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1.
J Proteome Res ; 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605127

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 infections are characterized by remarkable differences, including infectivity and case fatality rate. The underlying mechanisms are not well understood, illustrating major knowledge gaps of coronavirus biology. In this study, protein expression of the SARS-CoV- and SARS-CoV-2-infected human lung epithelial cell line Calu-3 was analyzed using data-independent acquisition-mass spectrometry. This resulted in a comprehensive map of infection-related proteome-wide expression changes in human cells covering the quantification of 7478 proteins across four time points. Most notably, the activation of interferon type-I response was observed, which is surprisingly absent in several proteome studies. The data reveal that SARS-CoV-2 triggers interferon-stimulated gene expression much stronger than SARS-CoV, which reflects the already described differences in interferon sensitivity. Potentially, this may be caused by the enhanced abundance of the viral M protein of SARS-CoV in comparison to SARS-CoV-2, which is a known inhibitor of type I interferon expression. This study expands the knowledge on the host response to SARS-CoV-2 infections on a global scale using an infection model, which seems to be well suited to analyze the innate immunity.

2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 773850, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607729

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Until today, the role of children in the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 and the development of the COVID-19 pandemic seems to be dynamic and is not finally resolved. The primary aim of this study is to investigate the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in child day care centers and connected households as well as transmission-related indicators and clinical symptoms among children and adults. Methods and Analysis: COALA ("Corona outbreak-related examinations in day care centers") is a day care center- and household-based study with a case-ascertained study design. Based on day care centers with at least one reported case of SARS-CoV-2, we include one- to six-year-old children and staff of the affected group in the day care center as well as their respective households. We visit each child's and adult's household. During the home visit we take from each household member a combined mouth and nose swab as well as a saliva sample for analysis of SARS-CoV-2-RNA by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) and a capillary blood sample for a retrospective assessment of an earlier SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, information on health status, socio-demographics and COVID-19 protective measures are collected via a short telephone interview in the subsequent days. In the following 12 days, household members (or parents for their children) self-collect the same respiratory samples as described above every 3 days and a stool sample for children once. COVID-19 symptoms are documented daily in a symptom diary. Approximately 35 days after testing the index case, every participant who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during the study is re-visited at home for another capillary blood sample and a standardized interview. The analysis includes secondary attack rates, by age of primary case, both in the day care center and in households, as well as viral shedding dynamics, including the beginning of shedding relative to symptom onset and viral clearance. Discussion: The results contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiological and virological transmission-related indicators of SARS-CoV-2 among young children, as compared to adults and the interplay between day care and households.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Day Care, Medical , Disease Outbreaks , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
3.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295601

ABSTRACT

The reliable detection of SARS-CoV-2 genomic RNA and infectious virus particles from patient samples requires a good sample quality. This is especially critical when the sample has to be transported to the analysing laboratory which can take several days. To determine optimal transport conditions, we simulated oropharyngeal swab samples using defined virus amounts and stored the samples at 4 °C or at room temperature for up to four days. Moreover, we analysed the influence of dry swabs in comparison to swabs stored in transport medium. Our results show that care should be taken when analysing samples for infectious SARS-CoV-2 particles since infectivity is strongly influenced by sample storage.

4.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294848

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 infections are characterized by remarkable differences, including contagiosity and case fatality rate. The underlying mechanisms are not well understood, illustrating major knowledge gaps of coronavirus biology. In this study, protein expression of SARS-CoV- and SARS-CoV-2-infected human lung epithelial cell line Calu-3 was analysed using data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry (DIA-MS). This resulted in the so far most comprehensive map of infection-related proteome-wide expression changes in human cells covering the quantification of 7478 proteins across 4 time points. Most notably, the activation of interferon type-I response was observed, which surprisingly is absent in other recent proteome studies, but is known to occur in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. The data reveal that SARS-CoV-2 triggers interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression much stronger than SARS-CoV, which reflects the already described differences in interferon sensitivity. Potentially, this may be caused by the enhanced expression of viral M protein of SARS-CoV in comparison to SARS-CoV-2, which is a known inhibitor of type I interferon expression. This study expands the knowledge on the host response to SARS-CoV-2 infections on a global scale using an infection model, which seems to be well suited to analyse innate immunity.

