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Phlebology ; 37(3): 180-187, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1651054


OBJECTIVES: Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a new and rare syndrome resulting from the largest vaccination campaign against SARS-CoV-2 in the history of mankind. The aim of this review is to clarify underlying mechanisms, pathology, diagnosis, and therapy, with the related clinical implications. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive literature review in order to collect the clinical and treatment data about patients suffering from VITT. PubMed, Ovid Medline, Ovid EMBASE, Scopus, and Web of Science were screened regarding patients who developed VITT. Last search was launched on June 30th 2021. RESULTS: Abdominal and/or neurological symptoms develop between 5 and 20 days after vaccine administration and do not involve the lower extremities. VITT is suspected if the platelet count is lower than 100.000/mm3 and D-dimer is higher than the age-adjusted range. Medical treatment is mainly based on intravenous immunoglobulins, corticosteroids, and anticoagulant drugs with a short plasma half-life, but the complete avoidance of low molecular weight heparin is recommended. Endovascular treatment and/or decompressive craniectomy might be an option in a minority of cases. CONCLUSION: Due to widespread vaccination concerns, the vascular specialist and phlebologist are increasingly consulted to prevent or diagnose VITT. The latter has peculiar and completely different localizations, symptoms, and treatment compared to the common pictures of venous thrombosis.

COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Venous Thrombosis , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines/adverse effects , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
Minerva Surg ; 77(1): 14-21, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337897


BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has impacted professional, economic and social activities. In the surgical field, it has brought changes to operating activities, the organization of workforces, the protection measures for patients and personnel against possible intraoperative transmissions as well as training young surgeons. This study intends to assess the extent of this impact in our institution. METHODS: The patients operated on in nine Operating Units (OUs) in the period February 1 - March 31, 2020, with follow-ups on April 30, 2020, were evaluated both retrospectively and prospectively. Organizational, clinical and impact parameters on staff were evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 833 consecutive admitted patients, 742 were operated on, 705 of whom were recruited for the study. Compared to the same period in 2019 there was a decrease in the number of operations (742 compared to 1187), similar use of intensive care unit (ICU), a diagnostic activity only for symptomatic patients, heterogeneity in organizational behaviors, an impact on staff who highlighted concerns about getting sick or passing the infection on to others (87.64%) or their family members (75.14%). CONCLUSIONS: The present study made it possible to detect the need to make significant changes in the clinical, organizational and teaching fields, for which some operational proposals are suggested.

COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 202: 106503, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064950


BACKGROUND: hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease due to vascular malformations represents an emergency for neurosurgery and neuro-interventional departments. During the COVID-19 pandemic, a dramatic reduction in the number of hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction or stroke and a larger time interval from symptom onset to first medical contact have been reported. This study aims to verify the hypothesis that there would also have been a reduction of admissions for hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease during the Italian lockdown. MATERIAL AND METHOD: s A multicenter, observational survey was conducted to collect data on hospital admissions for hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease due to vascular malformations throughout two-months (March 15th to May 15th); the years 2020 (COVID-19 Italian lockdown), 2019 and 2018 were compared. Cases were identified by ICD-9 codes 430, 431, 432.1, 432.9, 747.81 of each hospital database. The statistical significance of the difference between the event rate of one year versus the others was evaluated using Poisson Means test, assuming a constant population. RESULTS: During the 2020 lockdown, the total number of admissions for hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease was 92 compared with 116 in 2019 and 95 in 2018. This difference was not significant. GCS upon admission was 3-8 in 44 % of cases in 2020 (41 patients), 39.7 % in 2019 (46 patients) and 28 % in 2018 (27 patients). CONCLUSION: Reduction of admissions for hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease due to vascular malformations during the COVID-19 lockdown was not confirmed. Nevertheless, some patients reached the emergency rooms only several days after symptoms onset, resulting in a worse clinical condition at admission.

Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Quarantine/trends , COVID-19 , Humans , Incidence , Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations/diagnosis , Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Vascular Malformations/diagnosis , Vascular Malformations/epidemiology