations is the property of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

2.
RSC advances ; 10(34):19790-19802, 2020.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1888172

ABSTRACT

The novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 is a potential factor for fatal illness and a tremendous concern for global public health. The COVID-19 pandemic has entered a dangerous new phase. In the context of drug discovery, the structurally-unique and chemically-diverse natural products have been valuable sources for drug leads. In this review, we report for potential candidates derived from natural sources with well-reported in vitro efficacy against SARS-CoV during the last decade. Additionally, a library of 496 phenolic metabolites was subjected to a computer-aided virtual screening against the active site of the recently reported SARS-CoV Main protease (Mpro). Analysis of physicochemical properties of these natural products has been carried out and presented for all the tested phenolic metabolites. Only three of the top candidates, viz. acetylglucopetunidin (31), isoxanthohumol (32) and ellagic acid (33), which are widely available in many edible fruits, obey both Lipinski's and Veber's rules of drug-likeness and thus possess high degrees of predicted bioavailability. These natural products are suggested as potential drug candidates for the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics in the near future. Potential drug candidates derived from natural sources are posed for the development of anti-SARS CoV-2 therapeutics.

3.
RSC Adv ; 11(36): 22398-22408, 2021 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815631

ABSTRACT

Natural products and traditional medicine products with known safety profiles are a promising source for the discovery of new drug leads. Natural products as sesame were reported to exhibit potential to protect from COVID-19 disease. In our study, the total methanolic extract of Sesamum indicum L. seeds (sesame) were led to isolation of seven known compounds, five lignan; sesamin 1, sesamolin 2, pinoresinol 3, hydroxymatairesinol 6, spicatolignan 7, together with two simple phenolic compounds; ferulic acid 4 and vanillic acid 5. All isolated compounds were evaluated in silico against three important SARS-CoV-2 protein targets; main protease (Mpro), papain-like protease (PLpro) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) which possessed crucial role in replication and proliferation of the virus inside the human cell. The results revealed that compound 6 has the high affinity against the three main proteins, specially towards the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro that exceeded the currently used SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitor darunavir as well as, exhibiting a similar binding energy at SARS CoV-2 PLpro when compared with the co-crystallized ligand. This activity continued to include the RdRp as it displayed a comparable docking score with remdesivir. Inferiorly, compounds 1 and 2 showed also similar triple inhibitory effect against the three main proteins while compound 7 exhibited a dual inhibitory effect against SARS CoV-2 PLPro and RdRp. Further molecular dynamic simulation experiments were performed to validate these docking experiments and to calculate their binding free energies (ΔGs). Compounds 1, 2, 3, 6, and 7 showed comparable binding stability inside the active site of each enzyme with ΔG values ranged from -4.9 to -8.8 kcal mol-1. All the compounds were investigated for their ADME and drug likeness properties, which showed acceptable ADME properties and obeying Lipinski's rule of five parameters. It can be concluded that the isolated compounds from sesame lignans could be an alternative source for the development of new natural leads against COVID-19.

4.
RSC advances ; 11(36):22398-22408, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1812594

ABSTRACT

Natural products and traditional medicine products with known safety profiles are a promising source for the discovery of new drug leads. Natural products as sesame were reported to exhibit potential to protect from COVID-19 disease. In our study, the total methanolic extract of Sesamum indicum L. seeds (sesame) were led to isolation of seven known compounds, five lignan;sesamin 1, sesamolin 2, pinoresinol 3, hydroxymatairesinol 6, spicatolignan 7, together with two simple phenolic compounds;ferulic acid 4 and vanillic acid 5. All isolated compounds were evaluated in silico against three important SARS-CoV-2 protein targets;main protease (Mpro), papain-like protease (PLpro) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) which possessed crucial role in replication and proliferation of the virus inside the human cell. The results revealed that compound 6 has the high affinity against the three main proteins, specially towards the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro that exceeded the currently used SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitor darunavir as well as, exhibiting a similar binding energy at SARS CoV-2 PLpro when compared with the co-crystallized ligand. This activity continued to include the RdRp as it displayed a comparable docking score with remdesivir. Inferiorly, compounds 1 and 2 showed also similar triple inhibitory effect against the three main proteins while compound 7 exhibited a dual inhibitory effect against SARS CoV-2 PLPro and RdRp. Further molecular dynamic simulation experiments were performed to validate these docking experiments and to calculate their binding free energies (ΔGs). Compounds 1, 2, 3, 6, and 7 showed comparable binding stability inside the active site of each enzyme with ΔG values ranged from −4.9 to −8.8 kcal mol−1. All the compounds were investigated for their ADME and drug likeness properties, which showed acceptable ADME properties and obeying Lipinski's rule of five parameters. It can be concluded that the isolated compounds from sesame lignans could be an alternative source for the development of new natural leads against COVID-19. Natural products and traditional medicine products with known safety profiles are a promising source for the discovery of new drug leads.

