Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 8 de 8
Filter
1.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 15(4): e008900, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807749
3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2340-2348, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435934

ABSTRACT

We investigated the risk of coronavirus disease (COVID-19)- patients transmitting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to emergency medical service (EMS) providers, stratified by aerosol-generating procedures (AGP), in King County, Washington, USA, during February 16-July 31, 2020. We conducted a retrospective cohort investigation using a statewide COVID-19 registry and identified 1,115 encounters, 182 with ≥1 AGP. Overall, COVID-19 incidence among EMS personnel was 0.57 infections/10,000 person-days. Incidence per 10,000 person-days did not differ whether or not infection was attributed to a COVID-19 patient encounter (0.28 vs. 0.59; p>0.05). The 1 case attributed to a COVID-19 patient encounter occurred within an at-risk period and involved an AGP. We observed a very low risk for COVID-19 infection attributable to patient encounters among EMS first responders, supporting clinical strategies that maintain established practices for treating patients in emergency conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Aerosols , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Emerg Med J ; 37(11): 707-713, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-788175

ABSTRACT

Rigorous assessment of occupational COVID-19 risk and personal protective equipment (PPE) use is not well-described. We evaluated 9-1-1 emergency medical services (EMS) encounters for patients with COVID-19 to assess occupational exposure, programmatic strategies to reduce exposure and PPE use. We conducted a retrospective cohort investigation of laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19 in King County, Washington, USA, who received 9-1-1 EMS responses from 14 February 2020 to 26 March 2020. We reviewed dispatch, EMS and public health surveillance records to evaluate the temporal relationship between exposure and programmatic changes to EMS operations designed to identify high-risk patients, protect the workforce and conserve PPE. There were 274 EMS encounters for 220 unique COVID-19 patients involving 700 unique EMS providers with 988 EMS person-encounters. Use of 'full' PPE including mask (surgical or N95), eye protection, gown and gloves (MEGG) was 67%. There were 151 person-exposures among 129 individuals, who required 981 quarantine days. Of the 700 EMS providers, 3 (0.4%) tested positive within 14 days of encounter, though these positive tests were not attributed to occupational exposure from inadequate PPE. Programmatic changes were associated with a temporal reduction in exposures. When stratified at the study encounters midpoint, 94% (142/151) of exposures occurred during the first 137 EMS encounters compared with 6% (9/151) during the second 137 EMS encounters (p<0.01). By the investigation's final week, EMS deployed MEGG PPE in 34% (3579/10 468) of all EMS person-encounters. Less than 0.5% of EMS providers experienced COVID-19 illness within 14 days of occupational encounter. Programmatic strategies were associated with a reduction in exposures, while achieving a measured use of PPE.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Emergency Medical Services/organization & administration , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Pandemics , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Washington/epidemiology
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e2014549, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635864

ABSTRACT

Importance: The ability to identify patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the prehospital emergency setting could inform strategies for infection control and use of personal protective equipment. However, little is known about the presentation of patients with COVID-19 requiring emergency care, particularly those who used 911 emergency medical services (EMS). Objective: To describe patient characteristics and prehospital presentation of patients with COVID-19 cared for by EMS. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included 124 patients who required 911 EMS care for COVID-19 in King County, Washington, a large metropolitan region covering 2300 square miles with 2.2 million residents in urban, suburban, and rural areas, between February 1, 2020, and March 18, 2020. Exposures: COVID-19 was diagnosed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from nasopharyngeal swabs. Test results were available a median (interquartile range) of 5 (3-9) days after the EMS encounter. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence of clinical characteristics, symptoms, examination signs, and EMS impression and care. Results: Of the 775 confirmed COVID-19 cases in King County, EMS responded to 124 (16.0%), with a total of 147 unique 911 encounters. The mean (SD) age was 75.7 (13.2) years, 66 patients (53.2%) were women, 47 patients (37.9%) had 3 or more chronic health conditions, and 57 patients (46.0%) resided in a long-term care facility. Based on EMS evaluation, 43 of 147 encounters (29.3%) had no symptoms of fever, cough, or shortness of breath. Based on individual examination findings, fever, tachypnea, or hypoxia were only present in a limited portion of cases, as follows: 43 of 84 encounters (51.2%), 42 of 131 (32.1%), and 60 of 112 (53.6%), respectively. Advanced care was typically not required, although in 24 encounters (16.3%), patients received care associated with aerosol-generating procedures. As of June 1, 2020, mortality among the study cohort was 52.4% (65 patients). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest that screening based on conventional COVID-19 symptoms or corresponding examination findings of febrile respiratory illness may not possess the necessary sensitivity for early diagnostic suspicion, at least in the prehospital emergency setting. The findings have potential implications for early identification of COVID-19 and effective strategies to mitigate infectious risk during emergency care.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services , Fever/epidemiology , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Multiple Chronic Conditions/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Tachypnea/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Long-Term Care , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Washington/epidemiology
8.
N Engl J Med ; 382(21): 2005-2011, 2020 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-17812

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-term care facilities are high-risk settings for severe outcomes from outbreaks of Covid-19, owing to both the advanced age and frequent chronic underlying health conditions of the residents and the movement of health care personnel among facilities in a region. METHODS: After identification on February 28, 2020, of a confirmed case of Covid-19 in a skilled nursing facility in King County, Washington, Public Health-Seattle and King County, aided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, launched a case investigation, contact tracing, quarantine of exposed persons, isolation of confirmed and suspected cases, and on-site enhancement of infection prevention and control. RESULTS: As of March 18, a total of 167 confirmed cases of Covid-19 affecting 101 residents, 50 health care personnel, and 16 visitors were found to be epidemiologically linked to the facility. Most cases among residents included respiratory illness consistent with Covid-19; however, in 7 residents no symptoms were documented. Hospitalization rates for facility residents, visitors, and staff were 54.5%, 50.0%, and 6.0%, respectively. The case fatality rate for residents was 33.7% (34 of 101). As of March 18, a total of 30 long-term care facilities with at least one confirmed case of Covid-19 had been identified in King County. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of rapidly escalating Covid-19 outbreaks, proactive steps by long-term care facilities to identify and exclude potentially infected staff and visitors, actively monitor for potentially infected patients, and implement appropriate infection prevention and control measures are needed to prevent the introduction of Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Long-Term Care , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Washington/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL