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1.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295272

ABSTRACT

The cellular mechanisms of kidney tubule repair are poorly characterized in human. Here, we applied single-nucleus RNA sequencing to analyze the kidney in the first days after acute injury in 5 critically ill patients with COVID-19. We identified abnormal proximal tubule cell states associated with injury, characterized by altered functional and metabolic profiles and by pro-fibrotic properties. Tubule repair involved the plasticity of mature tubule cells in a process of cell de-differentiation and re-differentiation, which displayed substantial similarities between mouse and man. In addition, in man we identified a peculiar tubule reparative response determining the expansion of progenitor-like cells marked by PROM1 and following a differentiation program characterized by the sequential activation of the WNT, NOTCH and HIPPO signaling pathways. Taken together, our analyses reveal cell state transitions and fundamental cellular hierarchies underlying kidney injury and repair in critically ill patients.

2.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(9): e0099121, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501533

ABSTRACT

Antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are used in children despite the lack of data. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the Panbio-COVID-19 Ag Rapid Test Device (P-RDT) in children. Symptomatic and asymptomatic participants 0 to 16 years old had two nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) for both reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and P-RDT. A total of 822 participants completed the study, of which 533 (64.9%) were symptomatic. Among the 119 (14.5%) RT-PCR-positive patients, the P-RDT sensitivity was 0.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57 to 0.74). Mean viral load (VL) was higher among P-RDT-positive patients than negative ones (P < 0.001). Sensitivity was 0.91 in specimens with VL of >1.0E6 IU/ml (95% CI 0.83 to 0.99) and decreased to 0.75 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.83) for specimens >1.0E3 IU/ml. Among symptomatic participants, the P-RDT displayed a sensitivity of 0.73 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.82), which peaked at 1.00 at 2 days post-onset of symptoms (DPOS) (95% CI 1.00 to 1.00), then decreased to 0.56 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.88) at 5 DPOS. There was a trend toward lower P-RDT sensitivity in symptomatic children <12 years (0.62 [95% CI 0.45 to 0.78]) versus ≥12 years (0.80 [95% CI 0.69 to 0.91]; P = 0.09). In asymptomatic participants, the P-RDT displayed a sensitivity of 0.43 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.61). Specificity was 1.00 in symptomatic and asymptomatic children (95% CI 0.99 to 1.00). The overall 73% and 43% sensitivities of P-RDT in symptomatic and asymptomatic children, respectively, was below the 80% cutoff recommended by the World Health Organization. We observed a correlation between VL and P-RDT sensitivity, as well as variation of sensitivity according to DPOS, a major determinant of VL. These data highlight the limitations of RDTs in children, with the potential exception in early symptomatic children ≥12yrs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Antigens, Viral , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e3102-e3105, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500983

ABSTRACT

This study analyzed the cerebrospinal fluid features of 31 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with neurological complications. We observed neither severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in the cerebrospinal fluid, nor intrathecal immunoglobulin G (IgG) synthesis but did observe signs of blood-brain barrier disruption. These results might serve as a basis for a better understanding of SARS-CoV-2 related neuropathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription
5.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253321, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDTs) for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 offer new opportunities for testing in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) are the reference sample type, but oropharyngeal swabs (OPS) may be a more acceptable sample type in some patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study in a single screening center to assess the diagnostic performance of the Panbio™ COVID-19 Ag Rapid Test (Abbott) on OPS compared with reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) using NPS during the second pandemic wave in Switzerland. RESULTS: 402 outpatients were enrolled in a COVID-19 screening center, of whom 168 (41.8%) had a positive RT-qPCR test. The oropharyngeal Ag-RDT clinical sensitivity compared to nasopharyngeal RT-qPCR was 81% (95%CI: 74.2-86.6). Two false positives were noted out of the 234 RT-qPCR negative individuals, which resulted in a clinical specificity of 99.1% (95%CI: 96.9-99.9) for the Ag-RDT. For cycle threshold values ≤ 26.7 (≥ 1E6 SARS-CoV-2 genomes copies/mL, a presumed cut-off for infectious virus), 96.3% sensitivity (95%CI: 90.7-99.0%) was obtained with the Ag-RDT using OPS. INTERPRETATION: Based on our findings, the diagnostic performance of the Panbio™ Covid-19 RDT with OPS samples, if taken by a trained person and high requirements regarding quality of the specimen, meet the criteria required by the WHO for Ag-RDTs (sensitivity ≥80% and specificity ≥97%) in a high incidence setting in symptomatic individuals.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 , Nasopharynx , SARS-CoV-2 , Antigens, Viral/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Humans , Nasopharynx/immunology , Nasopharynx/virology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Switzerland/epidemiology
6.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(5)2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217057

