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1.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795642

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare heparin-based anticoagulation and bivalirudin-based anticoagulation within the context of critically ill patients with a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. DESIGN: An observational study. SETTING: At the intensive care unit of a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Critically ill patients with a SARS-CoV-2 infection receiving full anticoagulation with heparin or bivalirudin. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-three patients received full anticoagulation with bivalirudin and 60 with heparin. Despite patients in the bivalirudin group having higher mortality risk scores (SAPS II 60 ± 16 v 39 ±7, p < 0.001) and a higher need for extracorporeal support compared to the heparin group, hospital mortality was comparable (57% v 45, p = 0.3). No difference in thromboembolic complications was observed, and bleeding events were more frequent in patients treated with bivalirudin (65% v 40%, p = 0.01). Similar results were confirmed in the subgroup analysis of patients undergoing intravenous anticoagulation; in addition to comparable thrombotic complications occurrence and thrombocytopenia rate, however, no difference in the bleeding rate was observed (65% v 35%, p = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: Although heparin is the most used anticoagulant in the intensive care setting, bivalirudin-based anticoagulation was safe and effective in a cohort of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2. Bivalirudin may be given full consideration as an anticoagulation strategy for critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2, especially in those with thrombocytopenia and on extracorporeal support.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324910

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of angiotensin II (ANGII) in invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients is controversial. Its effect on markers of organ function is unknown. Methods: We used ANGII either as rescue vasopressor agent or as low dose vasopressor support. Patients treated before ANGII availability or in an adjacent COVID-19 ICU served as controls. For data analysis, we applied Bayesian modelling as appropriate. We assessed the effects of ANG on markers of organ function. Results: We compared 46 ANGII patients with 53 controls. Compared with controls, ANGII increased MAP (median difference, 9.05 mmHg [95% confidence interval, 1.87 to 16.22];p = 0.013) and PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio (median difference, 23.17 [95% confidence interval, 3.46 to 42.88];p = 0.021). ANGII had no effect on lactate, urinary output, serum creatinine, C-Reactive protein, platelet count, or thromboembolic complications. However, it significantly decreased the odd ratio of liver dysfunction (odds ratio: 0.32;0.09 to 0.94) and, on Bayesian modelling, in patients with abnormal baseline serum creatinine, ANGII carried a 95.7% probability of decreasing renal replacement therapy use. Conclusions: In ventilated COVID-19 patients, ANGII therapy was associated with increased blood pressure and PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratios, decreased odds ratio of liver dysfunction, and a high probability of decreasing renal replacement therapy use in patients with abnormal baseline serum creatinine.

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 766486, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518500

ABSTRACT

Severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) which may lead to long-lasting pulmonary sequelae in the survivors. COVID-19 shares common molecular signatures with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), including pro-angiogenic and tissue-remodeling mechanisms mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF-R), fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGF-R), and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGF-R). Nintedanib mainly targets these factors and is approved for ILDs. Therefore, we administered nintedanib through compassionate use to three patients with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring extra-corporeal membrane-oxygenation (ECMO). Here, we describe our experience in an attempt to explore the role of nintedanib in lung recovery in COVID-19. Three obese patients aged between 42 and 52 years were started on nintedanib due to difficulty in obtaining lung function restoration and weaning from ECMO support following the removal of orotracheal intubation (OTI). Soon after the start of the treatment, systemic inflammation and respiratory function rapidly improved and ECMO support was withdrawn. Serial chest CT scans confirmed the progressive lung amelioration, also reflected by functional tests during follow-up. Nintedanib was well-tolerated by all the three patients at the dosage used for ILDs and continued for 2-3 months based on drug availability. Although caution in interpreting events is required; it is tempting to speculate that nintedanib may have contributed to modulate lung inflammation and remodeling and to sustain lung repair. Altogether, nintedanib appears as a promising agent in patients with severe COVID-19 and delayed respiratory function recovery, for whom molecularly targeted therapies are still lacking. Clinical trials are necessary to confirm our observations.

