Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 29
Filter
1.
J Clin Immunol ; 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820957

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Six to 19% of critically ill COVID-19 patients display circulating auto-antibodies against type I interferons (IFN-AABs). Here, we establish a clinically applicable strategy for early identification of IFN-AAB-positive patients for potential subsequent clinical interventions. METHODS: We analyzed sera of 430 COVID-19 patients from four hospitals for presence of IFN-AABs by ELISA. Binding specificity and neutralizing activity were evaluated via competition assay and virus-infection-based neutralization assay. We defined clinical parameters associated with IFN-AAB positivity. In a subgroup of critically ill patients, we analyzed effects of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) on the levels of IFN-AABs, SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and clinical outcome. RESULTS: The prevalence of neutralizing AABs to IFN-α and IFN-ω in COVID-19 patients from all cohorts was 4.2% (18/430), while being undetectable in an uninfected control cohort. Neutralizing IFN-AABs were detectable exclusively in critically affected (max. WHO score 6-8), predominantly male (83%) patients (7.6%, 18/237 for IFN-α-AABs and 4.6%, 11/237 for IFN-ω-AABs in 237 patients with critical COVID-19). IFN-AABs were present early post-symptom onset and at the peak of disease. Fever and oxygen requirement at hospital admission co-presented with neutralizing IFN-AAB positivity. IFN-AABs were associated with lower probability of survival (7.7% versus 80.9% in patients without IFN-AABs). TPE reduced levels of IFN-AABs in three of five patients and may increase survival of IFN-AAB-positive patients compared to those not undergoing TPE. CONCLUSION: IFN-AABs may serve as early biomarker for the development of severe COVID-19. We propose to implement routine screening of hospitalized COVID-19 patients for rapid identification of patients with IFN-AABs who most likely benefit from specific therapies.

2.
Ther Adv Neurol Disord ; 15: 17562864221080528, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799140

ABSTRACT

Background: In coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients, there is increasing evidence of neuronal injury by the means of elevated serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) levels. However, the role of systemic inflammation and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific immune response with regard to neuronal injury has not yet been investigated. Methods: In a prospective cohort study, we recruited patients with mild-moderate (n = 39) and severe (n = 14) COVID-19 and measured sNfL levels, cytokine concentrations, SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies including neutralizing antibody titers, and cell-mediated immune responses at enrollment and at 28(±7) days. We explored the association of neuro-axonal injury as by the means of sNfL measurements with disease severity, cytokine levels, and virus-specific immune responses. Results: sNfL levels, as an indicator for neuronal injury, were higher at enrollment and increased during follow-up in severely ill patients, whereas during mild-moderate COVID-19, sNfL levels remained unchanged. Severe COVID-19 was associated with increased concentrations of cytokines assessed [interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)], higher anti-spike IgG and anti-nucleocapsid IgG concentrations, and increased neutralizing antibody titers compared with mild-moderate disease. Patients with more severe disease had higher counts of defined SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells. Increases in sNfL concentrations from baseline to day 28(±7) positively correlated with anti-spike protein IgG antibody levels and with titers of neutralizing antibodies. Conclusion: Severe COVID-19 is associated with increased serum concentration of cytokines and subsequent neuronal injury as reflected by increased levels of sNfL. Patients with more severe disease developed higher neutralizing antibody titers and higher counts of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells during the course of COVID-19 disease. Mounting a pronounced virus-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune response upon SARS-CoV-2 infection did not protect from neuro-axonal damage as by the means of sNfL levels.