5.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293050

ABSTRACT

Pre-vaccine SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence data from Germany are scarce outside hotspots, and socioeconomic disparities remained largely unexplored. The nationwide RKI-SOEP study with 15,122 adult participants investigated seroprevalence and testing in a supplementary wave of the Socio-Economic-Panel conducted predominantly in October-November 2020. Self-collected oral-nasal swabs were PCR-positive in 0.4% and Euroimmun anti-SARS-CoV-2-S1-IgG ELISA from dry capillary blood in 1.3% (95% CI 0.9-1.7%, population-weighted, corrected for sensitivity=0.811, specificity=0.997). Seroprevalence was 1.7% (95% CI 1.2-2.3%) when additionally adjusting for antibody decay. Overall infection prevalence including self-reports was 2.1%. We estimate 45% (95% CI 21-60%) undetected cases and analyses suggest lower detection in socioeconomically deprived districts. Prior SARS-CoV-2 testing was reported by 18% from the lower educational group compared to 25% and 26% from the medium and high educational group (p<0.0001). Symptom-triggered test frequency was similar across educational groups. However, routine testing was more common in low-educated adults, whereas travel-related testing and testing after contact with an infected person was more common in highly educated groups. In conclusion, pre-vaccine SARS-CoV-2-seroprevalence in Germany was very low. Notified cases appear to capture more than half of infections but may underestimate infections in lower socioeconomic groups. These data confirm the successful containment strategy of Germany until winter 2020.

6.
Euro Surveill ; 26(44)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504591

ABSTRACT

IntroductionThe detection of SARS-CoV-2 with rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) has become an important tool to identify infected people and break infection chains. These RDT are usually based on antigen detection in a lateral flow approach.AimWe aimed to establish a comprehensive specimen panel for the decentralised technical evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 antigen rapid diagnostic tests.MethodsWhile for PCR diagnostics the validation of a PCR assay is well established, there is no common validation strategy for antigen tests, including RDT. In this proof-of-principle study we present the establishment of a panel of 50 pooled clinical specimens that cover a SARS-CoV-2 concentration range from 1.1 × 109 to 420 genome copies per mL of specimen. The panel was used to evaluate 31 RDT in up to six laboratories.ResultsOur results show that there is considerable variation in the detection limits and the clinical sensitivity of different RDT. We show that the best RDT can be applied to reliably identify infectious individuals who present with SARS-CoV-2 loads down to 106 genome copies per mL of specimen. For the identification of infected individuals with SARS-CoV-2 loads corresponding to less than 106 genome copies per mL, only three RDT showed a clinical sensitivity of more than 60%.ConclusionsSensitive RDT can be applied to identify infectious individuals with high viral loads but not to identify all infected individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antigens, Viral , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests
7.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443619

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence on the relationship between socioeconomic position (SEP) and infections with SARS-CoV-2 is still limited as most of the available studies are ecological in nature. This is the first German nationwide study to examine differences in the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections according to SEP at the individual level. METHODS: The 'CORONA-MONITORING bundesweit' (RKI-SOEP) study is a seroepidemiological survey among a dynamic cohort of the German adult population (n=15 122; October 2020-February 2021). Dried blood samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and oral-nasal swabs for viral RNA. SEP was measured by education and income. Robust logistic regression was used to examine adjusted associations of SARS-CoV-2 infections with SEP. RESULTS: 288 participants were seropositive, PCR positive or self-reported a previous laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The adjusted odds of SARS-CoV-2 infection were 1.87-fold (95% CI 1.06 to 3.29) higher among low-educated than highly educated adults. Evidence was weaker for income differences in infections (OR=1.65; 95% CI 0.89 to 3.05). Highly educated adults had lower odds of undetected infection. CONCLUSION: The results indicate an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in low-educated groups. To promote health equity in the pandemic and beyond, social determinants should be addressed more in infection protection and pandemic planning.