4.
Eur J Emerg Med ; 28(6): 423-431, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483671

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests increased during the COVID-19 pandemic and a direct mechanism of cardiac arrest in infected patients was hypothesized. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE were searched up to April 05, 2021. We included studies comparing out-of-hospital cardiac arrests patients with suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection versus noninfected patients. The primary outcome was survival at hospital discharge or at 30 days. Secondary outcomes included return of spontaneous circulation, cardiac arrest witnessed and occurring at home, bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation, proportion of nonshockable rhythm and resuscitation attempted, and ambulance arrival time. RESULTS: In the ten included studies, 18% (1341/7545) of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests occurred in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and SARS-CoV-2 infection had reduced rates of survival (16/856 [1.9%] vs. 153/2344 [6.5%]; odds ratio (OR) = 0.33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.17-0.65; P = 0.001; I2 = 28%) and return of spontaneous circulation (188/861 [22%] vs. 640/2403 [27%]; OR = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.65-0.86; P < 0.001; I2 = 0%) when compared to noninfected patients. Ambulance arrived later (15 ± 10 vs. 13 ± 7.5 min; mean difference = 1.64; 95% CI, 0.41-2.88; P = 0.009; I2 = 61%) and nonshockable rhythms (744/803 [93%] vs. 1828/2217 [82%]; OR = 2.79; 95% CI, 2.08-3.73; P < 0.001; I2 = 0%) occurred more frequently. SARS-CoV-2 positive patients suffered a cardiac arrest at home more frequently (1186/1263 [94%] vs. 3598/4055 [89%]; OR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.45-2.40; P<0.001; I2 = 0%) but witnessed rate (486/890 [55%] vs. 1385/2475 [56%]; OR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.82-1.14; P = 0.63; I2 = 0%) and bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation rate (439/828 [53%] vs. 1164/2304 [51%]; OR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.73-1.24; P = 0.70; I2 = 53%) were similar. CONCLUSIONS: One-fifth of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients had SARS-CoV-2 infection. These patients had low rates of return of spontaneous circulation and survival and were characterized by higher nonshockable rhythms but similar bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation rate. REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO - CRD42021243540.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Humans , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483168

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Despite growing expertise and wide application of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) of different origin and during pandemics (H1N1 Influenza A virus and SARS-CoV-2), large reports are few and pertain mostly to multicenter registries, and randomized trials are difficult to perform. The aim of this study was to report outcomes, trends, and innovations of VV ECMO treatment over the last 11 years. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Observational study on 142 patients treated at the IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital in Milan from June 2009 (year of the H1N1 pandemic) to May 2020 (SARS-CoV-2 pandemic). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The main causes of ARDS were H1N1 pneumonia in 36% of patients, bacterial pneumonia in 17%, and SARS-CoV-2 in 9%. Seventy-two percent of patients were centralized from remote hospitals, of whom 33% had implanted VV ECMO before transport. The most common cannulation strategy was the dual-lumen catheter cannulation system (55%), and anticoagulation was performed with bivalirudin in most patients (79%). Refractory hypoxia was treated with intravenous beta-blockers (64%), nitric oxide (20%), and pronation (8%). Almost one-third of patients (32%) were extubated while on ECMO. Forty-nine percent of patients were discharged from the intensive care unit, and hospital discharge was 46%; survival was lower in patients requiring VV ECMO for more than three weeks compared with shorter support duration (23% v 56%, p = 0.007). Anticoagulation with bivalirudin was associated with higher survival, compared with heparin (55% v 31%, p = 0.03), and lower thrombocytopenia incidence (69% v 35%, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: VV ECMO is the pivotal rescue treatment for refractory ARDS-timely treatment and optimal care are needed to optimize therapy, as duration of support is associated with outcome. Anticoagulation with bivalirudin may improve outcome.