5.
Mar Drugs ; 20(3)2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725847

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and its continuing emerging variants emphasize the need to discover appropriate treatment, where vaccines alone have failed to show complete protection against the new variants of the virus. Therefore, treatment of the infected cases is critical. This paper discusses the bio-guided isolation of three indole diketopiperazine alkaloids, neoechinulin A (1), echinulin (2), and eurocristatine (3), from the Red Sea-derived Aspergillus fumigatus MR2012. Neoechinulin A (1) exhibited a potent inhibitory effect against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro with IC50 value of 0.47 µM, which is comparable to the reference standard GC376. Despite the structural similarity between the three compounds, only 1 showed a promising effect. The mechanism of inhibition is discussed in light of a series of extensive molecular docking, classical and steered molecular dynamics simulation experiments. This paper sheds light on indole diketopiperazine alkaloids as a potential structural motif against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Additionally, it highlights the potential of different molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation approaches in the discrimination between active and inactive structurally related Mpro inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Indole Alkaloids/chemistry , Piperazines/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Alkaloids/chemistry , Alkaloids/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Aspergillus fumigatus/chemistry , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Indole Alkaloids/isolation & purification , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Piperazines/isolation & purification
6.
Mar Drugs ; 20(3)2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715534

ABSTRACT

Several natural products recovered from a marine-derived Aspergillus niger were tested for their inhibitory activity against SARS CoV-2 in vitro. Aurasperone A (3) was found to inhibit SARS CoV-2 efficiently (IC50 = 12.25 µM) with comparable activity with the positive control remdesivir (IC50 = 10.11 µM). Aurasperone A exerted minimal cytotoxicity on Vero E6 cells (CC50 = 32.36 mM, SI = 2641.5) and it was found to be much safer than remdesivir (CC50 = 415.22 µM, SI = 41.07). To putatively highlight its molecular target, aurasperone A was subjected to molecular docking against several key-viral protein targets followed by a series of molecular dynamics-based in silico experiments that suggested Mpro to be its primary viral protein target. More potent anti-SARS CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors can be developed according to our findings presented in the present investigation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chromones/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Aspergillus niger/chemistry , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chromones/isolation & purification , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/isolation & purification , RNA Helicases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells
7.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-8, 2021 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585376

ABSTRACT

In the present study, a new secoiridoid glycoside lisianthoside II 1, along with seven known compounds 2-8, were isolated from Centaurium spicatum L. In-silico molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation against SARS-CoV-2 Main protease (Mpro) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) were conducted. The affinity docking scores revealed that 8 is the best bound ligand to Mpro active site with binding energy of -14.9877 kcal/mol (RSMD = 1.16 Å), while 6 was the highest against RdRp (-16.9572 kcal/mol, RMSD = 1.01 Å). Moreover, the molecular dynamic simulation revealed that 8 with a (ΔG) of -7.9 kcal/mol (RMSD value of 2.6 Å) and 6 (RMSD value of 1.6 Å) and binding free energy (ΔG) of -7.1 kcal/mol achieved the highest stability over 50 ns of MDS inside the Mpro and RdRp enzyme's active site, respectively. Hence, the isolated compounds could be a good lead for development of new leads targeting COVID-19.

8.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(1)2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580360

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are the solution to overcome SARS-CoV-2. This study aimed to determine the post-Sinopharm vaccine safety-profile and immunity through antibody titers. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire from Egyptian participants who received two doses of Sinopharm vaccine. Data were divided into three parts, the first and second parts were to detect participants' post-first and second dose symptoms and practices, and the third for the results of IgG anti spike protein antibodies test and laboratory tests. Pain, redness, swelling at the injection site, headache, fatigue, and lethargy were the most common post-vaccine symptoms for both first and second doses. Most of the participants felt mild or no symptoms after vaccination. The symptoms started mostly during the first day post-vaccination and lasted for no more than two days. Forty-nine percent of the participants resulted in positive antibodies tests on day 18 post-vaccination. The average antibody level for vaccinated participants with past SARS-CoV-2 infection was much higher than that for non-past infected participants. These vaccines' administration methods need to be reevaluated by changing the dose, dose interval, adding a third dose, or mixing it with other vaccines with different techniques to improve their protection rates. Further studies are required to validate this finding.