8.
Proteomics ; 21(7-8): e2000226, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384280

ABSTRACT

A major part of the analysis of parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) data is the comparison of observed fragment ion intensities to a library spectrum. Classically, these libraries are generated by data-dependent acquisition (DDA). Here, we test Prosit, a published deep neural network algorithm, for its applicability in predicting spectral libraries for PRM. For this purpose, we targeted 1529 precursors derived from synthetic viral peptides and analyzed the data with Prosit and DDA-derived libraries. Viral peptides were chosen as an example, because virology is an area where in silico library generation could significantly improve PRM assay design. With both libraries a total of 1174 precursors were identified. Notably, compared to the DDA-derived library, we could identify 101 more precursors by using the Prosit-derived library. Additionally, we show that Prosit can be applied to predict tandem mass spectra of synthetic viral peptides with different collision energies. Finally, we used a spectral library predicted by Prosit and a DDA library to identify SARS-CoV-2 peptides from a simulated oropharyngeal swab demonstrating that both libraries are suited for peptide identification by PRM. Summarized, Prosit-derived viral spectral libraries predicted in silico can be used for PRM data analysis, making DDA analysis for library generation partially redundant in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Proteomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Viral Proteins/analysis , Amino Acid Sequence , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Peptide Library , Peptides/analysis , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
9.
J Proteome Res ; 20(9): 4598-4602, 2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371586

ABSTRACT

Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is applied in SARS-CoV-2 research and is, moreover, being discussed as a novel method for SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics. However, the safe inactivation of coronaviruses by proteomics lysis buffers has not been systematically analyzed yet. Hence, for safety reasons a heating step prior to sample preparation is often performed. This step could be omitted once the safe inactivation with the typical buffers is proven. Here we test five different proteomics lysis buffers-4% SDS, 1% SDC, TFA, 6 M GdmCl, and 8 M urea-for their inactivation capacity of coronaviruses. Two representative human coronaviruses, namely HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43, were used as surrogate for SARS-CoV-2. Lysis was performed at room temperature and at 95 °C for 5 min. Inactivation was confirmed by the absence of a cytopathic effect in MRC-5 cells, and equivocal results were further confirmed by serial passaging and quantitative real-time PCR. While at room temperature SDS, SDC, and TFA inactivated both coronaviruses, and GdmCl and urea resulted in partially incomplete inactivation. This demonstrates that care should be taken when choosing lysis buffers for proteomics analysis of coronaviruses, because some buffers do not ensure inactivation and, hence, biosafety during the further sample preparation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Humans , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 651151, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317232

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in December 2019, the scientific community has been sharing data on epidemiology, diagnostic methods, and whole-genomic sequences almost in real time. The latter have already facilitated phylogenetic analyses, transmission chain tracking, protein modeling, the identification of possible therapeutic targets, timely risk assessment, and identification of novel variants. We have established and evaluated an amplification-based approach for whole-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2. It can be used on the miniature-sized and field-deployable sequencing device Oxford Nanopore MinION, with sequencing library preparation time of 10 min. We show that the generation of 50,000 total reads per sample is sufficient for a near complete coverage (>90%) of the SARS-CoV-2 genome directly from patient samples even if virus concentration is low (Ct 35, corresponding to approximately 5 genome copies per reaction). For patient samples with high viral load (Ct 18-24), generation of 50,000 reads in 1-2 h was shown to be sufficient for a genome coverage of >90%. Comparison to Illumina data reveals an accuracy that suffices to identify virus mutants. AmpliCoV can be applied whenever sequence information on SARS-CoV-2 is required rapidly, for instance for the identification of circulating virus mutants.

11.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 6: 100103, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275566

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic and associated non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) affect healthcare seeking behaviour, access to healthcare, test strategies, disease notification and workload at public health authorities, but may also lead to a true change in transmission dynamics. We aimed to assess the impact of the pandemic and NPIs on other notifiable infectious diseases under surveillance in Germany. Methods: We included 32 nationally notifiable disease categories with case numbers >100/year in 2016-2019. We used quasi-Poisson regression analysis on a weekly aggregated time-series incorporating trend and seasonality, to compute the relative change in case numbers during week 2020-10 to 2020-32 (pandemic/NPIs), in comparison to week 2016-01 to 2020-09. Findings: During week 2020-10 to 2020-32, 216,825 COVID-19 cases, and 162,942 (-35%) cases of other diseases, were notified. Case numbers decreased across all ages and notification categories (all p<0•05), except for tick-borne encephalitis, which increased (+58%). The number of cases decreased most for respiratory diseases (from -86% for measles, to -12% for tuberculosis), gastro-intestinal diseases (from -83% for rotavirus gastroenteritis, to -7% for yersiniosis) and imported vector-borne diseases (-75% dengue fever, -73% malaria). The less affected infections were healthcare associated pathogens (from -43% infection/colonisation with carbapenem-non-susceptible Acinetobacter, to -28% for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus invasive infection) and sexually transmitted and blood-borne diseases (from -28% for hepatitis B, to -12% for syphilis). Interpretation: During the COVID-19 pandemic a drastic decrease of notifications for most infectious diseases and pathogens was observed. Our findings suggest effects of NPIs on overall disease transmission that require further investigation. Funding: The Robert Koch Institute is the National Public Health Institute of Germany, and is an institute within the portfolio of the Federal Ministry of Health.

