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Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725884


The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2) global pandemic is a devastating event that is causing thousands of victims every day around the world. One of the main reasons of the great impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on society is its unexpected spread, which has not allowed an adequate preparation. The scientific community is fighting against time for the production of a vaccine, but it is difficult to place a safe and effective product on the market as fast as the virus is spreading. Similarly, for drugs that can directly interfere with viral pathways, their production times are long, despite the great efforts made. For these reasons, we analyzed the possible role of non-pharmacological substances such as supplements, probiotics, and nutraceuticals in reducing the risk of Sars-CoV-2 infection or mitigating the symptoms of COVID-19. These substances could have numerous advantages in the current circumstances, are generally easily available, and have negligible side effects if administered at the already used and tested dosages. Large scientific evidence supports the benefits that some bacterial and molecular products may exert on the immune response to respiratory viruses. These could also have a regulatory role in systemic inflammation or endothelial damage, which are two crucial aspects of COVID-19. However, there are no specific data available, and rigorous clinical trials should be conducted to confirm the putative benefits of diet supplementation, probiotics, and nutraceuticals in the current pandemic.

Coronavirus Infections/diet therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diet , Dietary Supplements , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diet therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(11)2020 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-918171


The novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has generated the ongoing coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, still with an uncertain outcome. Besides pneumonia and acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), other features became evident in the context of COVID-19. These includes endothelial and coagulation dysfunction with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), along with the occurrence of neurological alterations. The multi-system nature of such viral infection is a witness to the exploitation and impairment of ubiquitous subcellular and metabolic pathways for the sake of its life-cycle, ranging from host cell invasion, replication, transmission, up to a cytopathic effect and overt systemic inflammation. In this frame, alterations in cell-clearing systems of the host are emerging as a hallmark in the pathogenesis of various respiratory viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Indeed, exploitation of the autophagy and proteasome pathways might contribute not only to the replication of the virus at the site of infection but also to the spreading of either mature virions or inflammatory mediators at both cellular and multisystem levels. In this frame, besides a pharmacological therapy, many researchers are wondering if some non-pharmacological substances might counteract or positively modulate the course of the infection. The pharmacological properties of natural compounds have gained increasing attention in the field of alternative and adjunct therapeutic approaches to several diseases. In particular, several naturally-occurring herbal compounds (mostly polyphenols) are reported to produce widespread antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant effects while acting as autophagy and (immuno)-proteasome modulators. This article attempts to bridge the perturbation of autophagy and proteasome pathways with the potentially beneficial effects of specific phytochemicals and flavonoids in viral infections, with a focus on the multisystem SARS-CoV-2 infection.