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1.
J Immunol ; 207(5): 1275-1287, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771322

ABSTRACT

The airway epithelial cells (AECs) lining the conducting passageways of the lung secrete a variety of immunomodulatory factors. Among these, PGE2 limits lung inflammation and promotes bronchodilation. By contrast, IL-6 drives intense airway inflammation, remodeling, and fibrosis. The signaling that differentiates the production of these opposing mediators is not understood. In this study, we find that the production of PGE2 and IL-6 following stimulation of human AECs by the damage-associated molecular pattern extracellular ATP shares a common requirement for Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels. ATP-mediated synthesis of PGE2 required activation of metabotropic P2Y2 receptors and CRAC channel-mediated cytosolic phospholipase A2 signaling. By contrast, ATP-evoked synthesis of IL-6 occurred via activation of ionotropic P2X receptors and CRAC channel-mediated calcineurin/NFAT signaling. In contrast to ATP, which elicited the production of both PGE2 and IL-6, the uridine nucleotide, UTP, stimulated PGE2 but not IL-6 production. These results reveal that human AECs employ unique receptor-specific signaling mechanisms with CRAC channels as a signaling nexus to regulate release of opposing immunomodulatory mediators. Collectively, our results identify P2Y2 receptors, CRAC channels, and P2X receptors as potential intervention targets for airway diseases.


Subject(s)
Dinoprostone/metabolism , Inflammation/immunology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphate/pharmacokinetics , Alarmins/metabolism , Calcium Release Activated Calcium Channels/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Immunomodulation , Interleukin-6/genetics , NFATC Transcription Factors/metabolism , Phospholipases A2/metabolism , Receptors, Purinergic P2X/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Signal Transduction , Uracil Nucleotides/metabolism
2.
Am J Rhinol Allergy ; 36(1): 115-122, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic. Higher expression of the virus receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the nasal mucosa may be associated with high transmissibility and asymptomatic infection. In COVID-19, the elucidation of the determinants of ACE2 expression at nasal tissue level is crucial. The development of strategies to downregulate ACE2 expression in nasal epithelial cells might reduce transmission and be useful as a novel therapeutic approach. OBJECTIVE: To verify ACE2 expression in the nasal mucosa of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis induced by Japanese cedar pollen (SAR-JCP) and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyp (CRSwNP) and to examine the effects of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on ACE2 expression in airway epithelial cells. METHODS: We assessed ACE2 expression in the nasal mucosa of control subjects, patients with SAR-JCP, and those with CRSwNP using real-time polymerase chain reaction. We also quantified ACE2 gene expression in cultured airway epithelial cells. RESULTS: Although ACE2 expression was greatly increased in a few patients with SAR-JCP during the Japanese cedar pollen season, mean levels were not significantly increased. ACE2 mRNA expression was significantly decreased in nasal polyp tissue from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis compared with the expression in that from control subjects. SCFAs generated by gastrointestinal microbiota significantly reduced resting ACE2 expression in cultured airway epithelial cells. SCFAs also significantly suppressed the dsRNA-dependent upregulation of ACE2 expression in airway epithelial cells. CONCLUSION: Inflammatory endotype affects ACE2 expression in the nasal mucosa and influences susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In particular, type 2 inflammation could downregulate ACE2 expression in the nasal mucosa and reduces susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 in patients with CRSwNP. Although in vivo experiments are required, administration of SCFAs to the nasal cavity might be worthy of consideration as a preventative or therapeutic strategy for the early-stage COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 , Nasal Mucosa/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Sinusitis , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 650331, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156125

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection represents a global health crisis. Immune cell activation via pattern recognition receptors has been implicated as a driver of the hyperinflammatory response seen in COVID-19. However, our understanding of the specific immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 remains limited. Mast cells (MCs) and eosinophils are innate immune cells that play pathogenic roles in many inflammatory responses. Here we report MC-derived proteases and eosinophil-associated mediators are elevated in COVID-19 patient sera and lung tissues. Stimulation of viral-sensing toll-like receptors in vitro and administration of synthetic viral RNA in vivo induced features of hyperinflammation, including cytokine elevation, immune cell airway infiltration, and MC-protease production-effects suppressed by an anti-Siglec-8 monoclonal antibody which selectively inhibits MCs and depletes eosinophils. Similarly, anti-Siglec-8 treatment reduced disease severity and airway inflammation in a respiratory viral infection model. These results suggest that MC and eosinophil activation are associated with COVID-19 inflammation and anti-Siglec-8 antibodies are a potential therapeutic approach for attenuating excessive inflammation during viral infections.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD/immunology , Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Eosinophils/immunology , Lectins/immunology , Mast Cells/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antigens, CD/genetics , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Eosinophils/drug effects , Eosinophils/metabolism , Eosinophils/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lectins/antagonists & inhibitors , Lectins/genetics , Lectins/metabolism , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/metabolism , Mast Cells/virology , Mice, Transgenic , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/metabolism , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
4.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(2): 307-314.e4, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-701780

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention advises that patients with moderate to severe asthma belong to a high-risk group that is susceptible to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the association between asthma and COVID-19 has not been well-established. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to determine the prevalence of asthma among patients with COVID-19 in a major US health system. We assessed the clinical characteristics and comorbidities in asthmatic and nonasthmatic patients with COVID-19. We also determined the risk of hospitalization associated with asthma and/or inhaled corticosteroid use. METHODS: Medical records of patients with COVID-19 were searched by a computer algorithm (March 1 to April 15, 2020), and chart review was used to validate the diagnosis of asthma and medications prescribed for asthma. All patients had PCR-confirmed COVID-19. Demographic and clinical features were characterized. Regression models were used to assess the associations between asthma and corticosteroid use and the risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization. RESULTS: Of 1526 patients identified with COVID-19, 220 (14%) were classified as having asthma. Asthma was not associated with an increased risk of hospitalization (relative risk, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.77-1.19) after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities. The ongoing use of inhaled corticosteroids did not increase the risk of hospitalization in a similar adjusted model (relative risk, 1.39; 95% CI, 0.90-2.15). CONCLUSIONS: Despite a substantial prevalence of asthma in our COVID-19 cohort, asthma was not associated with an increased risk of hospitalization. Similarly, the use of inhaled corticosteroids with or without systemic corticosteroids was not associated with COVID-19-related hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Asthma/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Administration, Inhalation , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/physiopathology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/physiopathology , Illinois/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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