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1.
J Vasc Access ; : 11297298221085450, 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, Helmet Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (h-CPAP) has been widely used to treat Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure (AHRF). In COVID-19 patients undergoing h-CPAP a simple short peripheral catheter could be insufficient. According to the European Recommendations for Proper Indication and Use of Peripheral venous access consensus, a stable peripheral Vascular Access Device is indicated for intravenous treatment compatible with the peripheral route scheduled for more than 1 week. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the performance and the potential complications of superficial femoral midline catheters (SFMC) inserted in the Superficial Femoral Vein by direct Seldinger technique with peripheral tip (Arrow®, Teleflex; 20 cm length four FR single lumen and seven FR dual lumen) in AHRF COVID-19 patient. Complications were divided in early (accidental puncture of superficial femoral artery (APSFA); accidental saphenous nerve puncture (ASNP); bleeding) and late (Catheter Related Thrombosis (CRT); Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infections (CRBSI); Accidental Removal (AR); persistent withdrawal occlusion (PWO)). METHODS: From 1st October 2020 to 30th June 2021 we conducted a prospective observational study in COVID-19 sub-intensive wards at Luigi Sacco Hospital (Milan). RESULTS: Hundred seventy five SFMC (mean dwell time 11.1 ± 9.8 days) were implanted in COVID-19 patients, 107 (61.1%) during h-CPAP treatment (10.5 ± 8.9 days), the remaining 68 (38.9%) in patients with severe disease. We recorded two minor immediate/early complications (APSFA without sequelae) and no major complications.The long-term follow-up registered four CRBSI (2.3%-2.5/1000 catheters days (CD)), five CRT (2.9%: 2.6/1000 CD), 22 AR (12.6%; 11.4/1000 CD), 38 PWO (36.5%), 34 of which occurred due to fibroblastic sleeve (32.7%). CONCLUSIONS: SFMC proved to be safe, easy and time-saving. It could be implemented, after a careful benefits and risks evaluation, in particular settings such as h-CPAP, delirium, bleeding risk factors and palliative care patients.

2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 850846, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775681

ABSTRACT

A relevant portion of patients with disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) experience negative outcome, and several laboratory tests have been proposed to predict disease severity. Among others, dramatic changes in peripheral blood cells have been described. We developed and validated a laboratory score solely based on blood cell parameters to predict survival in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. We retrospectively analyzed 1,619 blood cell count from 226 consecutively hospitalized COVID-19 patients to select parameters for inclusion in a laboratory score predicting severity of disease and survival. The score was derived from lymphocyte- and granulocyte-associated parameters and validated on a separate cohort of 140 consecutive COVID-19 patients. Using ROC curve analysis, a best cutoff for score of 30.6 was derived, which was associated to an overall 82.0% sensitivity (95% CI: 78-84) and 82.5% specificity (95% CI: 80-84) for detecting outcome. The scoring trend effectively separated survivor and non-survivor groups, starting 2 weeks before the end of the hospitalization period. Patients' score time points were also classified into mild, moderate, severe, and critical according to the symptomatic oxygen therapy administered. Fluctuations of the score should be recorded to highlight a favorable or unfortunate trend of the disease. The predictive score was found to reflect and anticipate the disease gravity, defined by the type of the oxygen support used, giving a proof of its clinical relevance. It offers a fast and reliable tool for supporting clinical decisions and, most important, triage in terms of not only prioritization but also allocation of limited medical resources, especially in the period when therapies are still symptomatic and many are under development. In fact, a prolonged and progressive increase of the score can suggest impaired chances of survival and/or an urgent need for intensive care unit admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Oxygen , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311147

ABSTRACT

Background: To assess differences in the probability of COVID-19-related death between native Italians and immigrants hospitalised with COVID-19. Methods This was a retrospective study of prospectively collected data conducted at the ASST Fatebenefratelli-Sacco Hospital in Milan, Italy, between 21 February and 31 November 2020. Uni- and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the impact of the patients' origin on the probability of COVID-19-related death. Results The study population consisted of 1,179 COVID-19 patients: 921 Italians (78.1%) and 258 immigrants (21.9%) from Latin America (99, 38.4%), Asia (72, 27.9%), Africa (50, 19.4%) and central/eastern Europe (37, 14.3%). The Italians were older (p < 0.001) and more frequently affected by co-morbidities (p < 0.001). Mortality was significantly greater among the Italians than the immigrants as a whole (26.6% vs 12.8%;p < 0.001), and significantly greater among the immigrants from Latin America than among those from Asia, Africa and central/eastern Europe (21.2% vs 8.3%, 6% and 8.1%, respectively;p = 0.016). Multivariate analyses showed that a Latin American origin was independently associated with an increased risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio 1.95, 95% confidence interval 1.17–3.23). Conclusions Our findings support the need to strengthen COVID-19 information and prevention initiatives in the Latin American community living in Milan.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306945

ABSTRACT

Background: A relevant portion of patients with disease caused by the ‘severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2’ (COVID-19) experience poor outcome and several laboratory tests have been proposed to predict disease severity. Among others, dramatic changes in peripheral blood cells have been described. We developed and validated a laboratory score based on blood cell parameters to predict survival in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 1619 blood cell counts from 226 COVID-19 patients, consecutively admitted to our institution, to select variables for inclusion in the severity score. The lymphocyte percentage, the immature granulocyte number, the highly fluorescent lymphocyte cell percentage, the neutrophils side fluorescent light, and the lymphocytes fluorescence light intensity were finally selected and the derived score then validated on a separate cohort of 140 COVID-19 patients.Findings: Using ROC curve analysis, a best cut-off for score of 30.6 was derived, which was associated to an overall 82.0% sensitivity (95% CI: 78-84) and 82.5% specificity (95% CI: 80-84), respectively, for detecting outcome. The score trend effectively separated the patients’ groups, starting on average two weeks before the end of the hospitalization period.Interpretation: The developed scoring system accurately predicted survival in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. As the laboratory parameters employed in the model are easily accessible on the modern haematology analyzers, the proposed score may offer a fast and reliable tool for supporting clinical decisions in COVID-19 patients.Funding Statement: None.Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: The Institutional Review Board approved the study.

5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 63, 2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632640

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To compare differences in the probability of COVID-19-related death between native Italians and immigrants hospitalised with COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective study of prospectively collected data was conducted at the ASST Fatebenefratelli-Sacco Hospital in Milan, Italy, between 21 February and 31 November 2020. Uni- and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the impact of the patients' origin on the probability of COVID-19-related death. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 1,179 COVID-19 patients: 921 Italians (78.1%) and 258 immigrants (21.9%) who came from Latin America (99, 38%), Asia (72, 28%), Africa (50, 19%) and central/eastern Europe (37, 14%). The Italians were significantly older than the immigrants (median age 70 years, interquartile range (IQR) 58-79 vs 51 years, IQR 41-60; p < 0.001), and more frequently had one or more co-morbidities (79.1% vs 53.9%; p < 0.001). Mortality was significantly greater among the Italians than the immigrants as a whole (26.6% vs 12.8%; p < 0.001), and significantly greater among the immigrants from Latin America than among those from Asia, Africa or central/eastern Europe (21% vs 8%, 6% and 8%; p = 0.016). Univariable analysis showed that the risk of COVID-19-related death was lower among the immigrants (hazard ratio [HR] 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.30-0.63; p < 0.0001], but the risk of Latin American immigrants did not significantly differ from that of the Italians (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.47-1.15; p = 0.183). However, after adjusting for potential confounders, multivariable analysis showed that there was no difference in the risk of death between the immigrants and the Italians (adjusted HR [aHR] 1.04, 95% CI 0.70-1.55; p = 0.831), but being of Latin American origin was independently associated with an increased risk of death (aHR 1.95, 95% CI 1.17-3.23; p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: Mortality was lower among the immigrants hospitalised with COVID-19 than among their Italian counterparts, but this difference disappeared after adjusting for confounders. However, the increased risk of death among immigrants of Latin American origin suggests that COVID-19 information and prevention initiatives need to be strengthened in this sub-population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Aged , Hospitals , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 793191, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608200

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To compare SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific antibody production and plasma neutralizing capacity against B.1 wild-type-like strain, and Gamma/P.1 and Delta/B.1.617.2 variants-of-concern, in subjects with different Covid-19 disease and vaccination histories. Methods: Adult subjects were: 1) Unvaccinated/hospitalized for Covid-19; 2) Covid-19-recovered followed by one BNT162b2 vaccine dose; and 3) Covid-19-naïve/2-dose BNT162b2 vaccinated. Multiplex Luminex® immunoassays measured IgG, IgA, and IgM plasma levels against SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD), spike-1 (S), and nucleocapsid proteins. Neutralizing activity was determined in Vero E6 cytopathic assays. Results: Maximum anti-RBD IgG levels were similar in Covid-19­recovered individuals 8‒10 days after single-dose vaccination and in Covid-19-naïve subjects 7 days after 2nd vaccine dosing; both groups had ≈2­fold higher anti-RBD IgG levels than Unvaccinated/Covid-19 subjects tracked through 2 weeks post-symptom onset. Anti-S IgG expression patterns were similar to RBD within each group, but with lower signal strengths. Viral antigen-specific IgA and IgM levels were more variable than IgG patterns. Anti-nucleocapsid immunoglobulins were not detected in Covid-19-naïve subjects. Neutralizing activity against the B.1 strain, and Gamma/P.1 and Delta/B.1.617.2 variants, was highest in Covid­19-recovered/single-dose vaccinated subjects; although neutralization against the Delta variant in this group was only 26% compared to B.1 neutralization, absolute anti-Delta titers suggested maintained protection. Neutralizing titers against the Gamma and Delta variants were 33‒77% and 26‒67%, respectively, versus neutralization against the B.1 strain (100%) in the three groups. Conclusion: These findings support SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine usefulness regardless of Covid-19 history, and confirm remarkable protection provided by a single vaccine dose in people who have recovered from Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccination/methods , Vero Cells
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19373, 2021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442809