6.
JAMA ; 323(16): 1574-1581, 2020 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453471

ABSTRACT

Importance: In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) emerged in China and has spread globally, creating a pandemic. Information about the clinical characteristics of infected patients who require intensive care is limited. Objective: To characterize patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) requiring treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU) in the Lombardy region of Italy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective case series of 1591 consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 referred for ICU admission to the coordinator center (Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy) of the COVID-19 Lombardy ICU Network and treated at one of the ICUs of the 72 hospitals in this network between February 20 and March 18, 2020. Date of final follow-up was March 25, 2020. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay of nasal and pharyngeal swabs. Main Outcomes and Measures: Demographic and clinical data were collected, including data on clinical management, respiratory failure, and patient mortality. Data were recorded by the coordinator center on an electronic worksheet during telephone calls by the staff of the COVID-19 Lombardy ICU Network. Results: Of the 1591 patients included in the study, the median (IQR) age was 63 (56-70) years and 1304 (82%) were male. Of the 1043 patients with available data, 709 (68%) had at least 1 comorbidity and 509 (49%) had hypertension. Among 1300 patients with available respiratory support data, 1287 (99% [95% CI, 98%-99%]) needed respiratory support, including 1150 (88% [95% CI, 87%-90%]) who received mechanical ventilation and 137 (11% [95% CI, 9%-12%]) who received noninvasive ventilation. The median positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was 14 (IQR, 12-16) cm H2O, and Fio2 was greater than 50% in 89% of patients. The median Pao2/Fio2 was 160 (IQR, 114-220). The median PEEP level was not different between younger patients (n = 503 aged ≤63 years) and older patients (n = 514 aged ≥64 years) (14 [IQR, 12-15] vs 14 [IQR, 12-16] cm H2O, respectively; median difference, 0 [95% CI, 0-0]; P = .94). Median Fio2 was lower in younger patients: 60% (IQR, 50%-80%) vs 70% (IQR, 50%-80%) (median difference, -10% [95% CI, -14% to 6%]; P = .006), and median Pao2/Fio2 was higher in younger patients: 163.5 (IQR, 120-230) vs 156 (IQR, 110-205) (median difference, 7 [95% CI, -8 to 22]; P = .02). Patients with hypertension (n = 509) were older than those without hypertension (n = 526) (median [IQR] age, 66 years [60-72] vs 62 years [54-68]; P < .001) and had lower Pao2/Fio2 (median [IQR], 146 [105-214] vs 173 [120-222]; median difference, -27 [95% CI, -42 to -12]; P = .005). Among the 1581 patients with ICU disposition data available as of March 25, 2020, 920 patients (58% [95% CI, 56%-61%]) were still in the ICU, 256 (16% [95% CI, 14%-18%]) were discharged from the ICU, and 405 (26% [95% CI, 23%-28%]) had died in the ICU. Older patients (n = 786; age ≥64 years) had higher mortality than younger patients (n = 795; age ≤63 years) (36% vs 15%; difference, 21% [95% CI, 17%-26%]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this case series of critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to ICUs in Lombardy, Italy, the majority were older men, a large proportion required mechanical ventilation and high levels of PEEP, and ICU mortality was 26%.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Positive-Pressure Respiration/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution , Young Adult
8.
J Crit Care ; 66: 14-19, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351740

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine whether Macklin effect (a linear collection of air contiguous to the bronchovascular sheath) on baseline CT imaging is an accurate predictor for subsequent pneumomediastinum (PMD)/pneumothorax (PNX) development in invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is an observational, case-control study. From a prospectively acquired database, all consecutive invasively ventilated COVID-19 ARDS patients who underwent at least one baseline chest CT scan during the study time period (February 25th, 2020-December 31st, 2020) were identified; those who had tracheal lesion or already had PMD/PNX at the time of the first available chest imaging were excluded. RESULTS: 37/173 (21.4%) patients enrolled had PMD/PNX; specifically, 20 (11.5%) had PMD, 10 (5.8%) PNX, 7 (4%) both. 33/37 patients with subsequent PMD/PNX had Macklin effect on baseline CT (89.2%, true positives) 8.5 days [range, 1-18] before the first actual radiological evidence of PMD/PNX. Conversely, 6/136 patients without PMD/PNX (4.4%, false positives) demonstrated Macklin effect (p < 0.001). Macklin effect yielded a sensitivity of 89.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 74.6-96.9), a specificity of 95.6% (95% CI: 90.6-98.4), a positive predictive value (PV) of 84.5% (95% CI: 71.3-92.3), a negative PV of 97.1% (95% CI: 74.6-96.9) and an accuracy of 94.2% (95% CI: 89.6-97.2) in predicting PMD/PNX (AUC:0.924). CONCLUSIONS: Macklin effect accurately predicts, 8.5 days in advance, PMD/PNX development in COVID-19 ARDS patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 36(2): 529-533, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275970

