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1.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291528

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The SARS-CoV-2 may affect the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and pituitary dysfunction may occur. Therefore, we investigated neuroendocrine changes, particularly, secondary adrenal insufficiency using a dynamic test and the role of autoimmunity in pituitary dysfunction in the patients with COVID-19. Methods: : The single-center, prospective, case-control study included PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. Basal hormone levels were measured and ACTH stimulation test was performed. Anti-pituitary (APA) and anti-hypothalamic antibodies (AHA) were also determined. Results: : We examined a total of 49 patients with COVID-19 and 28 healthy controls. The frequency of adrenal insufficiency in patients with COVID-19 was found as 8.2%. The patients with COVID-19 had lower free T 3 , IGF-1, total testosterone levels, and higher cortisol and prolactin levels when compared with controls. We also, demonstrated the presence of APA in three and AHA in one of four patients with adrenal insufficiency. Conclusions: : The COVID-19 may result in adrenal insufficiency, so the routine screening of adrenal functions is these patients is needed. Endocrine disturbances in COVID-19 are similar to those seen in acute stressful conditions or infections. Also, pituitary or hypothalamic autoimmunity may play a role in neuroendocrine abnormality in COVID-19.

2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 707726, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477813

ABSTRACT

Subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is a thyroid disease of viral or post-viral origin. Whether SAT represents a complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still unclear. Our aim was to systematically review the literature to 1) explore the size of the literature about SAT in COVID-19 and 2) evaluate the clinical characteristics of SAT. PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus were searched until April 20, 2021. Original papers, case reports, and case series reporting SAT in COVID-19 patients were included. Authors and their country, journal, year of publication, COVID-19 and SAT clinical presentation, thyroid function, therapy, and follow-up data were extracted. Nineteen papers (17 case reports and 2 case series) were included, describing 27 patients, 74.1% females, aged 18 to 69 years. COVID-19 was diagnosed by nasopharyngeal swab in 66.7% cases and required hospitalization in 11.1%. In 83.3% cases, SAT occurred after COVID-19. Neck pain was present in 92.6% cases and fever in 74.1%. Median TSH, fT3, and fT4 were 0.01 mU/l, 10.79 pmol/l, and 27.2 pmol/l, respectively. C-reactive-protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were elevated in 96% of cases. Typical ultrasonographic characteristics of SAT were observed in 83.3% of cases. Steroids were the most frequent SAT therapy. Complete remission of SAT was recorded in most cases. In conclusion, the size and quality of published data of SAT in COVID-19 patients are poor, with only case reports and case series being available. SAT clinical presentation in COVID-19 patients seems to be similar to what is generally expected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Thyroiditis, Subacute/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Evidence-Based Medicine , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
3.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 175: 108797, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179400

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate the rate of antibiotic resistance and its main risk factors in a population of patients with diabetic foot infection (DFI) during the COVID-19 pandemic, in comparison with the population of 2019. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-five patients with DFI were admitted in a tertiary care center from January 2019 to December 2020. Antibiotic resistance was evaluated by microbiological examination of soft tissues' or bone's biopsy. RESULTS: Compared with 2019 group (n = 105), 2020 group (n = 120) had a significantly higher prevalence of antibiotic resistance [2019 vs 2020, 36% vs 63%, P <0.001] and more often was admitted with recent or current antibiotic therapy (18% vs 52%, P <0.001), which was frequently self-administered (5% vs 30%, P = 0.032). The risk of antibiotic resistance was also higher in 2020 group [OR 95% CI, 2.90 (1.68 to 4.99)]. Prior hospitalization, antibiotic self-administration and antibiotic prescription by general practitioners resulted as independent predictors of antibiotic resistance. CONCLUSIONS: In a population of people with DFI admitted in a tertiary care center during the COVID-19 pandemic the prevalence of antibiotic resistance was higher than 2019. Previous hospitalization, antibiotic self-administration /prescription by general practitioners were related to higher risk of antibiotic resistant infections.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Diabetic Foot/drug therapy , Aged , COVID-19 , Diabetic Foot/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tertiary Care Centers
4.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 22(2): 485-491, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1176385

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has the potential to cause multi-organ effects including endocrine disorders. The impact of COVID-19 on the thyroid gland has been described but several aspects have to be clarified. The systematic review was conceived to achieve more solid information about: 1) which thyroid disease or dysfunction should be expected in COVID-19 patients; 2) whether thyroid patients have a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection; 3) whether the management has to be adapted in thyroid patient when infected. The literature was searched by two authors independently. A 5-step search strategy was a priori adopted. Only reviews focused on the relationship between thyroid and COVID-19 were included. The last search was performed on February 21st 2021. Two-hundred-forty-seven records was initially found and nine reviews were finally included. The reviews identified several potential thyroid consequences in COVID-19 patients, such as thyrotoxicosis, low-T3 syndrome and subacute thyroiditis, while no relevant data were found regarding the potential impact of COVID-19 on the management of patients on thyroid treatment. The present systematic review of reviews found that: 1) patients diagnosed with COVID-19 can develop thyroid dysfunction, frequently non-thyroidal illness syndrome when hospitalized in intensive care unit, 2) having a thyroid disease does not increase the risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection, 3) thyroid patients do not need a COVID-19-adapted follow-up. Anyway, several factors, such as critical illness and medications, could affect thyroid laboratory tests.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Review Literature as Topic , Thyroid Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Thyroid Diseases/etiology , Thyroid Diseases/therapy
5.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 2020 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947048

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the pandemic of the new millennium. COVID-19 can cause both pulmonary and systemic inflammation, potentially determining multi-organ dysfunction. Data on the relationship between COVID-19 and thyroid have been emerging, and rapidly increasing since March 2020. The thyroid gland and the virus infection with its associated inflammatory-immune responses are known to be engaged in complex interplay. SARS-CoV-2 uses ACE2 combined with the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) as the key molecular complex to infect the host cells. Interestingly, ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression levels are high in the thyroid gland and more than in the lungs. Our literature search provided greater evidence that the thyroid gland and the entire hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis could be relevant targets of damage by SARS-CoV-2. Specifically, COVID-19-related thyroid disorders include thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, as well as nonthyroidal illness syndrome. Moreover, we noticed that treatment plans for thyroid cancer are considerably changing in the direction of more teleconsultations and less diagnostic and therapeutical procedures. The current review includes findings that could be changed soon by new results on the topic, considering the rapidity of worldwide research on COVID-19.

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