9.
RSC Adv ; 11(57): 36042-36059, 2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537345

ABSTRACT

Cerebrosides are a group of metabolites belonging to the glycosphingolipids class of natural products. So far, 167 cerebrosides, compounds 1-167, have been isolated from diverse marine organisms or microorganisms. The as yet smaller number of compounds that have been studied more in depth proves a potential against challenging diseases, such as cancer, a range of viral and bacterial diseases, as well as inflammation. This review provides a comprehensive summary on this so far under-explored class of compounds, their chemical structures, bioactivities, and their marine sources, with a full coverage to the end of 2020. Today, the global pandemic concern, COVID-19, has claimed millions of death cases around the world, making the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs urgently needed for such a battle. Accordingly, selected examples from all subclasses of cerebrosides were virtually screened for potential inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 proteins that are crucially involved in the viral-host interaction, viral replication, or in disease progression. The results highlight five cerebrosides that could preferentially bind to the hACE2 protein, with binding scores between -7.1 and -7.6 kcal mol-1 and with the docking poses determined underneath the first α1-helix of the protein. Moreover, the molecular interaction determined by molecular dynamic (MD) simulation revealed that renieroside C1 (60) is more conveniently involved in key hydrophobic interactions with the best stability, least deviation, least ΔG (-6.9 kcal mol-1) and an RMSD value of 3.6 Å. Thus, the structural insights assure better binding affinity and favorable molecular interaction of renieroside C1 (60) towards the hACE2 protein, which plays a crucial role in the biology and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2.

10.
RSC Adv ; 11(51): 32346-32357, 2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517648

ABSTRACT

Wild plants growing in the Egyptian deserts are facing abiotic stress, which can lead to interesting & safe natural products possessing potential chemical profiles. Consequently, our study was designed to assess the phytochemical composition of the aerial parts of Limonium tubiflorum (family Plumbaginaceae) growing wild in Egypt for the first time. In addition, in silico screening and molecular dynamic simulation of all isolated phytoconstituents were run against the main protease (Mpro) and spike glycoprotein SARS-CoV-2 targets which displayed a crucial role in the replication of this virus. Our findings showed that the phytochemical investigation of 70% ethanol extract of L. tubiflorum aerial parts afforded six known flavonoids; myricetin 3-O-(2''-galloyl)-ß-d-galactopyranoside (1), myricetin 3-O-(2''-galloyl)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (2), myricetin 3-O-(3''-galloyl)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (3), myricetin 3-O-ß-d-galactopyranoside (5), apigenin (6), myricetin (7), along with two known phenolic acid derivatives; gallic acid (4) and ethyl gallate (8). Docking studies revealed that compounds (1) & (2) were the most effective compounds with binding energies of -17.9664 & -18.6652 kcal mol-1 against main protease and -18.9244 & -18.9272 kcal mol-1 towards spike glycoprotein receptors, respectively. The molecular dynamics simulation experiment agreed with the docking study and reported stability of compounds (1) and (2) against the selected targets which was proved by low RMSD for the tested components. Moreover, the structure-activity relationship revealed that the presence of the galloyl moiety is necessary for enhancement of the activity. Overall, the galloyl substructure of myricetin 3-O-glycoside derivatives (1 and 2) isolated from L. tubiflorum may be a possible lead for developing COVID-19 drugs. Further, in vitro and in vivo assays are recommended to support our in silico studies.