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Current evidence supports centralization of patients with refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) to institutions with a high level of expertise and with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) capabilities. The aim of this study was to analyze and report the data of transferred refractory ARDS patients managed with venovenous (VV) ECMO at a national referral center over the last 11 years. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Referral center in Italy. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 100 patients treated from May 2009-November 2020. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The mean age was 54 ± 14 years, and 65% of patients were male. Patients were treated throughout the year, with seasonal peaks in the winter months. The majority of patients were referred from hospitals within the Lombardia region (81%), mainly from the city of Milan and surrounding area (36% of the total). The most common etiology of refractory ARDS was H1N1 influenza A (42 patients [42%]), followed by bacterial pneumonia (35 patients [35%]), and severe acute respiratory syndrome due to Sars-CoV-2 infection (five patients [5%]). All patients were severely hypoxic at the time of VV ECMO treatment. No transport-related complication was recorded. The most common configuration used in the authors' clinical practice was a bicaval dual-lumen configuration (61 patients [61%]), followed by a femoro-jugular configuration (38 patients [38%]). The intensive care unit survival rate was 55%. CONCLUSIONS: Referral to a specialized center for VV ECMO treatment should be considered expeditiously in case of refractory ARDS, which often is lethal. Transport of patients with an unstable condition, although challenging, is feasible, and centralization of patient care is associated with good outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Referral and Consultation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 65(7): 912-920, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 disease can lead to severe functional impairments after discharge. We assessed the quality of life of invasively ventilated COVID-19 ARDS survivors. METHODS: We carried out a prospective follow-up study of the patients admitted to the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) of a teaching hospital. Patients affected by COVID-19 ARDS who required invasive ventilation and were successfully discharged home were assessed through the telephone administration of validated tests. We explored survival, functional outcomes, return to work, quality of life, cognitive and psychological sequelae. The main variables of interest were the following: demographics, severity scores, laboratory values, comorbidities, schooling, working status, treatments received during ICU stay, complications, and psychological, cognitive, functional outcomes. RESULTS: Out of 116 consecutive invasively ventilated patients, overall survival was 65/116 (56%) with no death occurring after hospital discharge. Forty-two patients were already discharged home with a median follow-up time of 61 (51-71) days after ICU discharge and 39 of them accepted to be interviewed. Only one patient (1/39) experienced cognitive decline. The vast majority of patients reported no difficulty in walking (32/35:82%), self-care (33/39:85%), and usual activities (30/39:78%). All patients were either malnourished (15/39:38%) or at risk for malnutrition (24/39:62%). Exertional dyspnea was present in 20/39 (51%) patients. 19/39 (49%) reported alterations in senses of smell and/or taste either before or after hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Invasively ventilated COVID-19 ARDS survivors have an overall good recovery at a 2-months follow-up which is better than what was previously reported in non-COVID-19 ARDS patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Quality of Life , Recovery of Function , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/complications , Critical Care/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Italy , Male , Malnutrition/complications , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 35(12): 3642-3651, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065998

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence, predictors, and outcome of pneumothorax (PNX)/pneumomediastinum (PMD) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Tertiary-care university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred sixteen consecutive critically ill, invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19 ARDS. INTERVENTIONS: The authors collected demographic, mechanical ventilation, imaging, laboratory, and outcome data. Primary outcome was the incidence of PNX/PMD. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of PNX/PMD. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: PNX/PMD occurred in a total of 28 patients (24.1%), with 22 patients developing PNX (19.0%) and 13 developing PMD (11.2%). Mean time to development of PNX/PMD was 14 ± 11 days from intubation. The authors found no significant difference in mechanical ventilation parameters between patients who developed PNX/PMD and those who did not. Mechanical ventilation parameters were within recommended limits for protective ventilation in both groups. Ninety-five percent of patients with PNX/PMD had the Macklin effect (linear collections of air contiguous to the bronchovascular sheaths) on a baseline computed tomography scan, and tended to have a higher lung involvement at intensive care unit (ICU) admission (Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema score 32.2 ± 13.4 v 18.7 ± 9.8 in patients without PNX/PMD, p = 0.08). Time from symptom onset to intubation and time from total bilirubin on day two after ICU admission were the only independent predictors of PNX/PMD. Mortality was 60.7% in patients who developed PNX/PMD versus 38.6% in those who did not (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: PNX/PMD occurs frequently in COVID-19 patients with ARDS requiring mechanical ventilation, and is associated with increased mortality. Development of PNX/PMD seems to occur despite use of protective mechanical ventilation and has a radiologic predictor sign.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Artif Organs ; 44(7): 481-488, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) has gained popularity for the treatment of refractory respiratory failure during and after the 2009 influenza pandemic, and still represents a precious therapeutic resource for severe novel coronavirus 2019 infection. However, most of the published studies are small case series, and only two randomized trials exist in literature. AIM: Aim of this systematic review is to describe trends in VV ECMO treatment outcomes according to large studies only. METHODS: We searched and included studies with more than 100 VV ECMO cases dated up to August 1st, 2019. RESULTS: Thirty-three studies published in the period 2011-2019 met inclusion criteria, for a total of 12,860 patients (age 46.3 ± 17.4 years). ARDS was mainly by pneumonia, in 3126 (37%) cases; further 401(7%) patients had H1N1 Influenza A infection. Cannulation-related complications occurred in 502 (7%) cases. Weighted mean (95% confidence interval) of VV ECMO duration was 8.9 (8.7-9.1) days, and ICU stay was 23.6 (22.4-24.8) days. Mortality at the longest follow up available was 40%. Data collection in 70% of the studies had a duration of >5 years. CONCLUSION: This study reveals the characteristics of large case VV ECMO studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Humans , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(8): e009413, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a fast and radical transformation in social, economic, and healthcare networks. COVID-19 outbreak may thus have profound indirect consequences on clinical presentation and management of patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Aim of this study was to assess clinical features of patients with STEMI during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This single-center, prospective study from a regional public service healthcare hub in Milan included all consecutive patients with STEMI admitted to our institute from February 21 to April 1, 2020 (during COVID-19 pandemic). These patients were compared with a historical cohort of patients admitted for STEMI during the analogous time period (February 21 to April 1) in 2018 and 2019, in terms of time from symptoms onset to hospital admission, clinical characteristics, and in-hospital outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 26 patients were admitted for STEMI during the study period, and 7 (26.9%) of these patients tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. On admission, medical therapy, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers use, was similar between cohorts. Median (interquartile range) time from symptoms onset to hospital admission was significantly longer in 2020 as compared to the historical cohort (15.0 [2.0-48.0] versus 2.0 [1.0-3.0] hours; P<0.01). A higher proportion of patients presenting with late presentation STEMI was observed in 2020 compared with the historical cohort (50.0% versus 4.8%; P<0.01). Primary percutaneous coronary intervention resulted indicated in 80.8% of patients in 2020 compared with 100% in the historical cohort (P=0.06). In-hospital death, thromboembolism, mechanical ventilation, or hemodynamic decompensation needing inotropic or mechanical support were similar between years. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results from a cardiovascular regional public service healthcare hub demonstrate a significantly longer time from symptoms onset to hospital admission among patients with STEMI during COVID-19 pandemic compared with the same time period in the previous 2 years.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Public Health Practice , Registries , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications
16.
Heart ; 106(17): 1324-1331, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-706576

