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1.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1813100

ABSTRACT

The frequent severe COVID-19 course in patients with periodontitis suggests a link of the aetiopathogenesis of both diseases. The formation of intravascular neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is crucial to the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19. Periodontitis is characterised by an increased level of circulating NETs, a propensity for increased NET formation, delayed NET clearance and low-grade endotoxemia (LGE). The latter has an enormous impact on innate immunity and susceptibility to infection with SARS-CoV-2. LPS binds the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and this complex, which is more active than unbound LPS, precipitates massive NET formation. Thus, circulating NET formation is the common denominator in both COVID-19 and periodontitis and other diseases with low-grade endotoxemia like diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) also increase the risk to develop severe COVID-19. Here we discuss the role of propensity for increased NET formation, DNase I deficiency and low-grade endotoxaemia in periodontitis as aggravating factors for the severe course of COVID-19 and possible strategies for the diminution of increased levels of circulating periodontitis-derived NETs in COVID-19 with periodontitis comorbidity.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321642

ABSTRACT

Background: A number of histopathological reports showed the presence of widespread thrombosis and associated morphology in pulmonary vessels of patients with COVID-19. Later, we identified vascular occlusions with neutrophils and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), as major components, in autopsy tissue from patients with COVID-19.Methods: We, here investigated 109 lung specimens from 17 patients with COVID-19 and compared them with 11 lung specimens from two patients who succumbed to pulmonary embolism and acute cardiac. Healthy lung specimens from four patients served as controls. We studied these autopsy lung specimens using immunohistochemistry and native endogenous fluorescence.Findings: We present a label-free imaging technique using native endogenous fluorescence that enables the visualization of occluded vessels. We demonstrate that native endogenous fluorescence identified occluded vessels in tissue specimens from patients with COVID-19.Interpretation: Label-free detection of occluded vessels enabled the detection of affected occluded vessels in lung specimens of patients with COVID-19 where the occluding components showed varying contents of neutrophil-derived materials.Funding Statement: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), EU, Volkswagen-StiftungDeclaration of Interests: All authors have no conflicts of interests to declare.Ethics Approval Statement: An institutional approval from each local Ethical Committee was obtained (permit #193_13B;permit # 174_20B;EK 092/20;EK 119/20;EK 460/20).

3.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458477

ABSTRACT

The enlightenment of the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) as a part of the innate immune system shed new insights into the pathologies of various diseases. The initial idea that NETs are a pivotal defense structure was gradually amended due to several deleterious effects in consecutive investigations. NETs formation is now considered a double-edged sword. The harmful effects are not limited to the induction of inflammation by NETs remnants but also include occlusions caused by aggregated NETs (aggNETs). The latter carries the risk of occluding tubular structures like vessels or ducts and appear to be associated with the pathologies of various diseases. In addition to life-threatening vascular clogging, other occlusions include painful stone formation in the biliary system, the kidneys, the prostate, and the appendix. AggNETs are also prone to occlude the ductal system of exocrine glands, as seen in ocular glands, salivary glands, and others. Last, but not least, they also clog the pancreatic ducts in a murine model of neutrophilia. In this regard, elucidating the mechanism of NETs-dependent occlusions is of crucial importance for the development of new therapeutic approaches. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to address the putative mechanisms of NETs-associated occlusions in the pathogenesis of disease, as well as prospective treatment modalities.


Subject(s)
Embolism/immunology , Extracellular Traps/physiology , Thrombosis/immunology , Animals , Body Fluids/immunology , Body Fluids/physiology , Embolism/physiopathology , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Neutrophils/immunology , Prospective Studies , Thrombosis/physiopathology
4.
Cell Death Differ ; 28(11): 3125-3139, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241944

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection poses a major threat to the lungs and multiple other organs, occasionally causing death. Until effective vaccines are developed to curb the pandemic, it is paramount to define the mechanisms and develop protective therapies to prevent organ dysfunction in patients with COVID-19. Individuals that develop severe manifestations have signs of dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses. Emerging evidence implicates neutrophils and the disbalance between neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and degradation plays a central role in the pathophysiology of inflammation, coagulopathy, organ damage, and immunothrombosis that characterize severe cases of COVID-19. Here, we discuss the evidence supporting a role for NETs in COVID-19 manifestations and present putative mechanisms, by which NETs promote tissue injury and immunothrombosis. We present therapeutic strategies, which have been successful in the treatment of immunο-inflammatory disorders and which target dysregulated NET formation or degradation, as potential approaches that may benefit patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Neutrophils/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Citrullination , Complement Activation , Humans , Neutrophils/metabolism , Platelet Activation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/etiology
5.
EBioMedicine ; 58: 102925, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-701831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus induced disease 2019 (COVID-19) can be complicated by severe organ damage leading to dysfunction of the lungs and other organs. The processes that trigger organ damage in COVID-19 are incompletely understood. METHODS: Samples were donated from hospitalized patients. Sera, plasma, and autopsy-derived tissue sections were examined employing flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and immunohistochemistry. PATIENT FINDINGS: Here, we show that severe COVID-19 is characterized by a highly pronounced formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) inside the micro-vessels. Intravascular aggregation of NETs leads to rapid occlusion of the affected vessels, disturbed microcirculation, and organ damage. In severe COVID-19, neutrophil granulocytes are strongly activated and adopt a so-called low-density phenotype, prone to spontaneously form NETs. In accordance, markers indicating NET turnover are consistently increased in COVID-19 and linked to disease severity. Histopathology of the lungs and other organs from COVID-19 patients showed congestions of numerous micro-vessels by aggregated NETs associated with endothelial damage. INTERPRETATION: These data suggest that organ dysfunction in severe COVID-19 is associated with excessive NET formation and vascular damage. FUNDING: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), EU, Volkswagen-Stiftung.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Microvessels/pathology , Neutrophils/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Thrombosis/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Humans , Microvessels/metabolism , Neutrophils/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/pathology
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