ABSTRACT

Extended community testing constitutes one of the main strategic pillars in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) targeting the SARS-CoV-2 genome on nasopharyngeal swab samples is currently the reference test. While displaying excellent analytical sensitivity and specificity, this test is costly, often requires a substantial turnaround time, and, more importantly, is subject to reagent and other material shortages. To complement this technology, rapid antigen tests have been developed and made available worldwide, allowing cheap, quick, and decentralized SARS-CoV-2 testing. The main drawback of these tests is the reduced sensitivity when RT-PCR is the gold standard. In this study, we evaluate Visby an innovative, portable, easy-to-use RT-PCR point-of-care (POC) diagnostic device. Our retrospective analysis shows that overall, compared to the Cobas 6800 RT-qPCR assay (Roche), this RT-PCR POC technology detects SARS-CoV-2 RNA with 95% sensitivity (95%CI = 86.3-99%) and 100% specificity (95% CI = 80.5-100%). For samples with cycle-threshold values below 31, we observed 100% sensitivity (95% CI = 66.4-100%). While showing an analytical sensitivity slightly below that of a standard RT-qPCR system, the evaluated Visby RT-PCR POC device may prove to be an interesting diagnostic alternative in the COVID-19 pandemic, potentially combining the practical advantages of rapid antigen tests and the robust analytical performances of nucleic acid detection systems.

7.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248921, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173655

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Determine the diagnostic accuracy of two antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDT) for SARS-CoV-2 at the point of care and define individuals' characteristics providing best performance. METHODS: We performed a prospective, single-center, point of care validation of two Ag-RDT in comparison to RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs. RESULTS: Between October 9th and 23rd, 2020, 1064 participants were enrolled. The PanbioTM Covid-19 Ag Rapid Test device (Abbott) was validated in 535 participants, with 106 positive Ag-RDT results out of 124 positive RT-PCR individuals, yielding a sensitivity of 85.5% (95% CI: 78.0-91.2). Specificity was 100.0% (95% CI: 99.1-100) in 411 RT-PCR negative individuals. The Standard Q Ag-RDT (SD Biosensor, Roche) was validated in 529 participants, with 170 positive Ag-RDT results out of 191 positive RT-PCR individuals, yielding a sensitivity of 89.0% (95%CI: 83.7-93.1). One false positive result was obtained in 338 RT-PCR negative individuals, yielding a specificity of 99.7% (95%CI: 98.4-100). For individuals presenting with fever 1-5 days post symptom onset, combined Ag-RDT sensitivity was above 95%. Lower sensitivity of 88.2% was seen on the same day of symptom development (day 0). CONCLUSIONS: We provide an independent validation of two widely available commercial Ag-RDTs, both meeting WHO criteria of ≥80% sensitivity and ≥97% specificity. Although less sensitive than RT-PCR, these assays could be beneficial due to their rapid results, ease of use, and independence from existing laboratory structures. Testing criteria focusing on patients with typical symptoms in their early symptomatic period onset could further increase diagnostic value.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Testing , Point-of-Care Systems , Residence Characteristics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Time Factors , Viral Load
8.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2021 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146230

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To report a case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reinfection 6 months after the first infection in a young healthy female physician. Both episodes led to mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 infections were detected by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) on nasopharyngeal specimens. Reinfection was confirmed by whole-genome sequencing. Kinetics of total anti-S receptor binding domain immunoglobulins (Ig anti-S RBD), anti-nucleoprotein (anti-N) and neutralizing antibodies were determined in serial serum samples retrieved during both infection episodes. Memory B-cell responses were assessed at day 12 after reinfection. RESULTS: Whole-genome sequencing identified two different SARS-CoV-2 genomes both belonging to clade 20A, with only one nonsynonymous mutation in the spike protein and clustered with viruses circulating in Geneva (Switzerland) at the time of each of the corresponding episodes. Seroconversion was documented with low levels of total Ig anti-S RBD and anti-N antibodies at 1 month after the first infection, whereas neutralizing antibodies quickly declined after the first episode and then were boosted by the reinfection, with high titres detectable 4 days after symptom onset. A strong memory B-cell response was detected at day 12 after onset of symptoms during reinfection, indicating that the first episode elicited cellular memory responses. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid decline of neutralizing antibodies may put medical personnel at risk of reinfection, as shown in this case. However, reinfection leads to a significant boosting of previous immune responses. Larger cohorts of reinfected subjects with detailed descriptions of their immune responses are needed to define correlates of protection and their duration after infection.

9.
mSphere ; 5(6)2020 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-920898

ABSTRACT

Viral shedding patterns and their correlations with immune responses are still poorly characterized in mild coronavirus (CoV) disease 2019 (COVID-19). We monitored shedding of viral RNA and infectious virus and characterized the immune response kinetics of the first five patients quarantined in Geneva, Switzerland. High viral loads and infectious virus shedding were observed from the respiratory tract despite mild symptoms, with isolation of infectious virus and prolonged positivity by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) until days 7 and 19 after symptom onset, respectively. Robust innate responses characterized by increases in activated CD14+ CD16+ monocytes and cytokine responses were observed as early as 2 days after symptom onset. Cellular and humoral severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2-specific adaptive responses were detectable in all patients. Infectious virus shedding was limited to the first week after symptom onset. A strong innate response, characterized by mobilization of activated monocytes during the first days of infection and SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, was detectable even in patients with mild disease.IMPORTANCE This work is particularly important because it simultaneously assessed the virology, immunology, and clinical presentation of the same subjects, whereas other studies assess these separately. We describe the detailed viral and immune profiles of the first five patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 and quarantined in Geneva, Switzerland. Viral loads peaked at the very beginning of the disease, and infectious virus was shed only during the early acute phase of disease. No infectious virus could be isolated by culture 7 days after onset of symptoms, while viral RNA was still detectable for a prolonged period. Importantly, we saw that all patients, even those with mild symptoms, mount an innate response sufficient for viral control (characterized by early activated cytokines and monocyte responses) and develop specific immunity as well as cellular and humoral SARS-CoV-2-specific adaptive responses, which already begin to decline a few months after the resolution of symptoms.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Immunity, Innate , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Viral Load , Virus Shedding , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Kinetics , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(2): 441-445, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-774283

ABSTRACT

In the context of an unprecedented shortage of nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) or sample transport media during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis, alternative methods for sample collection are needed. To address this need, we validated a cell culture medium as a viral transport medium, and compared the analytical sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR in nasal wash (NW), oropharyngeal swab (OPS), and NPS specimens. Both the clinical and analytical sensitivity were comparable in these three sample types. OPS and NW specimens may therefore represent suitable alternatives to NPS for SARS-CoV-2 detection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Nasopharynx/virology , Nose/virology , Oropharynx/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/methods , Culture Media , Humans
13.
Int J Legal Med ; 134(4): 1271-1274, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-378237

ABSTRACT

In the setting of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, only few data regarding lung pathology induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is available, especially without medical intervention interfering with the natural evolution of the disease. We present here the first case of forensic autopsy of a COVID-19 fatality occurring in a young woman, in the community. Diagnosis was made at necropsy and lung histology showed diffuse alveolar damage, edema, and interstitial pneumonia with a geographically heterogeneous pattern, mostly affecting the central part of the lungs. This death related to COVID-19 pathology highlights the heterogeneity and severity of central lung lesions after natural evolution of the disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adenoviridae/genetics , Adenoviridae/isolation & purification , Adult , Autopsy , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Bocavirus/genetics , Bocavirus/isolation & purification , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , Influenzavirus A/genetics , Influenzavirus A/isolation & purification , Influenzavirus B/genetics , Influenzavirus B/isolation & purification , Macrophages/pathology , Megakaryocytes/pathology , Metapneumovirus/genetics , Metapneumovirus/isolation & purification , Neutrophils/pathology , Obesity, Morbid , Pandemics , Procalcitonin/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/isolation & purification , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rhinovirus/genetics , Rhinovirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland , T-Lymphocytes/pathology
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