4.
J Intern Med ; 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported regional differences in end-of-life care (EoLC) for critically ill patients in Europe. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this post-hoc analysis of the prospective multicentre COVIP study was to investigate variations in EoLC practices among older patients in intensive care units during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: A total of 3105 critically ill patients aged 70 years and older were enrolled in this study (Central Europe: n = 1573; Northern Europe: n = 821; Southern Europe: n = 711). Generalised estimation equations were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) to population averages. Data were adjusted for patient-specific variables (demographic, disease-specific) and health economic data (gross domestic product, health expenditure per capita). The primary outcome was any treatment limitation, and 90-day mortality was a secondary outcome. RESULTS: The frequency of the primary endpoint (treatment limitation) was highest in Northern Europe (48%), intermediate in Central Europe (39%) and lowest in Southern Europe (24%). The likelihood for treatment limitations was lower in Southern than in Central Europe (aOR 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21-0.73; p = 0.004), even after multivariable adjustment, whereas no statistically significant differences were observed between Northern and Central Europe (aOR 0.57; 95%CI 0.27-1.22; p = 0.15). After multivariable adjustment, no statistically relevant mortality differences were found between Northern and Central Europe (aOR 1.29; 95%CI 0.80-2.09; p = 0.30) or between Southern and Central Europe (aOR 1.07; 95%CI 0.66-1.73; p = 0.78). CONCLUSION: This study shows a north-to-south gradient in rates of treatment limitation in Europe, highlighting the heterogeneity of EoLC practices across countries. However, mortality rates were not affected by these results.

5.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772719

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly increased the incidence and clinical importance of critical illness myopathy (CIM), because it is one of the most common complications of modern intensive care medicine. Current diagnostic criteria only allow diagnosis of CIM at an advanced stage, so that patients are at risk of being overlooked, especially in early stages. To determine the frequency of CIM and to assess a recently proposed tool for early diagnosis, we have followed a cohort of COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and compared the time course of muscle excitability measurements with the definite diagnosis of CIM. METHODS: Adult COVID-19 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of the University Hospital Bern, Switzerland requiring mechanical ventilation were recruited and examined on Days 1, 2, 5, and 10 post-intubation. Clinical examination, muscle excitability measurements, medication record, and laboratory analyses were performed on all study visits, and additionally nerve conduction studies, electromyography and muscle biopsy on Day 10. Muscle excitability data were compared with a cohort of 31 age-matched healthy subjects. Diagnosis of definite CIM was made according to the current guidelines and was based on patient history, results of clinical and electrophysiological examinations as well as muscle biopsy. RESULTS: Complete data were available in 31 out of 44 recruited patients (mean [SD] age, 62.4 [9.8] years). Of these, 17 (55%) developed CIM. Muscle excitability measurements on Day 10 discriminated between patients who developed CIM and those who did not, with a diagnostic precision of 90% (AUC 0.908; 95% CI 0.799-1.000; sensitivity 1.000; specificity 0.714). On Days 1 and 2, muscle excitability parameters also discriminated between the two groups with 73% (AUC 0.734; 95% CI 0.550-0.919; sensitivity 0.562; specificity 0.857) and 82% (AUC 0.820; CI 0.652-0.903; sensitivity 0.750; specificity 0.923) diagnostic precision, respectively. All critically ill COVID-19 patients showed signs of muscle membrane depolarization compared with healthy subjects, but in patients who developed CIM muscle membrane depolarization on Days 1, 2 and 10 was more pronounced than in patients who did not develop CIM. CONCLUSIONS: This study reports a 55% prevalence of definite CIM in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, the results confirm that muscle excitability measurements may serve as an alternative method for CIM diagnosis and support its use as a tool for early diagnosis and monitoring the development of CIM.

6.
JMIR Med Inform ; 10(3): e32949, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is challenging health care systems globally. The disease disproportionately affects the elderly population, both in terms of disease severity and mortality risk. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate machine learning-based prognostication models for critically ill elderly COVID-19 patients, which dynamically incorporated multifaceted clinical information on evolution of the disease. METHODS: This multicenter cohort study (COVIP study) obtained patient data from 151 intensive care units (ICUs) from 26 countries. Different models based on the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, logistic regression (LR), random forest (RF), and extreme gradient boosting (XGB) were derived as baseline models that included admission variables only. We subsequently included clinical events and time-to-event as additional variables to derive the final models using the same algorithms and compared their performance with that of the baseline group. Furthermore, we derived baseline and final models on a European patient cohort, which were externally validated on a non-European cohort that included Asian, African, and US patients. RESULTS: In total, 1432 elderly (≥70 years old) COVID-19-positive patients admitted to an ICU were included for analysis. Of these, 809 (56.49%) patients survived up to 30 days after admission. The average length of stay was 21.6 (SD 18.2) days. Final models that incorporated clinical events and time-to-event information provided superior performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.81; 95% CI 0.804-0.811), with respect to both the baseline models that used admission variables only and conventional ICU prediction models (SOFA score, P<.001). The average precision increased from 0.65 (95% CI 0.650-0.655) to 0.77 (95% CI 0.759-0.770). CONCLUSIONS: Integrating important clinical events and time-to-event information led to a superior accuracy of 30-day mortality prediction compared with models based on the admission information and conventional ICU prediction models. This study shows that machine-learning models provide additional information and may support complex decision-making in critically ill elderly COVID-19 patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04321265; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04321265.

7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 477, 2021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770510

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, suspension of visits by next of kin to patients in intensive care units (ICU), to prevent spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has been a common practice. This could impede established family-centered care and may affect the mental health of the next of kin. The aim of this study was to explore symptoms of post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD) in the next of kin of ICU patients. METHODS: In this prospective observational single-center study, next of kin of ICU patients were interviewed by telephone, using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), to assess symptoms of acute stress disorder during the ICU stay and PTSD symptoms at 3 months after the ICU stay. The primary outcome was the prevalence of severe PTSD symptoms (IES-R score ≥ 33) at 3 months. The secondary outcomes comprised the IES-R scores during the ICU stay, at 3 months, and the prevalence of severe symptoms of acute stress disorder during ICU stay. An inductive content analysis was performed of the next of kin's comments regarding satisfaction with patient care and the information they were given. RESULTS: Of the 411 ICU patients admitted during the study period, 62 patients were included together with their next of kin. An IES-R score > 33 was observed in 90.3% (56/62) of next of kin during the ICU stay and in 69.4% (43/62) 3 months later. The median IES-R score was 49 (IQR 40-61) during the ICU stay and 41 (IQR 30-55) at 3 months. The inductive content analysis showed that communication/information (55%), support (40%), distressing emotions (32%), and suspension of ICU visits (24%) were mentioned as relevant aspects by the next of kin. CONCLUSIONS: During the suspension of ICU visits in the COVID-19 pandemic, high prevalence and severity of both symptoms of acute stress disorder during the ICU stay and PTSD symptoms 3 months later were observed in the next of kin of ICU patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
8.
Ann Intensive Care ; 12(1): 26, 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753126

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Critically ill old intensive care unit (ICU) patients suffering from Sars-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19) are at increased risk for adverse outcomes. This post hoc analysis investigates the association of the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) with the outcome in this vulnerable patient group. METHODS: The COVIP study is a prospective international observational study that recruited ICU patients ≥ 70 years admitted with COVID-19 (NCT04321265). Several parameters including ADL (ADL; 0 = disability, 6 = no disability), Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS), SOFA score, intensive care treatment, ICU- and 3-month survival were recorded. A mixed-effects Weibull proportional hazard regression analyses for 3-month mortality adjusted for multiple confounders. RESULTS: This pre-specified analysis included 2359 patients with a documented ADL and CFS. Most patients evidenced independence in their daily living before hospital admission (80% with ADL = 6). Patients with no frailty and no disability showed the lowest, patients with frailty (CFS ≥ 5) and disability (ADL < 6) the highest 3-month mortality (52 vs. 78%, p < 0.001). ADL was independently associated with 3-month mortality (ADL as a continuous variable: aHR 0.88 (95% CI 0.82-0.94, p < 0.001). Being "disable" resulted in a significant increased risk for 3-month mortality (aHR 1.53 (95% CI 1.19-1.97, p 0.001) even after adjustment for multiple confounders. CONCLUSION: Baseline Activities of Daily Living (ADL) on admission provides additional information for outcome prediction, although most critically ill old intensive care patients suffering from COVID-19 had no restriction in their ADL prior to ICU admission. Combining frailty and disability identifies a subgroup with particularly high mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04321265.