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence, characteristics and prognostic value of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) in hospitalised, non-intensive care unit (ICU) patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This single-centre, observational, cross-sectional study included 211 patients with COVID-19 admitted to non-ICU departments who underwent a single transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Patients with poor acoustic window (n=11) were excluded. Clinical, imaging, laboratory and TTE findings were compared in patients with versus without PH (estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure >35 mm Hg) and with versus without RVD (tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion <17 mm or S wave <9.5 cm/s). The primary endpoint was in-hospital death or ICU admission. RESULTS: A total of 200 patients were included in the final analysis (median age 62 (IQR 52-74) years, 65.5% men). The prevalence of PH and RVD was 12.0% (24/200) and 14.5% (29/200), respectively. Patients with PH were older and had a higher burden of pre-existing cardiac comorbidities and signs of more severe severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (radiological lung involvement, laboratory findings and oxygenation status) compared with those without PH. Conversely, patients with RVD had a higher burden of pre-existing cardiac comorbidities but no evidence of more severe SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with those without RVD. The presence of PH was associated with a higher rate of in-hospital death or ICU admission (41.7 vs 8.5%, p<0.001), while the presence of RVD was not (17.2 vs 11.7%, p=0.404). CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalised non-ICU patients with COVID-19, PH (and not RVD) was associated with signs of more severe COVID-19 and with worse in-hospital clinical outcome. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04318366.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Correlation of Data , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/epidemiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology
17.
Blood Purif ; 50(1): 102-109, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-643726

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is no information on acute kidney injury (AKI) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) among invasively ventilated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in Western healthcare systems. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence, characteristics, risk factors and outcome of AKI and CRRT among invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Observational study in a tertiary care hospital in Milan, Italy. RESULTS: Among 99 patients, 72 (75.0%) developed AKI and 17 (17.7%) received CRRT. Most of the patients developed stage 1 AKI (33 [45.8%]), while 15 (20.8%) developed stage 2 AKI and 24 (33.4%) a stage 3 AKI. Patients who developed AKI or needed CRRT at latest follow-up were older, and among CRRT treated patients a greater proportion had preexisting CKD. Hospital mortality was 38.9% for AKI and 52.9% for CRRT patients. CONCLUSIONS: Among invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients, AKI is very common and CRRT use is common. Both carry a high risk of in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome , Ventilators, Mechanical
19.
JACC Case Rep ; 2(10): 1620-1624, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-399792

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused an enormous strain on healthcare systems and society on a global scale. We report a new phenomenon of medical care avoidance among patients with acute coronary syndrome, which is due to concerns about contracting severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during hospital stay, ultimately leading to dire clinical outcomes. (Level of Difficulty: Beginner.).

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