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1.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 3369-3371, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917083

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic hit Afghanistan at a time when the country was most vulnerable, with a fragile healthcare system and unable to contain the disease, and meet the needs of the vulnerable people. The country has gone through four waves of the disease thus far. An analysis of the COVID-19 cases reported by the District Health Information Software-2 shows that the fourth wave has just passed in March 2022. With the resurgence of the COVID-19 cases in other countries, it is likely that the next wave might not be too far. Challenges such as the lack or insufficiency of donor funds, unstable political situation, inadequate healthcare services, insufficient healthcare workers and diagnostic capacity, illiteracy of people, poor economy and shortage of the COVID-19 vaccine are greatly threatening the nation. The de facto authority does not seem to have a clear plan to fight against the pandemic. Therefore, the international community, civil societies, healthcare workers and other stakeholders should stay alert and combine their efforts to rescue an already plagued nation. Fortunately, many COVID-19 hospitals and laboratories have resumed their activities with the funds coming from international donors. However, to combat the infection in the long term, there seems to be a great need to integrate the COVID-19 services in the existing package of healthcare services, ie the Sehatmandi project. Moreover, awareness campaigns should be continued to keep the most vulnerable groups safe and protected. Vaccination services also need to be speeded up to have a significant portion of people immunized. Public willingness towards getting the vaccine should be increased through awareness campaigns mostly conducted by social media volunteers and healthcare workers.

2.
Egypt J Neurol Psychiatr Neurosurg ; 57(1): 172, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic became a global health problem affecting the life of millions of people all over the world. The effects of this pandemic were not only on the physical and medical aspects but also on the psychological issues including anxiety disorders, depressive manifestations, sleep problems and others. Sleep disorders were very commonly reported during the novel Coronavirus-19 pandemic either in the acute phase of COVID-19 infection or after recovery. These sleep problems might have a drastic burden on the recovered patients' life. This study aimed to investigate the sleep in the post-Coronavirus-19 period and if has an impact on the different items of patients' quality of life. This cross-sectional observational study investigated the sleep problems in 500 patients in the post recovery period using Insomnia Severity Index and Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), their relation to this critical period and their impact on different domains of Quality of Life which was assessed by the SF36 Health Survey. RESULTS: Socio-demographic characteristics of 500 post-Coronavirus-19 patients were collected; the insomnia severity index and Pittsburgh sleep quality index evaluated the sleep pattern. The quality of life was investigated using Short Form 36 scale. The study revealed high scores of insomnia severity index (13.01 ± 4.9), Pittsburgh sleep quality index (15.37 ± 4.43), also high scores of different items of scale of quality of life in the studied group. CONCLUSION: Post-COVID-19 sleep disturbances were commonly reported in the recovery period, also these sleep deficits had an impact on the physical and mental aspects of quality of life, so these sleep problems must be managed properly especially in this critical pandemic era.

3.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(1): 91-99.e12, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509923

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory viruses, air pollutants, and aeroallergens are all implicated in worsening pediatric asthma symptoms, but their relative contributions to asthma exacerbations are poorly understood. A significant decrease in asthma exacerbations has been observed during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, providing a unique opportunity to study how major asthma triggers correlate with asthma activity. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether changes in respiratory viruses, air pollutants, and/or aeroallergens during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic were concomitant with decreased asthma exacerbations. METHODS: Health care utilization and respiratory viral testing data between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2020, were extracted from the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Care Network's electronic health record. Air pollution and allergen data were extracted from US Environmental Protection Agency public databases and a National Allergy Bureau-certified station, respectively. Pandemic data (2020) were compared with historical data. RESULTS: Recovery of in-person asthma encounters during phased reopening (June 6 to November 15, 2020) was uneven: primary care well and specialty encounters reached 94% and 74% of prepandemic levels, respectively, whereas primary care sick and hospital encounters reached 21% and 40% of prepandemic levels, respectively. During the pandemic, influenza A and influenza B decreased to negligible frequency when compared with prepandemic cases, whereas respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus infections decreased to low (though nonnegligible) prepandemic levels, as well. No changes in air pollution or aeroallergen levels relative to historical observations were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that viral respiratory infections are a primary driver of pediatric asthma exacerbations. These findings have broad relevance to both clinical practice and the development of health policies aimed at reducing asthma morbidity.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Asthma/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
4.
5.
Sci Immunol ; 6(57)2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115087

