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1.
Thorax ; 2022 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846539

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: In patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and mild hypoxaemia, the clinical benefit of high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) remains unclear. We aimed to examine whether HFNO compared with conventional oxygen therapy (COT) could prevent escalation of respiratory support in this patient population. METHODS: In this multicentre, randomised, parallel-group, open-label trial, patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) ≤92% who required oxygen therapy were randomised to HFNO or COT. The primary outcome was the rate of escalation of respiratory support (ie, continuous positive airway pressure, non-invasive ventilation or invasive mechanical ventilation) within 28 days. Among secondary outcomes, clinical recovery was defined as the improvement in oxygenation (SpO2 ≥96% with fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2) ≤30% or partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide/FiO2 ratio >300 mm Hg). RESULTS: Among 364 randomised patients, 55 (30.3%) of 181 patients assigned to HFNO and 70 (38.6%) of 181 patients assigned to COT underwent escalation of respiratory support, with no significant difference between groups (absolute risk difference -8.2% (95% CI -18% to +1.4%); RR 0.79 (95% CI 0.59 to 1.05); p=0.09). There was no significant difference in clinical recovery (69.1% vs 60.8%; absolute risk difference 8.2% (95% CI -1.5% to +18.0%), RR 1.14 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.32)), intensive care unit admission (7.7% vs 11.0%, absolute risk difference -3.3% (95% CI -9.3% to +2.6%)), and in hospital length of stay (11 (IQR 8-17) vs 11 (IQR 7-20) days, absolute risk difference -1.0% (95% CI -3.1% to +1.1%)). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and mild hypoxaemia, the use of HFNO did not significantly reduce the likelihood of escalation of respiratory support. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04655638.

2.
Eur Respir J ; 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775304

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Pulse glucocorticoid therapy is used in hyperinflammation related to coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of pulse intravenous methylprednisolone in addition to standard treatment in COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 304 hospitalised patients with Covid-19 pneumonia were randomised to receive 1 g of methylprednisolone intravenously for 3 consecutive days or placebo in addition to standard dexamethasone. The primary outcome was the duration of the patient hospitalisation, calculated as the time interval between randomisation and hospital discharge without the need of supplementary oxygen. The key secondary outcomes were survival free from invasive ventilation with orotracheal intubation and overall survival. RESULTS: Overall, 112 of 151 (75.4%) patients in the pulse methylprednisolone arm and 111 of 150 (75.2%) in the placebo arm were discharged from hospital without oxygen within 30 days from randomisation. Median time to discharge was similar in both groups [15 days (95% confidence interval (CI), 13.0 to 17.0) and 16 days (95%CI, 13.8 to 18.2); hazard ratio (HR), 0.92; 95% CI 0.71-1.20; p=0.528]. No significant differences between pulse methylprednisolone and placebo arms were observed in terms of admission to Intensive Care Unit with orotracheal intubation or death (20.0% versus 16.1%; HR, 1.26; 95%CI, 0.74-2.16; p=0.176), or overall mortality (10.0% versus 12.2%; HR, 0.83; 95%CI, 0.42-1.64; p=0.584). Serious adverse events occurred with similar frequency in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Methylprenisolone pulse therapy added to dexamethasone was not of benefit in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. MESSAGE OF THE STUDY: Pulse glucocorticoid therapy is used for severe and/or life threatening immuno-inflammatory diseases. The addition of pulse glucocorticoid therapy to the standard low dose of dexamethasone scheme was not of benefit in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

3.
Clin Biochem ; 103: 29-31, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693791

ABSTRACT

The new parameter derived from the standard deviation of the monocyte distribution width (MDW) has shown a good diagnostic efficacy in COVID-19 patients. In this study, we propose MDW as a prognostic and monitoring parameter in patients with severe forms of COVID-19. Sixty SARS-CoV-2-positive patients admitted to the San Donato Hospital in Arezzo were enrolled. A blood sample taken to measure the complete blood count was used for the determination of MDW using a UniCel DxH 900 instrument (Beckman Coulter). For each patient, a mean of 6 ± 2 measurements of MDW were taken. The difference between the last and first MDW results was reported as the ΔMDW variable. The ΔMDW and age were significantly correlated to the outcome. In non-survivors patients, the difference in the mean of the MDW between the first and other points was not significant, while in survivors, the first point was higher than the other points (p < 0.005), with the exception of the mean of the second point (p-value = NS). The ΔMDW area under the curve (AUC) was 0.84, and with a cut-off lower than 0.00 the sensitivity and specificity were 88% and 81%, respectively. The most important result of this study is the ΔMDW calculated on the basis of the difference between the first and third measurement, after approximately the 5-7th day of hospitalisation. A ΔMDW less than one was indicative of an unfavourable prognosis. The data reported suggest that MDW could be used to support monitoring and surveillance, alongside other tests such as procalcitonin, in critically ill patients in the ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Monocytes , Prognosis , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Panminerva Med ; 63(4): 529-538, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689607

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has changed bronchoscopy practices worldwide. Bronchoscopy is a high-risk aerosol-generating procedure with a potential for direct SARS-CoV-2 exposure and hospital-acquired infection. Current guidelines about personal protective equipment and environment considerations represent key competencies to minimize droplets dispersion and reduce the risk of transmission. Different measures should be put in field based on setting, patient's clinical characteristics, urgency and indications of bronchoscopy. The use of this technique in SARS-CoV-2 patients is reported primarily for removal of airway plugs and for obtaining microbiological culture samples. In mechanically ventilated patients with SARS-CoV-2, bronchoscopy is commonly used to manage complications such as hemoptysis, atelectasis or lung collapse when prone positioning, physiotherapy or recruitment maneuvers have failed. Further indications are represented by assistance during percutaneous tracheostomy. Continuous positive airway pressure, non-invasive ventilation support and high flow nasal cannula oxygen are frequently used in patient affected by Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): management of patients' airways and ventilation strategies differs from bronchoscopy indications, patient's clinical status and in course or required ventilatory support. Sedation is usually administered by the pulmonologist (performing the bronchoscopy) or by the anesthetist depending on the complexity of the procedure and the level of sedation required. Lastly, elective bronchoscopy for diagnostic indications during COVID-19 pandemic should be carried on respecting rigid standards which allow to minimize potential viral transmission, independently from patient's COVID-19 status. This narrative review aims to evaluate the indications, procedural measures and ventilatory strategies of bronchoscopy performed in different settings during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Tracheostomy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cannula , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 15(12): 1505-1515, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487398

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Respiratory high dependency units (RHDUs) set up in European countries in the last decade are based on being a transitional step between the intensive care units (ICUs) and the conventional hospital ward in terms of staffing, level of monitoring, and patients' severity. In the pre-COVID-19 era, its main use has been the treatment of hypercapnic acute-on-chronic respiratory failure with noninvasive respiratory support, and more recently, for hypoxemic acute respiratory failure. AREAS COVERED: We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, limited to the terms: COVID-19 and RHDU, Respiratory Intermediate care Unit, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), noninvasive ventilation (NIV), high flow nasal cannula (HFNC), prone position, and monitoring. In this review, we summarize RHDU´s dual purpose: on the one hand, to decrease the number of admissions into ICU, and on the other hand, early discharges of patients from ICU with prolonged admissions due to the need of care or laborious weaning from invasive mechanical ventilation. Although this dual purpose of RHDUs has contributed to decrease the overload of the ICUs during the pandemic, the hundreds of patients admitted in hospitals, with approximately 20%-30% needing critical care, has exceeded the forecasts of many hospitals. EXPERT OPINION: It seems clear that a reorganization and optimization of the care of patients with severe COVID-19 is necessary, minimizing admissions to the ICU and facilitating an early discharge. During the pandemic, several hospitals have spontaneously created new RHDUs or extended preexisting RHDUs or up-graded respiratory wards in order to receive less sick patients requiring lower levels of monitoring and nurse-to-patient ratios. This article reviews under a European expert perspective this topic and proposes an adaptation and optimization of the RHDUs to meet the emergent needs caused by the pandemic emphasizing the role of the expert application of noninvasive respiratory therapies in preventing intubation and ICU access.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Panminerva Med ; 63(4): 529-538, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451032