11.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480543

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to explore the value of using cefepime and ceftazidime in treating patients with COVID-19. A total of 370 (162 males) patients, with RT-PCR-confirmed cases of COVID-19, were included in the study. Out of them, 260 patients were treated with cefepime or ceftazidime, with the addition of steroids to the treatment. Patients were divided into three groups: Group 1: patients treated with cefepime (124 patients); Group 2: patients treated with ceftazidime (136 patients); Group 3 (control group): patients treated according to the WHO guidelines and the Egyptian COVID-19 management protocol (110 patients)/ Each group was classified into three age groups: 18-30, 31-60, and >60 years. The dose of either cefepime or ceftazidime was 1000 mg twice daily for five days. Eight milligrams of dexamethasone were used as the steroidal drug. Careful follow-ups for the patients were carried out. In vitro and in silico Mpro enzyme assays were performed to investigate the antiviral potential of both antibiotics. The mean recovery time for Group 1 was 12 days, for Group 2 was 13 days, and for Group 3 (control) was 19 days. No deaths were recorded, and all patients were recovered without any complications. For Group 1, the recovery time was 10, 12, and 16 days for the age groups 18-30, 30-60, and >60 years, respectively. For Group 2, the recovery time was 11, 13, and 15 days for the age groups 18-30, 30-60, and >60 years, respectively. For Group 3 (control), the recovery time was 15, 16, and 17 days for the age groups 18-30, 30-60, and >60 years, respectively. Both ceftazidime and cefepime showed very good inhibitory activity towards SARS CoV-2's Mpro, with IC50 values of 1.81 µM and 8.53 µM, respectively. In conclusion, ceftazidime and cefepime are efficient for the management of moderate and severe cases of COVID-19 due to their potential anti-SARS CoV-2 activity and low side effects, and, hence, the currently used complex multidrug treatment protocol can be replaced by the simpler one proposed in this study.

12.
Biomolecules ; 11(9)2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408460

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 virus mutations might increase its virulence, and thus the severity and duration of the ongoing pandemic. Global drug discovery campaigns have successfully developed several vaccines to reduce the number of infections by the virus. However, finding a small molecule pharmaceutical that is effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 remains a challenge. Natural products are the origin of many currently used pharmaceuticals and, for this reason, a library of in-house fungal extracts were screened to assess their potential to inhibit the main viral protease Mpro in vitro. The extract of Penicillium citrinum, TDPEF34, showed potential inhibition and was further analysed to identify potential Mpro inhibitors. Following bio-guided isolation, a series of benzodiazepine alkaloids cyclopenins with good-to-moderate activity against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro were identified. The mode of enzyme inhibition of these compounds was predicted by docking and molecular dynamic simulation. Compounds 1 (isolated as two conformers of S- and R-isomers), 2, and 4 were found to have promising in vitro inhibitory activity towards Mpro, with an IC50 values range of 0.36-0.89 µM comparable to the positive control GC376. The in silico investigation revealed compounds to achieve stable binding with the enzyme active site through multiple H-bonding and hydrophobic interactions. Additionally, the isolated compounds showed very good drug-likeness and ADMET properties. Our findings could be utilized in further in vitro and in vivo investigations to produce anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug candidates. These findings also provide critical structural information that could be used in the future for designing potent Mpro inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Penicillium/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Benzodiazepinones/chemistry , Benzodiazepinones/isolation & purification , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/isolation & purification
13.
Mar Drugs ; 19(8)2021 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325729

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2) is a novel coronavirus strain that emerged at the end of 2019, causing millions of deaths so far. Despite enormous efforts being made through various drug discovery campaigns, there is still a desperate need for treatments with high efficacy and selectivity. Recently, marine sulfated polysaccharides (MSPs) have earned significant attention and are widely examined against many viral infections. This article attempted to produce a comprehensive report about MSPs from different marine sources alongside their antiviral effects against various viral species covering the last 25 years of research articles. Additionally, these reported MSPs were subjected to molecular docking and dynamic simulation experiments to ascertain potential interactions with both the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS CoV-2's spike protein (S-protein) and human angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). The possible binding sites on both S-protein's RBD and ACE2 were determined based on how they bind to heparin, which has been reported to exhibit significant antiviral activity against SARS CoV-2 through binding to RBD, preventing the virus from affecting ACE2. Moreover, our modeling results illustrate that heparin can also bind to and block ACE2, acting as a competitor and protective agent against SARS CoV-2 infection. Nine of the investigated MSPs candidates exhibited promising results, taking into consideration the newly emerged SARS CoV-2 variants, of which five were not previously reported to exert antiviral activity against SARS CoV-2, including sulfated galactofucan (1), sulfated polymannuroguluronate (SPMG) (2), sulfated mannan (3), sulfated heterorhamnan (8), and chondroitin sulfate E (CS-E) (9). These results shed light on the importance of sulfated polysaccharides as potential SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Aquatic Organisms/chemistry , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , Computer Simulation , Heparin/chemistry , Heparin/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship , Sulfates/chemistry
14.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(6)2021 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314716