ABSTRACT

Pediatric COVID-19 following SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with fewer hospitalizations and often milder disease than in adults. A subset of children, however, present with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) that can lead to vascular complications and shock, but rarely death. The immune features of MIS-C compared to pediatric COVID-19 or adult disease remain poorly understood. We analyzed peripheral blood immune responses in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 infected pediatric patients (pediatric COVID-19) and patients with MIS-C. MIS-C patients had patterns of T cell-biased lymphopenia and T cell activation similar to severely ill adults, and all patients with MIS-C had SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific antibodies at admission. A distinct feature of MIS-C patients was robust activation of vascular patrolling CX3CR1+ CD8+ T cells that correlated with the use of vasoactive medication. Finally, whereas pediatric COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) had sustained immune activation, MIS-C patients displayed clinical improvement over time, concomitant with decreasing immune activation. Thus, non-MIS-C versus MIS-C SARS-CoV-2 associated illnesses are characterized by divergent immune signatures that are temporally distinct from one another and implicate CD8+ T cells in the clinical presentation and trajectory of MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aging/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Leukopenia/immunology , Male , Young Adult
6.
Neuropsychopharmacol Rep ; 41(1): 50-55, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979594

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Individuals infected by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) have experienced different psychiatric manifestations during the period of infectivity and post-COVID-19 infection. Fatigue and anhedonia are among the frequently reported manifestations after recovery from this novel viral pandemic, leading to early evaluation of those patients and proper management of their complaints which have a drastic burden on different domains of life. Also, the period after recovery might have an effect on the severity of these two psychiatric presentations. AIM OF THE WORK: This cross-sectional observational study aimed to investigate the occurrence of post-COVID-19 fatigue and anhedonia and whether the duration after 2 consecutive PCR-negative tests has an implication on the severity of the above-mentioned psychiatric manifestations. METHODS: Socio-demographic characteristics of 200 post-COVID-19 patients were collected, and also, the self-assessment anhedonia scale was used to evaluate the degree of anhedonia. Fatigue assessment scale used to investigate this domain. The study targeted to find a possible correlation between the period after recovery and the other variables including anhedonia and fatigue. RESULTS: The study revealed high scores of different subtypes of self-assessment anhedonia scale (including total intensity, total frequency, and total changes scores) in the studied group, also high score of fatigue assessment scale in those patients. Positive statistically significant correlation between anhedonia and fatigue in post-COVID-19 group, also negative statistically significant correlation between duration after recovery and the other 2 variables(anhedonia and fatigue) in the examined patients. CONCLUSION: Post-COVID-19 fatigue and anhedonia were prevalent and commonly reported in the post-COVID-19 period, also the duration after 2 consecutive negative PCR tests has an implication on the severity rating scale of both anhedonia and fatigue. These findings directed our attention to those reported manifestations which affected the socio-occupational functioning of the individuals during this whole world pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anhedonia , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(10): 3378-3387.e11, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-773574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused dramatic changes in daily routines and health care utilization and delivery patterns in the United States. Understanding the influence of these changes and associated public health interventions on asthma care is important to determine effects on patient outcomes and identify measures that will ensure optimal future health care delivery. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify changes in pediatric asthma-related health care utilization, respiratory viral testing, and air pollution during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: For the time period January 17 to May 17, 2015 to 2020, asthma-related encounters and weekly summaries of respiratory viral testing data were extracted from Children's Hospital of Philadelphia electronic health records, and pollution data for 4 criteria air pollutants were extracted from AirNow. Changes in encounter characteristics, viral testing patterns, and air pollution before and after Mar 17, 2020, the date public health interventions to limit viral transmission were enacted in Philadelphia, were assessed and compared with data from 2015 to 2019 as a historical reference. RESULTS: After March 17, 2020, in-person asthma encounters decreased by 87% (outpatient) and 84% (emergency + inpatient). Video telemedicine, which was not previously available, became the most highly used asthma encounter modality (61% of all visits), and telephone encounters increased by 19%. Concurrently, asthma-related systemic steroid prescriptions and frequency of rhinovirus test positivity decreased, although air pollution levels did not substantially change, compared with historical trends. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic in Philadelphia was accompanied by changes in pediatric asthma health care delivery patterns, including reduced admissions and systemic steroid prescriptions. Reduced rhinovirus infections may have contributed to these patterns.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Child Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adenovirus Infections, Human/diagnosis , Adenovirus Infections, Human/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Asthma/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Coronaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Nitrogen Dioxide , Ozone , Pandemics/prevention & control , Paramyxoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Paramyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Particulate Matter , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Telephone , Videoconferencing
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