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 primarily affecting the respiratory system which can damage vessels walls virtually in any body district. Changes affecting retinal vessels are a good marker for systemic vascular alterations. This study investigated retinal vessels during the acute phase of COVID-19 and after patients recovery. Fifty-nine eyes from 32 COVID-19 patients and 80 eyes from 53 unexposed subjects were included. Mean arteries diameter (MAD) and mean veins diameter (MVD) were assessed through semi-automatic analysis on fundus color photos at baseline and 6 months later in patients and subjects unexposed to the virus. At baseline MAD and MVD were significantly higher in COVID-19 patients compared to unexposed subjects (p < 0.0001). Both MAD and MVD significantly decreased in COVID-19 patients at follow-up (from 97.5 ± 10.9 to 92.2 ± 11.4 µm, p < 0.0001 and from 133.1 ± 19.3 to 124.6 ± 16.1 µm, p < 0.0001, respectively). Despite this reduction vessels diameter remained significantly higher in severe COVID-19 patients compared to unexposed subjects. Transient retinal vessels dilation could serve a biomarker for systemic inflammation while long-lasting alterations seen in severe COVID-19 likely reflect irreversible structural damage to the vessels walls and should be further investigated for their possible effects on tissues perfusion and function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Retinal Vessels/pathology , Adult , Aged , Female , Fluorescein Angiography , Fundus Oculi , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Retina/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
8.
Pharmacol Res ; 158: 104931, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318940

ABSTRACT

Italy was the first European country hit by the COVID-19 pandemic and has the highest number of recorded COVID-19 deaths in Europe. This prospective cohort study of the correlates of the risk of death in COVID-19 patients was conducted at the Infectious Diseases and Intensive Care units of Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan, Italy. The clinical characteristics of all the COVID-19 patients hospitalised in the early days of the epidemic (21 February -19 March 2020) were recorded upon admission, and the time-dependent probability of death was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method (censored as of 20 April 2020). Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the factors independently associated with the risk of death. Forty-eight (20.6 %) of the 233 patients followed up for a median of 40 days (interquartile range 33-47) died during the follow-up. Most were males (69.1 %) and their median age was 61 years (IQR 50-72). The time-dependent probability of death was 19.7 % (95 % CI 14.6-24.9 %) 30 days after hospital admission. Age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.08, 95 % CI 1.48-2.92 per ten years more) and obesity (aHR 3.04, 95 % CI 1.42-6.49) were independently associated with an increased risk of death, which was also associated with critical disease (aHR 8.26, 95 % CI 1.41-48.29), C-reactive protein levels (aHR 1.17, 95 % CI 1.02-1.35 per 50 mg/L more) and creatinine kinase levels above 185 U/L (aHR 2.58, 95 % CI 1.37-4.87) upon admission. Case-fatality rate of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the early days of the Italian epidemic was about 20 %. Our study adds evidence to the notion that older age, obesity and more advanced illness are factors associated to an increased risk of death among patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis ; 38(2): e2021017, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305043

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure is a common complication of SARS-CoV2 related pneumonia, for which non-invasive ventilation (NIV) with Helmet Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) is widely used. The frequency of pneumothorax in SARS-CoV2 was reported in 0.95% of hospitalized patients in 6% of mechanically ventilated patients, and in 1% of a post-mortem case series. OBJECTIVES: Aim of our retrospective study was to investigate the incidence of pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum (PNX/PNM) in SARS-CoV2 pneumonia patients treated with Helmet CPAP. Moreover, we examined the correlation between PNX/PNM and Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) values. METHODS: We collected data from patients admitted to "Luigi Sacco" University Hospital of Milan from 2 February to 5 May 2020 with SARS-CoV2 pneumonia requiring CPAP. Patients, who need NIV with bi-level pressure or endotracheal intubation (ETI) for any reason except those who needed ETI after PNX/PNM, were excluded. Population was divided in two groups according to PEEP level used (≤10 cmH2O and >10 cmH20). RESULTS: 154 patients were enrolled. In the overall population, 42 patients (27%) were treated with High-PEEP (>10 cmH2O), and 112 with Low-PEEP (≤10 cmH2O). During hospitalization 3 PNX and 2 PNM occurred (3.2%). Out of these five patients, 2 needed invasive ventilation after PNX and died. All the PNX/PNM occurred in the High-PEEP group (5/37 vs 0/112, p<0,001). CONCLUSION: The incidence of PNX appears to be lower in SARS-CoV2 than SARS and MERS. Considering the association of PNX/PNM with high PEEP we suggest using the lower PEEP as possible to prevent these complications.

10.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(5): 1716-1718, 2021 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302675

ABSTRACT

We present a fatal case of West Nile virus meningoencephalomyelitis initially misdiagnosed as COVID-19 in a 63-year-old Egyptian woman with a previous diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. The patient's medical history and immunosuppressive therapy, as well as the COVID-19 pandemic, substantially broadened the differential diagnosis of her encephalitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , West Nile Fever/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Diagnostic Errors , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , West Nile Fever/mortality
12.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(5): 1716-1718, 2021 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158425

ABSTRACT

We present a fatal case of West Nile virus meningoencephalomyelitis initially misdiagnosed as COVID-19 in a 63-year-old Egyptian woman with a previous diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. The patient's medical history and immunosuppressive therapy, as well as the COVID-19 pandemic, substantially broadened the differential diagnosis of her encephalitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , West Nile Fever/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Diagnostic Errors , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , West Nile Fever/mortality
13.
Drugs Aging ; 37(12): 925-933, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients hospitalised with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2; coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19)] infection are frequently older with co-morbidities and receiving polypharmacy, all of which are known risk factors for drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The pharmacological burden may be further aggravated by the addition of treatments for COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the risk of potential DDIs upon admission and during hospitalisation in patients with COVID-19 treated at our hospital. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 502 patients with COVID-19 (mean age 61 ± 16 years, range 15-99) treated at our hospital with a proven diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalised between 21 February and 30 April 2020 and treated with at least two drugs. RESULTS: Overall, 68% of our patients with COVID-19 were exposed to at least one potential DDI, and 55% were exposed to at least one potentially severe DDI. The proportion of patients experiencing potentially severe DDIs increased from 22% upon admission to 80% during hospitalisation. Furosemide, amiodarone and quetiapine were the main drivers of potentially severe DDIs upon admission, and hydroxychloroquine and particularly lopinavir/ritonavir were the main drivers during hospitalisation. The majority of potentially severe DDIs carried an increased risk of cardiotoxicity. No potentially severe DDIs were identified in relation to tocilizumab and remdesivir. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalised patients with COVID-19, concomitant treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine led to a dramatic increase in the number of potentially severe DDIs. Given the high risk of cardiotoxicity and the scant and conflicting data concerning their efficacy in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection, the use of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID-19 with polypharmacy needs to be carefully considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Referral and Consultation , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Interactions , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Italy/epidemiology , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Polypharmacy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Young Adult
15.
EClinicalMedicine ; 27: 100550, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-778782

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated to microvascular alterations. We screened the fundus of patients with COVID-19 to detect alterations of the retina and its vasculature and to assess possible correlations with clinical parameters. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. The presence of retinal alterations in patients with COVID-19 and subjects unexposed to the virus was assessed using fundus photographs and their prevalence was compared. Mean arteries diameter (MAD) and mean veins diameter (MVD) were compared between patients and unexposed subjects with multiple linear regression including age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index, smoking/alcohol consumption, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes as covariates. The influence of clinical/lab parameters on retinal findings was tested in COVID-19 patients. FINDINGS: 54 patients and 133 unexposed subjects were enrolled. Retinal findings in COVID-19 included: haemorrhages (9·25%), cotton wools spots (7·4%), dilated veins (27·7%), tortuous vessels (12·9%). Both MAD and MVD were higher in COVID-19 patients compared to unexposed subjects (98·3 ± 15·3 µm vs 91·9 ± 11·7 µm, p = 0.006 and 138·5 ± 21·5 µm vs 123·2 ± 13·0 µm, p<0.0001, respectively). In multiple regression accounting for covariates MVD was positively associated with COVID-19 both in severe (coefficient 30·3, CI95% 18·1-42·4) and non-severe (coefficient 10·3, CI95% 1·6-19·0) cases compared to unexposed subjects. In COVID-19 patients MVD was negatively correlated with the time from symptoms onset (coefficient -1·0, CI 95% -1·89 to -0·20) and positively correlated with disease severity (coefficient 22·0, CI 95% 5·2-38·9). INTERPRETATION: COVID-19 can affect the retina. Retinal veins diameter seems directly correlated with the disease severity. Its assessment could have possible applications in the management of COVID-19. FUNDING: None.

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