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is still active around the globe despite the newly introduced vaccines. Hence, finding effective medications or repurposing available ones could offer great help during this serious situation. During our anti-COVID-19 investigation of microbial natural products (MNPs), we came across α-rubromycin, an antibiotic derived from Streptomyces collinus ATCC19743, which was able to suppress the catalytic activity (IC50 = 5.4 µM and Ki = 3.22 µM) of one of the viral key enzymes (i.e., MPro). However, it showed high cytotoxicity toward normal human fibroblasts (CC50 = 16.7 µM). To reduce the cytotoxicity of this microbial metabolite, we utilized a number of in silico tools (ensemble docking, molecular dynamics simulation, binding free energy calculation) to propose a novel scaffold having the main pharmacophoric features to inhibit MPro with better drug-like properties and reduced/minimal toxicity. Nevertheless, reaching this novel scaffold synthetically is a time-consuming process, particularly at this critical time. Instead, this scaffold was used as a template to explore similar molecules among the FDA-approved medications that share its main pharmacophoric features with the aid of pharmacophore-based virtual screening software. As a result, cromoglicic acid (aka cromolyn) was found to be the best hit, which, upon in vitro MPro testing, was 4.5 times more potent (IC50 = 1.1 µM and Ki = 0.68 µM) than α-rubromycin, with minimal cytotoxicity toward normal human fibroblasts (CC50 > 100 µM). This report highlights the potential of MNPs in providing unprecedented scaffolds with a wide range of therapeutic efficacy. It also revealed the importance of cheminformatics tools in speeding up the drug discovery process, which is extremely important in such a critical situation.

15.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(6)2021 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259566

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is still active around the globe despite the newly introduced vaccines. Hence, finding effective medications or repurposing available ones could offer great help during this serious situation. During our anti-COVID-19 investigation of microbial natural products (MNPs), we came across α-rubromycin, an antibiotic derived from Streptomyces collinus ATCC19743, which was able to suppress the catalytic activity (IC50 = 5.4 µM and Ki = 3.22 µM) of one of the viral key enzymes (i.e., MPro). However, it showed high cytotoxicity toward normal human fibroblasts (CC50 = 16.7 µM). To reduce the cytotoxicity of this microbial metabolite, we utilized a number of in silico tools (ensemble docking, molecular dynamics simulation, binding free energy calculation) to propose a novel scaffold having the main pharmacophoric features to inhibit MPro with better drug-like properties and reduced/minimal toxicity. Nevertheless, reaching this novel scaffold synthetically is a time-consuming process, particularly at this critical time. Instead, this scaffold was used as a template to explore similar molecules among the FDA-approved medications that share its main pharmacophoric features with the aid of pharmacophore-based virtual screening software. As a result, cromoglicic acid (aka cromolyn) was found to be the best hit, which, upon in vitro MPro testing, was 4.5 times more potent (IC50 = 1.1 µM and Ki = 0.68 µM) than α-rubromycin, with minimal cytotoxicity toward normal human fibroblasts (CC50 > 100 µM). This report highlights the potential of MNPs in providing unprecedented scaffolds with a wide range of therapeutic efficacy. It also revealed the importance of cheminformatics tools in speeding up the drug discovery process, which is extremely important in such a critical situation.

16.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224074

ABSTRACT

SARS CoV-2 pandemic is still considered a global health disaster, and newly emerged variants keep growing. A number of promising vaccines have been recently developed as a protective measure; however, cost-effective treatments are also of great importance to support this critical situation. Previously, betulinic acid has shown promising antiviral activity against SARS CoV via targeting its main protease. Herein, we investigated the inhibitory potential of this compound together with three other triterpene congeners (i.e., ursolic acid, maslinic acid, and betulin) derived from olive leaves against the viral main protease (Mpro) of the currently widespread SARS CoV-2. Interestingly, betulinic, ursolic, and maslinic acids showed significant inhibitory activity (IC50 = 3.22-14.55 µM), while betulin was far less active (IC50 = 89.67 µM). A comprehensive in-silico analysis (i.e., ensemble docking, molecular dynamic simulation, and binding-free energy calculation) was then performed to describe the binding mode of these compounds with the enzyme catalytic active site and determine the main essential structural features required for their inhibitory activity. Results presented in this communication indicated that this class of compounds could be considered as a promising lead scaffold for developing cost-effective anti-SARS CoV-2 therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Olea/chemistry , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/chemistry , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Triterpenes/chemistry
17.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(5)2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223913

