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Biomed Pharmacother ; 142: 111980, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330664


One of the hallmarks of COVID-19 is the cytokine storm that provokes primarily pneumonia followed by systemic inflammation. Emerging evidence has identified a potential link between elevated interleukin-17A (IL-17A) levels and disease severity and progression. Considering that per se, IL-17A can activate several inflammatory pathways, it is plausible to hypothesize an involvement of this cytokine in COVID-19 clinical outcomes. Thus, IL-17A could represent a marker of disease progression and/or a target to develop therapeutic strategies. This hypothesis paper aims to propose this "unique" cytokine as a silent amplifier of the COVID-19 immune response and (potentially) related therapy.

COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Interleukin-17 , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Disease Progression , Drug Discovery , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Interleukin-17/blood , Interleukin-17/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 489, 2020 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992501


BACKGROUND: In 1918 an unknown infectious agent spread around the world infecting over one-third of the general population and killing almost 50 million people. Many countries were at war, the First World War. Since Spain was a neutral country and Spanish press could report about the infection without censorship, this condition is commonly remembered as "Spanish influenza". This review examines several aspects during the 1918 influenza pandemic to bring out evidences which might be useful to imagine the possible magnitude of the present coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: In the first part of this review we will examine the origin of the SARS-Coronavirus-2 and 1918 Spanish Influenza Virus and the role played by host and environment in its diffusion. We will also include in our analysis an evaluation of different approaches utilized to restrain the spread of pandemic and to treat infected patients. In the second part, we will try to imagine the magnitude of the present COVID-19 pandemic and the possible measures able to restrain in the present environment its spread. RESULTS: Several factors characterize the outcome in a viral pandemic infection. They include the complete knowledge of the virus, the complete knowledge of the host and of the environment where the host lives and the pandemic develops. CONCLUSION: By comparing the situation seen in 1918 with the current one, we are now in a more favourable position. The experience of the past teaches us that their success is linked to a rapid, constant and lasting application. Then, rather than coercion, awareness of the need to observe such prevention measures works better.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/history , Influenza, Human/history , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/statistics & numerical data , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Spain/epidemiology