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1.
European Business Review ; : 27, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1927483

ABSTRACT

Purpose Major social changes, such as those induced by the COVID-19 pandemic, intensify the need for organisations in Africa to accelerate adaptation. Leadership plays an important role in their organisations' adaptation. This study focuses on how leaders can build adaptive organisations through appropriate complexity leadership practices by establishing which of these most predict organisational adaptation. The study aims to contribute to dramatic social change (DSC) theory and to empirically confirm conceptual relationships between complexity leadership theory and perceptions of organisational adaptability (OA). Design/methodology/approach The convenience non-probability sample include 126 senior management respondents from 24 small and medium enterprises in Zimbabwe. The study focuses on these individual senior managers' perceptions of their organisations' adaptation, leadership practices and the social changes during COVID-19. The questionnaire used a five-point Likert scale, based on some items from existing scales on entrepreneurial, operational and enabling leadership of complexity leadership and items on OA and DSC. The study applied structural equation modelling using SmartPLS and SPSS software. Findings The study formulates recommendations for the boundary conditions under which each or a combination of the complexity leadership practices will bring about the appropriate level of adaptability. The enabling and entrepreneurial leadership practices required, include brokering, decentralisation and establishing multilevel collaboration. Originality/value The study contributes insight for leaders to differentiate between the levels of adaptation their organisations require at particular times in particular contexts. Different adaptations will require a different combination of complexity leadership practices. When the adaptation sought is internal, operational leadership is more appropriate, whereas if the motive is market adaptation, entrepreneurial leadership is more appropriate.

2.
European Business Review ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874092

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aims to investigate how different kinds of leadership styles (transformational and transactional leadership) influence different components of trust (affect-based and cognition-based trust), mediated by organisational justice mechanisms (distributive, procedural and interactional justice) during COVID-19 conditions in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: This study conducted a quantitative study by collecting survey data from 366 leaders in three organisations in South Africa, using valid and reliable scales. Given the number of latent constructs, the statistical technique used for this research was partial least squares-structural equation modelling, which enabled the authors to evaluate the strength and significance of the mediating relationships. Findings: Findings show unexpectedly that neither distributive nor procedural justice has any significant mediating effect between transformational and transactional leadership and between the components of trust (affect-based and cognition-based trust). However, interactional justice was found to have a significant positive mediating effect between transactional leadership and affect-based trust as well as cognition-based trust. The same did not apply to transformational leadership. Originality/value: Given the context of this study, which was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic, these findings support the notion that it is the responsibility of leaders in organisations to communicate effectively, clearly and transparently to their followers at all times but particularly during times of extreme uncertainty. These increased levels of perceived fairness result in the development of trust within the organisation. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

3.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326897

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic in southern Africa has been characterised by three distinct waves. The first was associated with a mix of SARS-CoV-2 lineages, whilst the second and third waves were driven by the Beta and Delta variants respectively1–3. In November 2021, genomic surveillance teams in South Africa and Botswana detected a new SARS-CoV-2 variant associated with a rapid resurgence of infections in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Within three days of the first genome being uploaded, it was designated a variant of concern (Omicron) by the World Health Organization and, within three weeks, had been identified in 87 countries. The Omicron variant is exceptional for carrying over 30 mutations in the spike glycoprotein, predicted to influence antibody neutralization and spike function4. Here, we describe the genomic profile and early transmission dynamics of Omicron, highlighting the rapid spread in regions with high levels of population immunity.

4.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-296584

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, first identified in South Africa, may compromise the ability of vaccine and previous infection (1) elicited immunity to protect against new infection. Here we investigated whether Omicron escapes antibody neutralization elicited by the Pfizer BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in people who were vaccinated only or vaccinated and previously infected. We also investigated whether the virus still requires binding to the ACE2 receptor to infect cells. We isolated and sequence confirmed live Omicron virus from an infected person in South Africa. We then compared neutralization of this virus relative to an ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain with the D614G mutation. Neutralization was by blood plasma from South African BNT162b2 vaccinated individuals. We observed that Omicron still required the ACE2 receptor to infect but had extensive escape of Pfizer elicited neutralization. However, 5 out of 6 of the previously infected, Pfizer vaccinated individuals, all of them with high neutralization of D614G virus, showed residual neutralization at levels expected to confer protection from infection and severe disease (2). While vaccine effectiveness against Omicron is still to be determined, these data support the notion that high neutralization capacity elicited by a combination of infection and vaccination, and possibly by boosting, could maintain reasonable effectiveness against Omicron. If neutralization capacity is lower or wanes with time, protection against infection is likely to be low. However, protection against severe disease, requiring lower neutralization levels and involving T cell immunity, would likely be maintained.

5.
Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies ; 10(3):1-23, 2020.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-830000

ABSTRACT

Learning outcomes: Gaining skills in analyzing context during a crisis situation, using a political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental framework understanding strategic leadership engagement with stakeholders to cultivate an environment for emergent change gaining skills in drawing up a strategic communications plan. Case overview/synopsis: On 15 May 2020, Alec Moemi, Director-General of the South African Government’s Department of Transport (DoT), contemplates how his department can use the opportunity that COVID-19 presents to transform the transport system and to maintain relationships with business and the taxi industry beyond COVID-19? The nation was just reeling from a first: the President announced a “lockdown” which meant that all economic activity except “essential services” could operate. Life almost ground to halt and South Africans faced a new reality. No movement out of your property unless it was a medical emergency or if you needed to buy food. The minibus taxi, an economic enabler to millions of South Africans also had to stop operating. The South African DoT had a mammoth task of communicating to a range of stakeholders. However, the most sensitive being the minibus taxi owners, drivers and their related associations. How would they accept the news that they will not have a livelihood for the next few weeks or perhaps even months? Given the nature of industrial shift patterns and need for a more flexible transport system for workers, some organisation’s such as Nestlé contracted private transport services to ensure their staff travelled to work safely. Nestlé also had their own compulsory sanitizing protocols in place to support private transporters. Complexity academic level: Postgraduate programmes, including MBA, MPhil Corporate Strategy and Masters’ Public Administration and Executive Education Programmes. Supplementary materials: Teaching notes are available for educators only. Subject code: CSS: 7 Management Science. © 2020, Emerald Publishing Limited.

6.
Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies ; 10(3):1-18, 2020.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-829999

ABSTRACT

Learning outcomes: The learning outcomes are as follows: identifying and prioritising of stakeholders’ needs during crises;gaining insight into applying contextual intelligence in leaders’ decision-making on philanthropic investments;and evaluating initiatives by differentiating between creating shared value and corporate social responsibility. Case overview/synopsis: On 15 March 2020, Bruno Olierhoek, Chairman and MD, Nestlé East and Southern Africa considers his dilemma of where to focus his community support initiatives during COVID-19, which could reflect their company’s purpose of enhancing quality of life and contributing to a healthier future in their response to the crisis? Also, creating shared value (CSV) was in their DNA as a company, and they wanted to do more than philanthropic gestures;therefore, they had to decide carefully about leveraging their strategic partnerships in the relief effort. The case highlights existing community involvement projects, pre-COVID-19, which illustrate multi-stakeholder collaboration. These existing trust relationships and partnerships are then leveraged during the COVID-19 pandemic. The case highlights unintended consequences of Nestlé’s gesture of donating food products to the 5,000 frontline health-care workers for specific stakeholder groups, such as the positive emotional responses of Nestlé’s own employees. These events in the case relate to existing theoretical frameworks, such as corporate citizenship which elicits pro-organisational behaviour in stakeholder groups. Complexity academic level: Postgraduate programmes MBA or MPhil. Supplementary materials: Teaching Notes are available for educators only. Subject code: CSS: 7 Management Science © 2020, Emerald Publishing Limited.

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