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1.
J Neurol Sci ; 440: 120330, 2022 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977545

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Guillain-Barré-Syndrome (GBS) can follow COVID-19 vaccination, with clinical and paraclinical features still to be precisely assessed. We describe a cohort of patients who developed GBS after vaccination with different types of COVID-19 vaccines. METHODS: Patients with post-COVID-19 vaccination GBS, admitted to the six hospitals that cover the whole Liguria Region, Northwestern Italy, from February 1st to October 30th 2021, were included. Clinical, demographic, and paraclinical data were retrospectively collected. RESULTS: Among the 13 patients with post-COVID-19 vaccination GBS (9 males; mean age, 64 year), 5 were vaccinated with Oxford-AstraZeneca, 7 with Pfizer-BioNTech, and one with Moderna. Mean time between vaccination and GBS onset was 11.5 days. Ten patients developed GBS after the first vaccination dose, 3 after the second dose. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) was the predominant GBS variant, mainly characterized by sensory involvement. Bilateral seventh cranial nerve involvement followed AstraZeneca vaccination in two cases. Three patients presented treatment-related fluctuations, and 4 mild symptoms that delayed treatments and negatively affected prognosis. Prognosis was poor (GBS-disability score, ≥3) in 5/13 patients, with a disability rate of 3/13. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm that most post-COVID-19 vaccination GBS belong to the AIDP subtype, and occur after the first vaccine dose. Treatment-related fluctuations, and diagnosis-delaying, mild symptoms at onset are clinical features that affect prognosis and deserve particular consideration.

2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 894872, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974658

ABSTRACT

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune neurological disorder often preceded by viral illnesses or, more rarely, vaccinations. We report on a unique combination of postcoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine GBS that occurred months after a parainfectious COVID-19-related GBS. Shortly after manifesting COVID-19 symptoms, a 57-year-old man developed diplopia, right-side facial weakness, and gait instability that, together with electrophysiology and cerebrospinal fluid examinations, led to a diagnosis of post-COVID-19 GBS. The involvement of cranial nerves and IgM seropositivity for ganglioside GD1b were noteworthy. COVID-19 pneumonia, flaccid tetraparesis, and autonomic dysfunction prompted his admission to ICU. He recovered after therapy with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg). Six months later, GBS recurred shortly after the first dose of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine. Again, the GBS diagnosis was confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid and electrophysiology studies. IgM seropositivity extended to multiple gangliosides, namely for GM3/4, GD1a/b, and GT1b IgM. An IVIg course prompted complete recovery. This case adds to other previously reported observations suggesting a possible causal link between SARS-CoV-2 and GBS. Molecular mimicry and anti-idiotype antibodies might be the underlying mechanisms. Future COVID-19 vaccinations/revaccinations in patients with previous para-/post-COVID-19 GBS deserve a reappraisal, especially if they are seropositive for ganglioside antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Autoantibodies , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Gangliosides , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1970282

ABSTRACT

Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune neurological disorder often preceded by viral illnesses or, more rarely, vaccinations. We report on a unique combination of postcoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine GBS that occurred months after a parainfectious COVID-19–related GBS. Shortly after manifesting COVID-19 symptoms, a 57-year-old man developed diplopia, right-side facial weakness, and gait instability that, together with electrophysiology and cerebrospinal fluid examinations, led to a diagnosis of post-COVID-19 GBS. The involvement of cranial nerves and IgM seropositivity for ganglioside GD1b were noteworthy. COVID-19 pneumonia, flaccid tetraparesis, and autonomic dysfunction prompted his admission to ICU. He recovered after therapy with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg). Six months later, GBS recurred shortly after the first dose of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine. Again, the GBS diagnosis was confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid and electrophysiology studies. IgM seropositivity extended to multiple gangliosides, namely for GM3/4, GD1a/b, and GT1b IgM. An IVIg course prompted complete recovery. This case adds to other previously reported observations suggesting a possible causal link between SARS-CoV-2 and GBS. Molecular mimicry and anti-idiotype antibodies might be the underlying mechanisms. Future COVID-19 vaccinations/revaccinations in patients with previous para-/post-COVID-19 GBS deserve a reappraisal, especially if they are seropositive for ganglioside antibodies.

4.
J Neurol Sci ; 439: 120315, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882260

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Symptoms referable to central and peripheral nervous system involvement are often evident both during the acute phase of COVID-19 infection and during long-COVID. In this study, we evaluated a population of patients with prior COVID-19 infection who showed signs and symptoms consistent with neurological long-COVID. METHODS: We prospectively collected demographic and acute phase course data from patients with prior COVID-19 infection who showed symptoms related to neurological involvement in the long-COVID phase. Firstly, we performed a multivariate logistic linear regression analysis to investigate the impact of demographic and clinical data, the severity of the acute COVID-19 infection and hospitalization course, on the post-COVID neurological symptoms at three months follow-up. Secondly, we performed an unsupervised clustering analysis to investigate whether there was evidence of different subtypes of neurological long COVID-19. RESULTS: One hundred and nine patients referred to the neurological post-COVID outpatient clinic. Clustering analysis on the most common neurological symptoms returned two well-separated and well-balanced clusters: long-COVID type 1 contains the subjects with memory disturbances, psychological impairment, headache, anosmia and ageusia, while long-COVID type 2 contains all the subjects with reported symptoms related to PNS involvement. The analysis of potential risk-factors among the demographic, clinical presentation, COVID 19 severity and hospitalization course variables showed that the number of comorbidities at onset, the BMI, the number of COVID-19 symptoms, the number of non-neurological complications and a more severe course of the acute infection were all, on average, higher for the cluster of subjects with reported symptoms related to PNS involvement. CONCLUSION: We analyzed the characteristics of neurological long-COVID and presented a method to identify well-defined patient groups with distinct symptoms and risk factors. The proposed method could potentially enable treatment deployment by identifying the optimal interventions and services for well-defined patient groups, so alleviating long-COVID and easing recovery.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Ambulatory Care Facilities , COVID-19/complications , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 589, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Parsonage-Turner syndrome is an acute peripheral neuropathy that affects the upper brachial plexus region. Previously published reports demonstrate that the condition can be triggered by surgery, infection, autoimmune diseases, strenuous exercise, trauma, radiation, and vaccination. Parsonage-Turner syndrome has already been reported in three other patients who were vaccinated against coronavirus disease 2019. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 51-year-old Caucasian man without comorbidities who received the first dose of the ChAdOx1-S recombinant vaccine (Vaxzevria, AstraZeneca, Oxford, UK) against coronavirus disease 2019 and was diagnosed with Parsonage-Turner syndrome. A few days after getting vaccinated, the patient reported a progressive increase in pain in the region of vaccine administration. One month later, the shoulder pain was followed by symptoms of hypoesthesia and muscle weakness on abduction and elevation of the left upper limb. Neurological examination revealed an atrophy of the proximal muscles of the left upper limb, accompanied by paresis of the left deltoid, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, and infraspinatus muscles. Electroneuromyography carried out 3 months after the onset of symptoms showed signs consistent with brachial plexus neuritis. The adverse reaction has been properly reported to the Italian Pharmacovigilance System (Italian Medicines Agency-Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco. CONCLUSION: The increased awareness of such association is essential for early identification and diagnosis and, thus, better clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Brachial Plexus Neuritis , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
6.
Int J Rehabil Res ; 43(3): 285-286, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483689

ABSTRACT

We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of a probable COVID-19 infection in a 28-year-old man with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. The diagnosis was established through a remote interaction with the patient after early discharge from outpatient therapy due to upcoming traveling restrictions. The COVID-19 disease appeared mild, without major respiratory problems, and no obvious neuromuscular deterioration was reported or observed. Telerehabilitation provided an opportunity to continue with hand rehabilitation after tendon transfer surgery, perform an ad-hoc online evaluation, and advise the patient how to prevent the spread of infection and cope with restrictions limiting outpatient visits. This experience seems valuable for further development of telerehabilitation in anticipation of future pandemics or adversarial events since it allows reaching out to patients unable to travel and overcomes the need for regular outpatient visits.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Telerehabilitation , Adult , COVID-19 , Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease/complications , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Neuroimmunol ; 357: 577605, 2021 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313260

ABSTRACT

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an immune-mediated peripheral neuropathy characterized by a typical post-infectious profile. Some post-Zika virus and post-severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 GBS cases have been reported to occur with very short intervals between the infection and GBS onset. Evaluating 161 GBS patients consecutively admitted to two Italian Regional Hospitals between 2003 and 2019, we found that the only three with an antecedent influenza A (H1N1) virus infection developed GBS within an interval of less than 10 days from the influenza illness. The two of them with a demyelinating subtype promptly recovered without therapy. Overall, the parainfectious cases add heterogeneity to the GBS category, warranting pathogenetic insights.


Subject(s)
Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Adolescent , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
11.
Neurol Sci ; 42(4): 1231-1236, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028133

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Factors influencing self-perceived health status over Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) emergency in vulnerable populations, such as patients with chronic neurological diseases, are still unknown. In this work, we aimed at testing whether clinical care changes imposed by the quarantine, together with certain demographic and disease-specific features, might have determined a self-perceived worsening of health status in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: A brief web-based questionnaire investigating self-perceived anxiety, depression, and motor worsening, as well as clinical care changes over COVID-19 emergency, was administered to ALS patients currently followed at San Martino Hospital. Ordinal and logistic regression analyses were applied to identify significant predictors of health status. RESULTS: Fifty-seven ALS patients completed the questionnaire. A total of 35.08% of cases reported anxiety symptoms, 36.84% depressive symptoms, and 35.08% reported worsening of motor symptoms. Significant predictors of anxiety symptoms severity included female gender, greater motor impairment, more aggressive disease course, and rehabilitation therapy suspension. The only significant predictor of depressive symptoms severity was a more aggressive disease course. Significant predictors of motor worsening were shorter disease duration and exams/visits cancelation. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 emergency and its management exerted a significant impact on self-perceived health status in patients with ALS, particularly in those cases in the earliest disease phases and with a more aggressive disease course. These findings have potential to improve personalized medicine strategies in the next phase.


Subject(s)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/complications , COVID-19 , Health Status , Pandemics , Self Concept , Aged , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/psychology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , Delivery of Health Care , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Quarantine , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(3): 735-739, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-871550

ABSTRACT

Reduced incidence of stroke during COVID-19 pandemic was sometimes reported. While decrease in stroke incidence and fear of patients to go to the hospitals were sometimes invoked to explain this decrease, reduction in urban pollution was also hypothesized as a possible cause. We investigated statistically the incidence of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, and of transient ischemic attacks, at a large Italian tertiary stroke center during the pandemic. We analyzed statistically the number of transient ischemic attacks (TIA), ischemic strokes (IS) and hemorrhagic strokes (HS) between March 8 and May 2, 2020, the peak of the COVID-19 epidemic in Italy, and compared them with the identical period of 2019. We also analyzed the concentration of small particulate matter (PM10) in 2019 and 2020, to see if it could account for modified incidence of strokes or TIA. We found a large, significant drop in TIA (- 51%) during the pandemic compared to the same period of 2019. By contrast, the number of HS was identical, and IS showed a not significant - 24% decrease. PM10 concentration, already low in 2019, did not further decrease in 2020. Patients kept seeking hospital care when experiencing permanent neurological symptoms (stroke), but they tended not go to the hospital when their symptoms were transient (TIA). The fact that we did not observe a significant decrease in strokes may be explained by the fact that in our city the concentration of small particulate matter did not change compared to 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Ischemic Attack, Transient/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/analysis , Stroke/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Neurol Sci ; 418: 117114, 2020 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-850023

ABSTRACT

Recently, during the pandemic infection of the novel SARS-CoV-2, some cases of Guillan-Barré Syndrome (GBS) have been reported. The aim of this work is to report the natural history of patients with GBS, both COVID and not-COVID related, hospitalized in Liguria region, during lock down period, in order to assess clinical features of both groups and possible managements pitfalls due to pandemic emergency. Fifteen GBS patients were admitted to the Hospitals of Liguria, from February 15th to May 3rd 2020, six with SARS-CoV-2 infection and nine without infection. In COVID-19 related GBS five patients presented with classical GBS and one with variant. Two patients presented neurologic symptoms during or shortly after the viral syndrome, suggesting the pattern of a para-infectious profile. Multi-organ involvement, delay in the diagnosis, incomplete work up and start of therapy, were registered in 50% of cases with a GBS-Disability scale ≥4 at follow-up evaluation. In not-COVID-19 related GBS, main problem was diagnostic delay. In three patients the first neurological observation took place after a mean of 33,6 days. Moreover, five patients went to emergency room after an average of 30 days since the onset of neurological symptoms because of fear of contagion. In conclusion, not only SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause GBS, but it can also, due to effects of pandemic on the health organization, affect the outcome of patients with not COVID-19 related GBS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Social Isolation , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Delayed Diagnosis/statistics & numerical data , Disease Management , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data
15.
Front Neurol ; 11: 845, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737645

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, an outbreak of illness caused by a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV, subsequently renamed SARS-CoV-2) was reported in Wuhan, China. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) quickly spread worldwide to become a pandemic. Typical manifestations of COVID-19 include fever, dry cough, fatigue, and respiratory distress. In addition, both the central and peripheral nervous system can be affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection. These neurological changes may be caused by viral neurotropism, by a hyperinflammatory and hypercoagulative state, or even by mechanical ventilation-associated impairment. Hypoxia, endothelial cell damage, and the different impacts of different ventilatory strategies may all lead to increased stress and strain, potentially exacerbating the inflammatory response and leading to a complex interaction between the lungs and the brain. To date, no studies have taken into consideration the possible secondary effect of mechanical ventilation on brain recovery and outcomes. The aim of our review is to provide an updated overview of the potential pathogenic mechanisms of neurological manifestations in COVID-19, discuss the physiological issues related to brain-lung interactions, and propose strategies for optimization of respiratory support in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.

16.
Acta Myol ; 39(2): 57-66, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-719952

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since February 2020, the outbreak of COVID-19 in Italy has forced the health care system to undergo profound rearrangements in its services and facilities, especially in the worst-hit areas in Northern Italy. In this setting, inpatient and outpatient services had to rethink and reorganize their activities to meet the needs of patients during the "lockdown". The Italian Association of Myology developed a survey to estimate the impact of these changes on patients affected by neuromuscular disorders and on specialized neuromuscular centers during the acute phase of COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We developed an electronic survey that was sent to neuromuscular centers affiliated with the Italian Association of Myology, assessing changes in pharmacological therapies provision, outpatient clinical and instrumental services, support services (physiotherapy, nursing care, psychological support) and clinical trials. RESULTS: 40% of surveyed neuromuscular centers reported a reduction in outpatient visit and examinations (44.5% of centers in Northern regions; 25% of centers in Central regions; 50% of centers in Southern regions). Twenty-two% of centers postponed in-hospital administration of therapies for neuromuscular diseases (23.4% in Northern regions; 13.0% in Central regions; 20% in Southern regions). Diagnostic and support services (physiotherapy, nursing care, psychological support) were suspended in 57% of centers (66/43/44% in Northern, Central and Southern centers respectively) Overall, the most affected services were rehabilitative services and on-site outpatient visits, which were suspended in 93% of centers. Strategies adopted by neuromuscular centers to overcome these changes included maintaining urgent on-site visits, addressing patients to available services and promoting remote contact and telemedicine. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a significant disruption of clinical and support services for patients with neuromuscular diseases. Despite the efforts to provide telemedicine consults to patients, this option could be promoted and improved further. A close collaboration between the different neuromuscular centers and service providers as well as further implementation of telehealth platforms are necessary to ensure quality care to NMD patients in the near future and in case of recurrent pandemic waves.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Neuromuscular Diseases/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation/organization & administration , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Ambulatory Care , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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