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has changed bronchoscopy practices worldwide. Bronchoscopy is a high-risk aerosol-generating procedure with a potential for direct SARS-CoV-2 exposure and hospital-acquired infection. Current guidelines about personal protective equipment and environment considerations represent key competencies to minimize droplets dispersion and reduce the risk of transmission. Different measures should be put in field based on setting, patient's clinical characteristics, urgency and indications of bronchoscopy. The use of this technique in SARS-CoV-2 patients is reported primarily for removal of airway plugs and for obtaining microbiological culture samples. In mechanically ventilated patients with SARS-CoV-2, bronchoscopy is commonly used to manage complications such as hemoptysis, atelectasis or lung collapse when prone positioning, physiotherapy or recruitment maneuvers have failed. Further indications are represented by assistance during percutaneous tracheostomy. Continuous positive airway pressure, non-invasive ventilation support and high flow nasal cannula oxygen are frequently used in patient affected by Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): management of patients' airways and ventilation strategies differs from bronchoscopy indications, patient's clinical status and in course or required ventilatory support. Sedation is usually administered by the pulmonologist (performing the bronchoscopy) or by the anesthetist depending on the complexity of the procedure and the level of sedation required. Lastly, elective bronchoscopy for diagnostic indications during COVID-19 pandemic should be carried on respecting rigid standards which allow to minimize potential viral transmission, independently from patient's COVID-19 status. This narrative review aims to evaluate the indications, procedural measures and ventilatory strategies of bronchoscopy performed in different settings during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Tracheostomy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cannula , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Respir Med ; 187: 106550, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331211

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In COVID-19 associated hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (ARF) without mandatory indication for urgent endotracheal intubation, a trial of CPAP may be considered. We aimed to evaluate HACOR (heart rate, acidosis, consciousness, oxygenation, respiratory rate) score performance in these patients as predictor of CPAP failure. METHODS: Prospective observational multicentric study (three centers in different countries), including adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia admitted to a respiratory intermediate care unit, presenting PaO2/FiO2 < 300 and PaCO2 < 45 mmHg, who received CPAP. One hour after starting CPAP, HACOR was calculated. RESULTS: We enrolled 128 patients, mean age 61,7 years. Mean HACOR at 1 h after starting CPAP was 3,27 ± 3,84 and mean PaO2/FiO2 was 203,30 ± 92,21 mmHg; 35 patients (27,3 %) presented CPAP failure: 29 underwent oro-tracheal intubation and 6 died due to COVID-19 (all having a do-not-intubate order). HACOR accuracy for predicting CPAP failure was 82,03 %, while PaO2/FiO2 accuracy was 81,25 %. CONCLUSION: Although HACOR score had a good diagnostic performance in predicting CPAP failure in COVID-19-related ARF, PaO2/FiO2 has also shown to be a good predictor of failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Acidosis , Aged , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Consciousness , Female , Heart Rate , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Rate , Treatment Failure
8.
Respiration ; 100(10): 1027-1037, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261221

ABSTRACT

The imbalance between the prevalence of patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) and acute-on-chronic respiratory failure and the number of intensive care unit (ICU) beds requires new solutions. The increasing use of non-invasive respiratory tools to support patients at earlier stages of ARF and the increased expertise of non-ICU clinicians in other types of supportive care have led to the development of adult pulmonary intensive care units (PICUs) and pulmonary intermediate care units (PIMCUs). As in other European countries, Italian PICUs and PIMCUs provide an intermediate level of care as the setting designed for managing ARF patients without severe non-pulmonary dysfunction. The PICUs and PIMCUs may also act as step-down units for weaning patients from prolonged mechanical ventilation and for discharging patients still requiring ventilatory support at home. These units may play an important role in the on-going coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. This position paper promoted by the Italian Thoracic Society (ITS-AIPO) describes the models, facilities, staff, equipment, and operating methods of PICUs and PIMCUs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intermediate Care Facilities/organization & administration , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Therapy , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy , Patient Selection , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Societies, Medical
10.
Eur Respir J ; 56(5)2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067167

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 outbreak spread rapidly in Italy and the lack of intensive care unit (ICU) beds soon became evident, forcing the application of noninvasive respiratory support (NRS) outside the ICU, raising concerns over staff contamination. We aimed to analyse the safety of the hospital staff and the feasibility and outcomes of NRS applied to patients outside the ICU. METHODS: In this observational study, data from 670 consecutive patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 referred to pulmonology units in nine hospitals between March 1 and May 10, 2020 were analysed. Data collected included medication, mode and usage of NRS (i.e. high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), noninvasive ventilation (NIV)), length of stay in hospital, endotracheal intubation (ETI) and deaths. RESULTS: 42 (11.1%) healthcare workers tested positive for infection, but only three of them required hospitalisation. Data are reported for all patients (69.3% male), whose mean±sd age was 68±13 years. The arterial oxygen tension/inspiratory oxygen fraction ratio at baseline was 152±79, and the majority (49.3%) of patients were treated with CPAP. The overall unadjusted 30-day mortality rate was 26.9%, with 16%, 30% and 30% for HFNC, CPAP and NIV, respectively, while the total ETI rate was 27%, with 29%, 25% and 28%, respectively; the relative probability of death was not related to the NRS used after adjustment for confounders. ETI and length of stay were not different among the groups. Mortality rate increased with age and comorbidity class progression. CONCLUSIONS: The application of NRS outside the ICU is feasible and associated with favourable outcomes. Nonetheless, it was associated with a risk of staff contamination.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care , Noninvasive Ventilation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Feasibility Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(10): ofaa421, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-756944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, progression to acute respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Severe dysregulated systemic inflammation is the putative mechanism. We hypothesize that early prolonged methylprednisolone (MP) treatment could accelerate disease resolution, decreasing the need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter observational study to explore the association between exposure to prolonged, low-dose MP treatment and need for ICU referral, intubation, or death within 28 days (composite primary end point) in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to Italian respiratory high-dependency units. Secondary outcomes were invasive MV-free days and changes in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. RESULTS: Findings are reported as MP (n = 83) vs control (n = 90). The composite primary end point was met by 19 vs 40 (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.41; 95% CI, 0.24-0.72). Transfer to ICU and invasive MV were necessary in 15 vs 27 (P = .07) and 14 vs 26 (P = .10), respectively. By day 28, the MP group had fewer deaths (6 vs 21; aHR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.12-0.73) and more days off invasive MV (24.0 ±â€…9.0 vs 17.5 ±â€…12.8; P = .001). Study treatment was associated with rapid improvement in PaO2:FiO2 and CRP levels. The complication rate was similar for the 2 groups (P = .84). CONCLUSION: In patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, early administration of prolonged MP treatment was associated with a significantly lower hazard of death (71%) and decreased ventilator dependence. Treatment was safe and did not impact viral clearance. A large randomized controlled trial (RECOVERY trial) has been performed that validates these findings. Clinical trial registration. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04323592.

13.
Clin Chim Acta ; 509: 22-24, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-505967

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Interesting results regarding the contribution of MDW (Monocyte Distribution Width) in the Infectious Disease Unit have been reported. An observational study is ongoing at San Donato Hospital with the aim to evaluate the contribution of MDW in the diagnostic pathway in adult patients entering in the ED setting and tested for SARS-CoV-2. MATERIAL AND METHOD: COVID-19 symptomatic and paucisymptomatic patients presenting to ED (Emergency Department), have been enrolled consecutively. Whole blood venous samples have been collected on K2 EDTA for MDW determination, at the same time a nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection have been collected. RESULTS: One hundred six patients were negative for SARS-CoV-2 with MDW mean value of 20.3 ± 3.3, while forty-one were positive for SARS-CoV-2 with higher MDW mean value of 27.3 ± 4.9 (P < 0.005). The ROC curve analysis has been evaluated showing MDW AUC of 0.91. Finally twenty-three patients hospitalized in high-intensity care unit showed an MDW value higher than the eighteen patients presenting few symptoms [28.8 ± 5.3 vs 25.4 ± 3.6 respectively, P < 0.05]. DISCUSSION: Monocytic population, in Covid19 disease, are the first elements of innate immunity to be involved, these changes are the basis of the modification of the MDW, with evident efficacy in term of sensitivity, particularly in the studied Covid19 patients. Moreover the patients hospitalized in high-intensity care unit showed significantly elevated MDW respects to middle or low symptomatic one, suggest including this parameter as prognostic marker or of therapy efficacy, integrated with other laboratory findings.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Monocytes/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Sepsis/blood , Sepsis/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Cell Size , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/pathology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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