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in 2019, it has remained a significant global threat, especially with the newly evolved variants. Despite the presence of different COVID-19 vaccines, the discovery of proper antiviral therapeutics is an urgent necessity. Nature is considered as a historical trove for drug discovery, especially in global crises. During our efforts to discover potential anti-SARS CoV-2 natural therapeutics, screening our in-house natural products and plant crude extracts library led to the identification of C. benedictus extract as a promising candidate. To find out the main chemical constituents responsible for the extract's antiviral activity, we utilized recently reported SARS CoV-2 structural information in comprehensive in silico investigations (e.g., ensemble docking and physics-based molecular modeling). As a result, we constructed protein-protein and protein-compound interaction networks that suggest cnicin as the most promising anti-SARS CoV-2 hit that might inhibit viral multi-targets. The subsequent in vitro validation confirmed that cnicin could impede the viral replication of SARS CoV-2 in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 value of 1.18 µg/mL. Furthermore, drug-like property calculations strongly recommended cnicin for further in vivo and clinical experiments. The present investigation highlighted natural products as crucial and readily available sources for developing antiviral therapeutics. Additionally, it revealed the key contributions of bioinformatics and computer-aided modeling tools in accelerating the discovery rate of potential therapeutics, particularly in emergency times like the current COVID-19 pandemic.

18.
Nat Prod Res ; 36(11): 2843-2847, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216555

ABSTRACT

One of the promising therapeutic strategies for corona virus 2019 (COVID-19) is tolook for enzyme inhibitors. COVID-19 virus main protease (Mpro) plays a vital role in mediating viral transcription and replication, introducing it as an attractive antiviral agent target. LC-ESI-HDMS based metabolic profiling of Citrus nobilis Lour. × Citrus deliciosa Ten. (Rutaceae) annotated 21 compounds belonging to diverse classes. Molecular docking studies were carried out to ascertain the inhibitory action of studied dereplicated compounds through the interactions within the active site of SARS-CoV-2 (Mpro). Among which, quercetin-7-O-glucoside-3-O-rutinoside (21) possessed the best binding affinity (-9.47 kcal/mol), followed by luteoline-7-rutinoside (18), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (19) and apigenin-8-C-glucoside (15) showed less binding affinities ranging at -8.27, -7.97 and -6.94 kcal/mol respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Citrus , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Endopeptidases , Glucosides , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins
19.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(4)2021 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178064

ABSTRACT

SARS CoV-2 is still considered a global health issue, and its threat keeps growing with the emergence of newly evolved strains. Despite the success in developing some vaccines as a protective measure, finding cost-effective treatments is urgent. Accordingly, we screened a number of phenolic natural compounds for their in vitro anti-SARS CoV-2 activity. We found sinapic acid (SA) selectively inhibited the viral replication in vitro with an half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 2.69 µg/mL with significantly low cytotoxicity (CC50 = 189.3 µg/mL). Subsequently, we virtually screened all currently available molecular targets using a multistep in silico protocol to find out the most probable molecular target that mediates this compound's antiviral activity. As a result, the viral envelope protein (E-protein) was suggested as the most possible hit for SA. Further in-depth molecular dynamic simulation-based investigation revealed the essential structural features of SA antiviral activity and its binding mode with E-protein. The structural and experimental results presented in this study strongly recommend SA as a promising structural motif for anti-SARS CoV-2 agent development.

20.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143541

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) disease is a global rapidly spreading virus showing very high rates of complications and mortality. Till now, there is no effective specific treatment for the disease. Aloe is a rich source of isolated phytoconstituents that have an enormous range of biological activities. Since there are no available experimental techniques to examine these compounds for antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2, we employed an in silico approach involving molecular docking, dynamics simulation, and binding free energy calculation using SARS-CoV-2 essential proteins as main protease and spike protein to identify lead compounds from Aloe that may help in novel drug discovery. Results retrieved from docking and molecular dynamics simulation suggested a number of promising inhibitors from Aloe. Root mean square deviation (RMSD) and root mean square fluctuation (RMSF) calculations indicated that compounds 132, 134, and 159 were the best scoring compounds against main protease, while compounds 115, 120, and 131 were the best scoring ones against spike glycoprotein. Compounds 120 and 131 were able to achieve significant stability and binding free energies during molecular dynamics simulation. In addition, the highest scoring compounds were investigated for their pharmacokinetic properties and drug-likeness. The Aloe compounds are promising active phytoconstituents for drug development for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Aloe/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Development , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computational Biology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Drug Discovery/methods , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Phytochemicals/analysis , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/metabolism , Phytochemicals/pharmacokinetics , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Thermodynamics
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