9.
Therapeutic advances in neurological disorders ; 15, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1743793

ABSTRACT

Background: In coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients, there is increasing evidence of neuronal injury by the means of elevated serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) levels. However, the role of systemic inflammation and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)–specific immune response with regard to neuronal injury has not yet been investigated. Methods: In a prospective cohort study, we recruited patients with mild–moderate (n = 39) and severe (n = 14) COVID-19 and measured sNfL levels, cytokine concentrations, SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies including neutralizing antibody titers, and cell-mediated immune responses at enrollment and at 28(±7) days. We explored the association of neuro-axonal injury as by the means of sNfL measurements with disease severity, cytokine levels, and virus-specific immune responses. Results: sNfL levels, as an indicator for neuronal injury, were higher at enrollment and increased during follow-up in severely ill patients, whereas during mild–moderate COVID-19, sNfL levels remained unchanged. Severe COVID-19 was associated with increased concentrations of cytokines assessed [interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)], higher anti-spike IgG and anti-nucleocapsid IgG concentrations, and increased neutralizing antibody titers compared with mild–moderate disease. Patients with more severe disease had higher counts of defined SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells. Increases in sNfL concentrations from baseline to day 28(±7) positively correlated with anti-spike protein IgG antibody levels and with titers of neutralizing antibodies. Conclusion: Severe COVID-19 is associated with increased serum concentration of cytokines and subsequent neuronal injury as reflected by increased levels of sNfL. Patients with more severe disease developed higher neutralizing antibody titers and higher counts of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells during the course of COVID-19 disease. Mounting a pronounced virus-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune response upon SARS-CoV-2 infection did not protect from neuro-axonal damage as by the means of sNfL levels.

10.
ESC Heart Fail ; 9(3): 1756-1765, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739148

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a major risk factor for mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This prospective international multicentre study investigates the role of pre-existing CHF on clinical outcomes of critically ill old (≥70 years) intensive care patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with pre-existing CHF were subclassified as having ischaemic or non-ischaemic cardiac disease; patients with a documented ejection fraction (EF) were subclassified according to heart failure EF: reduced (HFrEF, n = 132), mild (HFmrEF, n = 91), or preserved (HFpEF, n = 103). Associations of heart failure characteristics with the 30 day mortality were analysed in univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Pre-existing CHF was reported in 566 of 3917 patients (14%). Patients with CHF were older, frailer, and had significantly higher SOFA scores on admission. CHF patients showed significantly higher crude 30 day mortality [60% vs. 48%, P < 0.001; odds ratio 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-2.3] and 3 month mortality (69% vs. 56%, P < 0.001). After multivariate adjustment for confounders (SOFA, age, sex, and frailty), no independent association of CHF with mortality remained [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.2, 95% CI 0.5-1.5; P = 0.137]. More patients suffered from pre-existing ischaemic than from non-ischaemic disease [233 vs. 328 patients (n = 5 unknown aetiology)]. There were no differences in baseline characteristics between ischaemic and non-ischaemic disease or between HFrEF, HFmrEF, and HFpEF. Crude 30 day mortality was significantly higher in HFrEF compared with HFpEF (64% vs. 48%, P = 0.042). EF as a continuous variable was not independently associated with 30 day mortality (aOR 0.98, 95% CI 0.9-1.0; P = 0.128). CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill older COVID-19 patients, pre-existing CHF was not independently associated with 30 day mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04321265.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Stroke Volume
11.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(6)2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732625

ABSTRACT

Inflammasomes are cytosolic innate immune sensors of pathogen infection and cellular damage that induce caspase-1-mediated inflammation upon activation. Although inflammation is protective, uncontrolled excessive inflammation can cause inflammatory diseases and can be detrimental, such as in coronavirus disease (COVID-19). However, the underlying mechanisms that control inflammasome activation are incompletely understood. Here we report that the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) protein ribonuclease inhibitor (RNH1), which shares homology with LRRs of NLRP (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine-rich repeat, and pyrin domain containing) proteins, attenuates inflammasome activation. Deletion of RNH1 in macrophages increases interleukin (IL)-1ß production and caspase-1 activation in response to inflammasome stimulation. Mechanistically, RNH1 decreases pro-IL-1ß expression and induces proteasome-mediated caspase-1 degradation. Corroborating this, mouse models of monosodium urate (MSU)-induced peritonitis and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia, which are dependent on caspase-1, respectively, show increased neutrophil infiltration and lethality in Rnh1 -/- mice compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, RNH1 protein levels were negatively related with disease severity and inflammation in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. We propose that RNH1 is a new inflammasome regulator with relevance to COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , /metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Caspase 1/metabolism , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Patient Acuity , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism
12.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(4): 435-447, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712215

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The number of patients ≥ 80 years admitted into critical care is increasing. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) added another challenge for clinical decisions for both admission and limitation of life-sustaining treatments (LLST). We aimed to compare the characteristics and mortality of very old critically ill patients with or without COVID-19 with a focus on LLST. METHODS: Patients 80 years or older with acute respiratory failure were recruited from the VIP2 and COVIP studies. Baseline patient characteristics, interventions in intensive care unit (ICU) and outcomes (30-day survival) were recorded. COVID patients were matched to non-COVID patients based on the following factors: age (± 2 years), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (± 2 points), clinical frailty scale (± 1 point), gender and region on a 1:2 ratio. Specific ICU procedures and LLST were compared between the cohorts by means of cumulative incidence curves taking into account the competing risk of discharge and death. RESULTS: 693 COVID patients were compared to 1393 non-COVID patients. COVID patients were younger, less frail, less severely ill with lower SOFA score, but were treated more often with invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) and had a lower 30-day survival. 404 COVID patients could be matched to 666 non-COVID patients. For COVID patients, withholding and withdrawing of LST were more frequent than for non-COVID and the 30-day survival was almost half compared to non-COVID patients. CONCLUSION: Very old COVID patients have a different trajectory than non-COVID patients. Whether this finding is due to a decision policy with more active treatment limitation or to an inherent higher risk of death due to COVID-19 is unclear.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Age Ageing ; 51(2)2022 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important patient-centred outcome in patients surviving ICU admission for COVID-19. It is currently not clear which domains of the HRQoL are most affected. OBJECTIVE: to quantify HRQoL in order to identify areas of interventions. DESIGN: prospective observation study. SETTING: admissions to European ICUs between March 2020 and February 2021. SUBJECTS: patients aged 70 years or older admitted with COVID-19 disease. METHODS: collected determinants include SOFA-score, Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS), number and timing of ICU procedures and limitation of care, Katz Activities of Daily Living (ADL) dependence score. HRQoL was assessed at 3 months after ICU admission with the Euro-QoL-5D-5L questionnaire. An outcome of ≥4 on any of Euro-QoL-5D-5L domains was considered unfavourable. RESULTS: in total 3,140 patients from 14 European countries were included in this study. Three months after inclusion, 1,224 patients (39.0%) were alive and the EQ-5D-5L from was obtained. The CFS was associated with an increased odds ratio for an unfavourable HRQoL outcome after 3 months; OR 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.71-1.87) for CFS 2 to OR 4.33 (95% CI: 1.57-11.9) for CFS ≧ 7. The Katz ADL was not statistically significantly associated with HRQoL after 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: in critically ill old intensive care patients suffering from COVID-19, the CFS is associated with the subjectively perceived quality of life. The CFS on admission can be used to inform patients and relatives on the risk of an unfavourable qualitative outcome if such patients survive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Br J Anaesth ; 128(3): 482-490, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536454

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy is performed in patients expected to require prolonged mechanical ventilation, but to date optimal timing of tracheostomy has not been established. The evidence concerning tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients is particularly scarce. We aimed to describe the relationship between early tracheostomy (≤10 days since intubation) and outcomes for patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study performed in 152 centres across 16 European countries from February to December 2020. We included patients aged ≥70 yr with confirmed COVID-19 infection admitted to an intensive care unit, requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Multivariable analyses were performed to evaluate the association between early tracheostomy and clinical outcomes including 3-month mortality, intensive care length of stay, and duration of mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: The final analysis included 1740 patients with a mean age of 74 yr. Tracheostomy was performed in 461 (26.5%) patients. The tracheostomy rate varied across countries, from 8.3% to 52.9%. Early tracheostomy was performed in 135 (29.3%) patients. There was no difference in 3-month mortality between early and late tracheostomy in either our primary analysis (hazard ratio [HR]=0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70-1.33) or a secondary landmark analysis (HR=0.78; 95% CI, 0.57-1.06). CONCLUSIONS: There is a wide variation across Europe in the timing of tracheostomy for critically ill patients with COVID-19. However, we found no evidence that early tracheostomy is associated with any effect on survival amongst older critically ill patients with COVID-19. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04321265.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Critical Illness/mortality , Tracheostomy/mortality , Tracheostomy/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Correlation of Data , Europe , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay , Male , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Survival Rate/trends , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
15.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc ; 79(1): 109-120, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477773

ABSTRACT

PURPOSECritically ill elderly patients who suffer from Sars-CoV-2 disease are at high risk for organ failure. The modified MELD-XI score has not been evaluated for outcome prediction in these most vulnerable patients.METHODSThe Corona Virus disease (COVID19) in Very Elderly Intensive Care Patients study (COVIP, NCT04321265) prospectively recruited patients on intensive care units (ICU), who were = 70 years. Data were collected from March 2020 to February 2021. The MELD-XI score was calculated using the highest serum bilirubin and creatinine on ICU admission. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess associations between the MELD-XI score and mortality. The primary outcome was 30-day-mortality, the secondary outcomes were ICU- and 3-month-mortality.RESULTSIn total, data from 2,993 patients were analyzed. Most patients had a MELD-XI <12 on admission (76%). The patients with MELD-XI = 12 had a significantly higher 30-day-, ICU- and 3-month-mortality (44%vs 64%, and 42%vs. 59%, and 57%vs. 76%, p < 0.001). After adjustment for multiple confounders, MELD-XI = 12 remained significantly associated with 30-day- (aOR 1.572, CI 1.268-1.949, p < 0.001), ICU-, and 3-month-mortality.CONCLUSIONIn critically ill elderly intensive care patients with COVID-19, the MELD-XI score constitutes a valuable tool for an early outcome prediction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Aged , Humans , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 344, 2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438302

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The primary aim of this study was to assess the outcome of elderly intensive care unit (ICU) patients treated during the spring and autumn COVID-19 surges in Europe. METHODS: This was a prospective European observational study (the COVIP study) in ICU patients aged 70 years and older admitted with COVID-19 disease from March to December 2020 to 159 ICUs in 14 European countries. An electronic database was used to register a number of parameters including: SOFA score, Clinical Frailty Scale, co-morbidities, usual ICU procedures and survival at 90 days. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04321265). RESULTS: In total, 2625 patients were included, 1327 from the first and 1298 from the second surge. Median age was 74 and 75 years in surge 1 and 2, respectively. SOFA score was higher in the first surge (median 6 versus 5, p < 0.0001). The PaO2/FiO2 ratio at admission was higher during surge 1, and more patients received invasive mechanical ventilation (78% versus 68%, p < 0.0001). During the first 15 days of treatment, survival was similar during the first and the second surge. Survival was lower in the second surge after day 15 and differed after 30 days (57% vs 50%) as well as after 90 days (51% vs 40%). CONCLUSION: An unexpected, but significant, decrease in 30-day and 90-day survival was observed during the second surge in our cohort of elderly ICU patients. The reason for this is unclear. Our main concern is whether the widespread changes in practice and treatment of COVID-19 between the two surges have contributed to this increased mortality in elderly patients. Further studies are urgently warranted to provide more evidence for current practice in elderly patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04321265 , registered March 19th, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Frail Elderly , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis
17.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 128, 2021 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367683