12.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(6): 629-640, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265531

ABSTRACT

We estimated the impact of a comprehensive set of non-pharmeceutical interventions on the COVID-19 epidemic growth rate across the 37 member states of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic and between October and December 2020. For this task, we conducted a data-driven, longitudinal analysis using a multilevel modelling approach with both maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation. We found that during the early phase of the epidemic: implementing restrictions on gatherings of more than 100 people, between 11 and 100 people, and 10 people or less was associated with a respective average reduction of 2.58%, 2.78% and 2.81% in the daily growth rate in weekly confirmed cases; requiring closing for some sectors or for all but essential workplaces with an average reduction of 1.51% and 1.78%; requiring closing of some school levels or all school levels with an average reduction of 1.12% or 1.65%; recommending mask wearing with an average reduction of 0.45%, requiring mask wearing country-wide in specific public spaces or in specific geographical areas within the country with an average reduction of 0.44%, requiring mask-wearing country-wide in all public places or all public places where social distancing is not possible with an average reduction of 0.96%; and number of tests per thousand population with an average reduction of 0.02% per unit increase. Between October and December 2020 work closing requirements and testing policy were significant predictors of the epidemic growth rate. These findings provide evidence to support policy decision-making regarding which NPIs to implement to control the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development , Physical Distancing , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Asia/epidemiology , Australasia/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , North America/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quarantine/methods , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Virol J ; 18(1): 110, 2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255943

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The reliable detection of SARS-CoV-2 has become one of the most important contributions to COVID-19 crisis management. With the publication of the first sequences of SARS-CoV-2, several diagnostic PCR assays have been developed and published. In addition to in-house assays the market was flooded with numerous commercially available ready-to-use PCR kits, with both approaches showing alarming shortages in reagent supply. AIM: Here we present a resource-efficient in-house protocol for the PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in patient specimens (RKI/ZBS1 SARS-CoV-2 protocol). METHODS: Two duplex one-step real-time RT-PCR assays are run simultaneously and provide information on two different SARS-CoV-2 genomic regions. Each one is duplexed with a control that either indicates potential PCR inhibition or proves the successful extraction of nucleic acid from the clinical specimen. RESULTS: Limit of RNA detection for both SARS-CoV-2 assays is below 10 genomes per reaction. The protocol enables testing specimens in duplicate across the two different SARS-CoV-2 PCR assays, saving reagents by increasing testing capacity. The protocol can be run on various PCR cyclers with several PCR master mix kits. CONCLUSION: The presented RKI/ZBS1 SARS-CoV-2 protocol represents a cost-effective alternative in times of shortages when commercially available ready-to-use kits may not be available or affordable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , Limit of Detection , Polyproteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Proteins/genetics
14.
Mol Cell Probes ; 58: 101742, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220955

ABSTRACT

Point of care detection of SARS-CoV-2 is one pillar in a containment strategy and important to break infection chains. Here we report the sensitive, specific and robust detection of SARS-CoV-2 and respective variants of concern by the ID NOW COVID-19 device.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 64(4): 435-445, 2021 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196566

ABSTRACT

When the emerging novel SARS-CoV­2 virus first appeared in December 2019, neither specific therapeutic options nor vaccinations were available. The role of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) became of central importance. At the Robert Koch Institute, a multilayer strategy consisting of population-based and individual preventive measures to control the pandemic was developed, which built upon existing influenza pandemic plans as well as generic plans. This paper explains the recommended NPIs and illustrates the pharmaceutical approaches developed in parallel.Among others, general contact bans, providing material for infection prevention and control, ban of events, closing educational institutions, and restricting travel are counted among population-based measures. Additional individual preventive measures are necessary, e.g., keeping a minimum distance, reducing contacts, and wearing a mouth-nose covering as well as quarantine and isolation. Measures within the health system are based on recommendations of the Commission on Hospital Hygiene and Infection Protection (Kommission für Krankenhaushygiene und Infektionsprävention (KRINKO)) and specified and implemented by professional societies. Since November 2020, an antiviral therapy with remdesivir and treatment with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone have been available as pharmaceutical interventions. Monoclonal antibodies are at this time not approved. Therapeutic anticoagulation is recommended.Recommendations are constantly adapted to the increasing knowledge on the pathogen and its means of transmission. A challenge is to strengthen the trust of the population. Many measures have to be applied on an individual basis in order to work together.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Germany , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 64(4): 418-425, 2021 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196557

ABSTRACT

The Robert Koch Institute (RKI) plays a central role in Germany in the management of health hazards of biological origin. The RKI's crisis management aims to contribute to protecting the health of the population in Germany in significant epidemic situations and to maintain the RKI's working ability over a long period of time even under high load. This article illustrates the crisis management of the RKI in general as well as during the COVID-19 pandemic. The generic RKI crisis management structures and the setup of the RKI emergency operations centre (EOC), their operationalisation in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting challenges as of 31 October 2020 are described in this paper. The exchange between the federal and state governments during the pandemic is also described.The COVID-19 pandemic has led to extraordinary circumstances. During the epidemic situation, good communication and coordination has been essential, both within the RKI and with other federal or state authorities and expert groups. Under great pressure, the RKI produces and regularly updates recommendations, statements and assessments on various topics. To provide operational support for all COVID-19 related activities, an EOC was activated at the RKI. During the COVID-19 pandemic, there are various challenges regarding personnel and structures. It became apparent that good preparation (e.g. existing task descriptions and premises) has an important positive impact on crisis management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Germany , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , State Government
18.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 64(4): 435-445, 2021 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159627

ABSTRACT

When the emerging novel SARS-CoV­2 virus first appeared in December 2019, neither specific therapeutic options nor vaccinations were available. The role of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) became of central importance. At the Robert Koch Institute, a multilayer strategy consisting of population-based and individual preventive measures to control the pandemic was developed, which built upon existing influenza pandemic plans as well as generic plans. This paper explains the recommended NPIs and illustrates the pharmaceutical approaches developed in parallel.Among others, general contact bans, providing material for infection prevention and control, ban of events, closing educational institutions, and restricting travel are counted among population-based measures. Additional individual preventive measures are necessary, e.g., keeping a minimum distance, reducing contacts, and wearing a mouth-nose covering as well as quarantine and isolation. Measures within the health system are based on recommendations of the Commission on Hospital Hygiene and Infection Protection (Kommission für Krankenhaushygiene und Infektionsprävention (KRINKO)) and specified and implemented by professional societies. Since November 2020, an antiviral therapy with remdesivir and treatment with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone have been available as pharmaceutical interventions. Monoclonal antibodies are at this time not approved. Therapeutic anticoagulation is recommended.Recommendations are constantly adapted to the increasing knowledge on the pathogen and its means of transmission. A challenge is to strengthen the trust of the population. Many measures have to be applied on an individual basis in order to work together.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Germany , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 64(4): 418-425, 2021 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118210

ABSTRACT

The Robert Koch Institute (RKI) plays a central role in Germany in the management of health hazards of biological origin. The RKI's crisis management aims to contribute to protecting the health of the population in Germany in significant epidemic situations and to maintain the RKI's working ability over a long period of time even under high load. This article illustrates the crisis management of the RKI in general as well as during the COVID-19 pandemic. The generic RKI crisis management structures and the setup of the RKI emergency operations centre (EOC), their operationalisation in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting challenges as of 31 October 2020 are described in this paper. The exchange between the federal and state governments during the pandemic is also described.The COVID-19 pandemic has led to extraordinary circumstances. During the epidemic situation, good communication and coordination has been essential, both within the RKI and with other federal or state authorities and expert groups. Under great pressure, the RKI produces and regularly updates recommendations, statements and assessments on various topics. To provide operational support for all COVID-19 related activities, an EOC was activated at the RKI. During the COVID-19 pandemic, there are various challenges regarding personnel and structures. It became apparent that good preparation (e.g. existing task descriptions and premises) has an important positive impact on crisis management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Germany , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , State Government
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