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1.
Gesundheitswesen ; 84(7): 566-574, 2022 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931523

ABSTRACT

The relevance of aerosols for the transmission of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still debated. However, over time, in addition to distancing and hygiene rules, aerosol physics-based measures such as wearing face masks and ventilating indoor spaces were found to be efficient in reducing infections. In an interdisciplinary workshop "Aerosol & SARS-CoV-2" of the Association for Aerosol Research (GAeF) in cooperation with the German Society for Pneumology and Respiratory Medicine (DGP), the Professional Association of General Air Technology of the VDMA, the German Society for Virology (GfV), the Health Technology Society (GG) and the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine (ISAM) under the auspices of the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) in March 2021, the need for research and coordination on this topic was addressed. Fundamental findings from the various disciplines as well as interdisciplinary perspectives on aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and infection mitigation measures are summarized here. Finally, open research questions and needs are presented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aerosols , COVID-19/prevention & control , Germany , Humans , Masks , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4599, 2022 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931433

ABSTRACT

Dehydration of the upper airways increases risks of respiratory diseases from COVID-19 to asthma and COPD. We find in human volunteer studies involving 464 human subjects in Germany, the US, and India that respiratory droplet generation increases by up to 4 orders of magnitude in dehydration-associated states of advanced age (n = 357), elevated BMI-age (n = 148), strenuous exercise (n = 20) and SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 87), and falls with hydration of the nose, larynx and trachea by calcium-rich hypertonic salts. We also find in a protocol of exercise-induced airway dehydration that hydration of the airways by calcium-rich salts increases oxygenation relative to a non-treatment control (P < 0.05). In a random control study of COVID-19 positive subjects (n = 40), thrice-a-day delivery of the calcium-rich hypertonic salts (active) suppressed respiratory droplet generation by 51% ± 11% and increased oxygen saturation over three days of treatment by 48.08% ± 9.61% (P < 0.001), while no changes were observed in the nasal-saline control group. Self-reported symptoms significantly declined in the active group and did not decline in the control group. Hydration of the upper airways appears promising as a non-drug approach for reducing risks of respiratory diseases such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Larynx , Exercise , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Trachea
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292930

ABSTRACT

Dirty air and poor access to healthcare threatens the lives of billions of people in low-income regions of the world. We investigated whether upper-airway hydration might alter two-phase flow in the airways on normal tidal breathing and be a useful, safe, easily distributed non-drug intervention for limiting risks of COVID-19. In observational human volunteer studies involving 464 human subjects in Marburg, Germany (357 normal subjects), Boston, US (20 healthy subjects), and Bangalore, India (87 subjects recently tested positive for COVID-19), we find that respiratory droplet generation increases by up to 4 orders of magnitude with up to 1% total body mass dehydration (n=20), and in dehydration-associated states of advanced age (n=357), elevated BMI-age (n=148), and SARS-CoV-2 infection (n=87). Hydration of the nose, larynx and trachea in a protocol of exercise-induced dehydration by the nasal inhalation of calcium-rich hypertonic salt droplets of mean diameter 8-12 μm diminished respiratory droplet numbers and increased oxygenation relative to a non-treatment control (P<0.05). In a randomized double-blinded nasal-saline control study, thrice-a-day delivery of the calcium-rich hypertonic salts (active) over three days suppressed respiratory droplet generation by 51% +/- 11% and increased oxygen saturation by 48.08% ± 9.61% (P<0.001) in COVID-19 positive subjects (n=20), while no changes in exhaled aerosol (P=0.235) or oxygen saturation (P=0.533) were observed in the nasal-saline control group (n=20). In the active group 47% of patients discharged with no self-reported symptoms while all of the subjects in the nasal saline group discharged with lingering symptoms. Hydration of the upper airways appears promising as a non-drug approach for reducing risks of lower respiratory-tract infections such as COVID-19.

4.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv ; 33(4): 230-234, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387691

ABSTRACT

Background: The transmission of respiratory viruses such as influenza and corona viruses from one person to another is still not fully understood. Methods: A literature search showed that there is a strong scientific rationale and evidence that viruses are very efficiently spread through aerosols by the patient's breathing only. It is not necessary for the patient to cough or sneeze. Results: The exhaled aerosol particles are generated by normal breathing in the deep lung through reopening of collapsed small airways during inspiration. These mucus/surfactant aerosols (size range between 0.2 and 0.6 µm) can transport viruses out of the lungs of patients and be present in the room air for hours. Conclusion: These aerosol particles are difficult to filter out of the air; because of their physical properties, new strategies must be developed to protect people from these virus aerosols.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Respiration , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
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