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Lactate is an established prognosticator in critical care. However, there still is insufficient evidence about its role in predicting outcome in COVID-19. This is of particular concern in older patients who have been mostly affected during the initial surge in 2020. METHODS: This prospective international observation study (The COVIP study) recruited patients aged 70 years or older (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT04321265) admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with COVID-19 disease from March 2020 to February 2021. In addition to serial lactate values (arterial blood gas analysis), we recorded several parameters, including SOFA score, ICU procedures, limitation of care, ICU- and 3-month mortality. A lactate concentration ≥ 2.0 mmol/L on the day of ICU admission (baseline) was defined as abnormal. The primary outcome was ICU-mortality. The secondary outcomes 30-day and 3-month mortality. RESULTS: In total, data from 2860 patients were analyzed. In most patients (68%), serum lactate was lower than 2 mmol/L. Elevated baseline serum lactate was associated with significantly higher ICU- and 3-month mortality (53% vs. 43%, and 71% vs. 57%, respectively, p < 0.001). In the multivariable analysis, the maximum lactate concentration on day 1 was independently associated with ICU mortality (aOR 1.06 95% CI 1.02-1.11; p = 0.007), 30-day mortality (aOR 1.07 95% CI 1.02-1.13; p = 0.005) and 3-month mortality (aOR 1.15 95% CI 1.08-1.24; p < 0.001) after adjustment for age, gender, SOFA score, and frailty. In 826 patients with baseline lactate ≥ 2 mmol/L sufficient data to calculate the difference between maximal levels on days 1 and 2 (∆ serum lactate) were available. A decreasing lactate concentration over time was inversely associated with ICU mortality after multivariate adjustment for SOFA score, age, Clinical Frailty Scale, and gender (aOR 0.60 95% CI 0.42-0.85; p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: In critically ill old intensive care patients suffering from COVID-19, lactate and its kinetics are valuable tools for outcome prediction. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04321265.

19.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(6): 622-642, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219780

ABSTRACT

The zoonotic SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 continues to spread worldwide, with devastating consequences. While the medical community has gained insight into the epidemiology of COVID-19, important questions remain about the clinical complexities and underlying mechanisms of disease phenotypes. Severe COVID-19 most commonly involves respiratory manifestations, although other systems are also affected, and acute disease is often followed by protracted complications. Such complex manifestations suggest that SARS-CoV-2 dysregulates the host response, triggering wide-ranging immuno-inflammatory, thrombotic, and parenchymal derangements. We review the intricacies of COVID-19 pathophysiology, its various phenotypes, and the anti-SARS-CoV-2 host response at the humoral and cellular levels. Some similarities exist between COVID-19 and respiratory failure of other origins, but evidence for many distinctive mechanistic features indicates that COVID-19 constitutes a new disease entity, with emerging data suggesting involvement of an endotheliopathy-centred pathophysiology. Further research, combining basic and clinical studies, is needed to advance understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms and to characterise immuno-inflammatory derangements across the range of phenotypes to enable optimum care for patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Organ Failure , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Endothelium/physiopathology , Humans , Immunity , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Patient Acuity , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 149, 2021 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191486

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led highly developed healthcare systems to the brink of collapse due to the large numbers of patients being admitted into hospitals. One of the potential prognostic indicators in patients with COVID-19 is frailty. The degree of frailty could be used to assist both the triage into intensive care, and decisions regarding treatment limitations. Our study sought to determine the interaction of frailty and age in elderly COVID-19 ICU patients. METHODS: A prospective multicentre study of COVID-19 patients ≥ 70 years admitted to intensive care in 138 ICUs from 28 countries was conducted. The primary endpoint was 30-day mortality. Frailty was assessed using the clinical frailty scale. Additionally, comorbidities, management strategies and treatment limitations were recorded. RESULTS: The study included 1346 patients (28% female) with a median age of 75 years (IQR 72-78, range 70-96), 16.3% were older than 80 years, and 21% of the patients were frail. The overall survival at 30 days was 59% (95% CI 56-62), with 66% (63-69) in fit, 53% (47-61) in vulnerable and 41% (35-47) in frail patients (p < 0.001). In frail patients, there was no difference in 30-day survival between different age categories. Frailty was linked to an increased use of treatment limitations and less use of mechanical ventilation. In a model controlling for age, disease severity, sex, treatment limitations and comorbidities, frailty was independently associated with lower survival. CONCLUSION: Frailty provides relevant prognostic information in elderly COVID-19 patients in addition to age and comorbidities. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT04321265 , registered 19 March 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Frailty/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Survival Analysis
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL