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mSphere ; 5(4)2020 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726126


Staphylococcus aureus is a highly significant infection problem in health care centers, particularly after surgery. It has been shown that nearly 80% of S. aureus infections following surgery are the same as those in the anterior nares of patients, suggesting that the anterior nares is the source of the infection strain. This has led to the use of mupirocin ointment being applied nasally to reduce infections; mupirocin resistance is being observed. This study was undertaken to determine whether gel composed of 5% glycerol monolaurate solubilized in a glycol-based, nonaqueous gel (5% GML gel) could be used as an alternative. In our study, 40 healthy human volunteers swabbed their anterior nares for 3 days with the 5% GML gel. Prior to swabbing and 8 to 12 h after swabbing, S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococcal CFU per milliliter were determined by plating the swabs on mannitol salt agar. Fourteen of the volunteers had S. aureus in their nares prior to 5% GML gel treatment, most persons with the organisms present in both nares; five had pure cultures of S. aureus All participants without pure culture of S. aureus were cocolonized with S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Five of the S. aureus strains produced the superantigens commonly associated with toxic shock syndrome, though none of the participants became ill. For both S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci, the 5% GML gel treatment resulted in a 3-log-unit reduction in microorganisms. For S. aureus, the reduction persisted for 2 or 3 days.IMPORTANCE In this microflora study, we show that a 5% glycerol monolaurate nonaqueous gel is safe for use in the anterior nares. The gel was effective in reducing Staphylococcus aureus nasally, a highly significant hospital-associated pathogen. The gel may be a useful alternative or additive to mupirocin ointment for nasal use prior to surgery, noting that 80% of hospital-associated S. aureus infections are due to the same organism found in the nose. This gel also kills all enveloped viruses tested and should be considered for studies to reduce infection and transmission of coronaviruses and influenza viruses.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Carrier State/microbiology , Laurates/pharmacology , Monoglycerides/pharmacology , Nasal Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Colony Count, Microbial , Gels/chemistry , Gels/pharmacology , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Middle Aged , Mupirocin/pharmacology , Nasal Cavity/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Young Adult
FEBS J ; 288(6): 1771-1777, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-702279


Kawasaki syndrome (KS) is an acute vasculitis in children complicated by the development of heart disease. Despite its description over 50 years ago, the etiology of coronary artery disease in KS is unknown. High dose intravenous immunoglobulin is the most effective approach to reduce cardiovascular complications. It remains unclear why patients with KS develop coronary artery aneurysms. A subset of patients is resistant to immunoglobulin therapy. Given the heterogeneity of clinical features, variability of history, and therapeutic response, KS may be a cluster of phenotypes triggered by multiple infectious agents and influenced by various environmental, genetic, and immunologic responses. The cause of KS is unknown, and a diagnostic test remains lacking. A better understanding of mechanisms leading to acute KS would contribute to a more precision medicine approach for this complex disease. In the current viewpoint, we make the case for microbial superantigens as important causes of KS.

Bacterial Toxins/immunology , Coronary Artery Disease/immunology , Enterotoxins/immunology , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , Superantigens/immunology , Child , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology